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OUR MONTHLY LONDON CORRESPONDENCE.
For the National Era THE ARISTOCRACY OF BUG laud no 6 It has already been stated that the political revolution of 1688 wan accompanied by a ter ritorial and eoolemaatioal revolution, as the Crown lands were divided, to a very great ox tent, among the great NVhi^ families who ba taken a principal part in the expulMou Stuarts, and the act of uniformity was solemn ly ratified in favor of Church ot Knglandisui A narrow and false view in taken ol thin mem orable epoch, if confiiied strictly to the Chrono logical date of 1688, for it really wiu* an inter mediate position I between, and a past and In ture era The historical student should c-.n^ aider it a? a compendious term, including that series of events which commenced with the arand rebellion against Charles I, and tormina ted with the accession of the Houreol Hanover to the throne of tireat Britain. It a word, it embraces the rise, progress, and conclusion, of the national protest against an arbitrary and undefined prerogative. We proceed to its results ou taxation for the sake of clearness we may be allowed to re peat that the abolition of the feudal dues at the Restoration, and the surrender of the Crown lands at the Revolution deprived the sovereign of the main sources of revenue, which he had enjoyed diiriug the six centuries in which the feudal monarchy had existed, tor the former deficiency, an hereditary excise was establish ed ; for the latter, the Civil List was institu ted. The*! two combined, however, were in adequate to defray the increased expenditure of the nation, plunged at once into the war which William MI inceisantly waged wguimt Louis XIV. Now, when the dethronement ol Junes II was meditating, the revolutionary party, in order to conciliate the mass of the people, who were justly indignant at the exuise, promised, in the event of success, to introduce a laud tax on their estates, by way of oompen eation ; and to this they were also moved by re- j membering that the excise was only carried | by two votes, for it was not sufficient to effect a revolution, but alw> to tecure it against the j contingency of a counter revolution. Accord mgly, in the first year of tbo reign of William and Mary, three separate aids were granted to the Crown for the financial year 1689^1690, which, together, amounted to four shillings in the pound ou the true yearly rental of real property, and twenty-four shillings for every pound of personal property, except debts, stock on laud, aud household goods. At that time, the legal inteiestof money was six per cent Here, then, are combined a laud tax and a special inoome tax; and it is to be observed that the same rate, or four shillings in ,the pound was levied both on real and personal property. The amount thus a*esa?d was ?2,018,704. The aristocracy, however, having caught the fish, were soon disposed to remove the net, lor they submitted most reluctantly to tax tberoselTM, and determined, aijd, as we t-hall presently see, succeeded in throwing the pub lie butdens off their own shoulders. On the 2d April, 1690, the House of Commons being in Committee of Supply, Sir W. Strickland moved -that the supply be not raised by a land tax " O.i this Mr. Swycfio said : " As to the arguments against a land tax, I have Is-eu here the het?t purt of twenty jears, and all the pro jects would never do. 'ilie way of our ances tors has always been on land, and they ab horred excise aud all other projects. I wish we prove wiser than they. We bad a war with the h.iW'h, aa we new have with the French, and it was carried uowm other way frM ii) n Imifl ft* 1'""r ?"f land* to enslave our persons by excise. ' Mr Swynfto had the foresight to pareeive, that if | direct taxation were abandoned, all the Stat.' burdens would be imposed on trade and indus try, While the laud would escape ; and experi ence proved the Soundness of bis implied pre diction. However, bis opposition at that time was partiallv successful. la 1690-1691, two other aids were granted, each of which wai fixed at ?1,651 702, but tte two statutes by which these were grants.l varied from the principle involved in those im mediately preceding In the former it was i?r dered that a rate of four shilling* on the pound should l? raised on the full bona fide rental ol the laud; but in the latter, a fixed snm wa voted, to be made up of all ihe annual profits of all the property, real aud pmoual, in the kingdom ; it is also to be noted that it foil abort of the first grant In 1682, Parliament reverted to the first principle that had been adopted, and it is im portant to observe that the commissioners were ordered to ae-ess all the r?al property " after the rate of four shillings for every twenty shil lings of the full yearly value, as the same was let for, or worth to l?e let, at the time of assess iig thsreof" The importance of these words Will he panted out hereafter Thii mode of raising a tax on land was fol- j lowed, without variation, up to 1696 ; but in 1697 a totally different plan was pursued ; a fixed snm of ?1 4M.0I5 was then voted by l'erlu.ru-n\ and it was ordered that personal aviate should pay three shillings in the pound, desperate debts, stock on land, boueshold goods, loans to his Msjesty, and the pay of the military and naval services, excepted and, for- 1 tber, that land* thould tie charged with a? much (quality a id indiffireney as possible, by i pound rate, * lor or towards the said several and respective turns of money by this act set and imposed" Here, it must be observed ft rally, that the tax on personal property is fixed at three shillings in the pound seoond ly, that the oontrary to the spirit of the con stitution. personal property is pot forward a* main and primary objeot to be , for, in ancient times, tenths, After nthe an.I subsidies were only levied on emergencies fct relieve itm gieet pressure upon land; third ly, that real propertv is only lo make up anv dtficifu, v in the sum voted that is to say, if the three shillings in the pound on personal property did not reabae ?1,484,015 By this contrivance the aristocracy subverted, or rather ravers* d the ancient system of taxation ' Swdi continued to be ths practice for one hundred years? or from I #97 to 179? when the land tax was ma<1a perpetual, and fixed at ?2,037 627 but subject to redemption And it must also 1 be obs irved that, during this period, the tax on personal properly w*s not levied, though legal |y due. hut finally abolished by 3 William IV. On these historical facte we now proceed to offjr some reflection*, as illustrating the new ? position cf the aristocracy, and the influence Ahioh that |sie tion exercised on their f^barao ler and conduct. It ia evident that the lai<d tax of four shilling" in the pound, enforced im: mediately after the revolution, wss in ibe na ture of in equivalent for fhe aliolition of the Court of Wards in 1660 , for the excise paid to the Crown, in lieu of it* ancient feudal di/es fell on the |S?ople at large as consumers of ex ciseable articles, but as the principal charges of the State had, from the foundation of the monaichy, le-n defrayed by the land, it was only following out the spirit of the constitution to rerert hack ti that principle Nor c.sild oar financial ey*t?*m b^ more equitable , fcr voce revruue inus* be raided Irom kiine quar tar i# is just that ii should be drawn from real Mid personal property combined, since the idjeot of government is to jimtwt such property During the first nine yean of the mm id William and Mary, thia rale was ob ITreedin leeying taxes, but it was afterwards ""graded fry the legislature, whose principal mam ler* were land-owners; end the reama why it n.4 ooforond ?% pnrsnoal property seems to h%v< boon to hush tip all the real provisions lbs Hetute, and prevent any matching in (,uirv being made into the; true spirit and intent of the land tax act*. i he auoient feudal Tl wore not a fixed annuity of invariable amount, but fluctuated m the nature of S?* inK profit- ; ?..d a* the land lu must be con rtidered an equivalent for buch due*, it must also have been intended to partake ot the same nature; and this indi-od in evident from the statute* of William and Mary, whioh, in the most express term- and clearest language de clare that the BMBWrnent shall be made alter the rato of four ..hillings for every twenty shil ling" of the full yearly value, as the same lands, &c., were let for, or worth to be let, at. the time of asking thereol." Hut the leg.* atu.c mainly composed nf land owners, art ully and unconstitutionally changed a variable into a tix?d annuity, in order that such annuity might not inctease us rente and the value ot land in creasrd. Let us see what the result would have been, had the old system been coutiuuod, and real property had been rated from year to ytar, as is the modern praotiee with the asses HOll tftXOH In 1692, the landed rental of England and Wales was estimated at len millions, and con^ seuuuntly a rate of four shillings in the pound on that amount would have yielded two mil lions. It being very difficult, perhajis impossi ble with perteot accuracy, to state the true rental year by year from 1?92 to 1842, we are compelled to take an average to illustrate our argument; and we pause at 1842 because in that year Sir Robert Peel reverted to the old principle in a eortaiu degree, by re-establishing the property and income tax. We shall there fore divide this whole term of one. hundred aud fifty years into two periods, the one ranging from I (592 to 1770, the other extending Iron. 1770 to 1842. lu 1770, Arthur Young, the celebrated agriculturist and statistician, esti mated the annual landed rentul at sixty mil lions: now, our calculation proceeds on the following busis. By adding together the rent als of 1692 and 1770 and dividing the sum by two, we obtain the average yearly rental ot those seventy eight >enrs, which amounts to thirty-tive millions; a land tax of tour shillings in the pound on thirty-tive millions would pro duce seven millions, and consequently in seveu_ ty eight years tliq aggregate amount received *ould have been five hundred and forty-six millions. I TO BE CONCI.UDKD IN OUR NKXT.| 1 V foreign items. The Emperor of Russia has written a letter to the Priucess Mathilde, daughter of Prince Jerome Bonaparte, and wife ol the Russian Prince Demidoff, from whom Hhe is separated, recommending her to make use of her intlueni e over the opinions.of the Emperor Napoleon, in order to avoid the horrors of a needless war. Ab to himself, he declares that it justice be not done to his demands, he is perfectly de tei mined to maintain the struggle. The Emperor Nicholas and his family have left St. Petersburg^ to take up their tempo rarv residence in the city of Warsaw, where tt e Cear hopes that he will be able to exercise his influence* more effectually against Prussia and Austria. One of the first enterprises of the Prince** Lieven, at Brussels. in favor of her master, was to try to gain over the three French exiled generals, namely. General*- Cbaugarnier, Bo dean and Lamuriciere She accordingly sent an intin.at.on to them that they would lie wel come guests at her house. To the honor ol those . ffiaera, they simultaneomly declined the invitation, intimating that though they wore in enmity with the existing ruler of I ranoe, they were still Frenchmen and French sol aiSsVand that they could not visit anj Rua sian so long as Russia was at war with l? ran<? as the enemie* of France would alwaya be theirfl. ? v . . A ukase has l>een issued by the Russian (Government, forbidding Jewish women in Po land to wear any kind of head-dre* under their bonnets The rabbis are forbidden to marry any woman who refuses to obey the new law. The Ruisrian five per cents have fallen about 35 per cent sinoe the beginning of last year. One of the titles of the Emperor Nicholas is "The Most Pious Autocrat." Oonnt Rranioki, a Polish nobleman of great wealth, who has long been resident as an emi rrr, in France, where be possesses extensive propeity. has been appointed aide de-camp to Prince Napoleon, and will accompany the Prince to Constantinople. Count Hranioki was formerly a colonel of cavalry in the ser vice of the Emperor of Russia. He is to be raised to the rank of licotenant oolonel, in the servicewf France u \Y'e must take care," says the Time*, " and we nan wry easily take care, that not a yard ,if Russian bunting shall tie seen in any part of the globe, and the Caar "hall Income as unknown and fabnlous a personage as the Lama of Thibet, or his old neighbor Prester John In this there can be no real difficulty, ?ee.ng that Russia, huge as she is, oannot mo lest the world, without passing the two Oar rowest a^rtores in the whole range of the or nan?the B-tsphorus and the Sound The author of " The Coiaing Struggle " has published another lnxvk, in which he sap, that the summary of events in Russia s mission and dertiny. as deduoed from pmpheoy, is the fol lowing: '1st He wrests a rswtion of the As^ svro-Macedonian territory from Turkey, and ts?ooroes 'king of the north ' 2d He over- ^ throws the Turkish power, takes possession ol Constantinople. and l?ecomes the dragon ,tJ He aoMiNH the continental nations, and be comes Gog of Magog" Pope and popish system are to disappear Napoleon the rhird is to die the death of all usurpers Austria is to fall like a rotten branch Nicholas is to reign over all the nations of Europe as "Gog | and Magog. ' but ' he attempts the conquest of Syria and India aod is destroyed with al his host*, in the valley of Jehosaphat, near Jem salem." A new palace has been uncovered in the ruins of N.neveh-a palace whose l?eauty ex eels any yet found in Assyria ^ A well known authoress in Dresden is in Solved in a ' criminal prooew, ' because she mentioned "Newman's Crimes of lb* Hoai* of Hansburg,'' in an aooount of modern litoranirt . in Dr. Knhne's " published m Loijug Count Thibaudeau, a member of the French Senate, died at Paris on Wednesday at an ad vanoeil age. He was the last surviving mom her of th* convention who voted for the death of Louis XVI. It is said that Mr. J. B. (lough, the total ab- 1 stinence lecturer, nets ?260 a month in Eng land hy his orations. Mr. Hohbs, the patent? of the Americao lock, has offered two hundred guineas for any one who can aooowplish the task of picking it. Daring the half year ending 31st of Decem t*r. 1A7 persons were killed, and 2?>H injured, on English railways. J The French Government are afoOot to with draw their extensive military establisments from Guadaloupe and Martinique 1 Several earthquakes have taken place in Calabria lately, attended with great loss of life One village, containing 900 inhabitants, has been completely destroyed A'*?^her, 3,0?0 lives had been l?wt, up to the latent ac counts. I.smartens is said to lie engaged OO a lift> of Washington, which will be published within this year Robin, the celebrated tenor, ? dead Oy Tha Daily Era can be bad every morning at the Periodical Stand of Mr. J. T. Baths, Ex change, Philadelphia; also, the Weekly lira. (C~ Mr. Jamss Elliott if authorised to roceive and receipt for subscriptions and advertisements for the Daily and the Weekly NMutual lira, in Cincin J nati and vioinitjr. j WASHINGTON, D. C. SATURDAY, APKtl. I, 1844. Conuhkss.?Both Houses adjourned y enter day, to Monday next. Thb Six Wak Stkamkrs.?After our Con gressional report hud cloned yesterday, the House Committee of the W hole reported this bili without amendment. It was read tint third timo, and patched by a vote of 113 to 43. 1HE MOVEMENTS OF OUB HOME POPULATION. The brief abstract of the Census of 1850, prepared by Mr. Kennedy, contains no table more interesting than that of the nativities of the inhabitants of the several States A care ful analysis of it will show the general course of emigration withiu our borders, the compar ative migratory tendencies of the population in different sections, how the ideas and insti tutions of one section have been impressed upon another, and how far inter-migration has been influenced by peculiarities of the social system. It is remarked in the Abstract, that out of 17,736,792 free inhabitants, 4 112,433 have migrated and settled beyond the States of their birth; thut 335,000 natives of Virginia, equal to 26 |>er cent, of all its natives at the date of the Census. 163,000 of South Carolina, 36 per cent., and 261,575 of North Carolina, or 31 per cent., wero living in other States; and that Vermont and Counocticut, of the North ern State*, have lost more by emigration than even the States named, admitting the number of slaves in the latter as an element of the calculation. But, we have prepared several tables from the returns of the Census, which will be found far moro iustructive. Table 1st shows the number of natives of the slaveholding States, residing in 1850, in the New Kngland, the Middle and the Free Western States; Table 2d, the number of na tives of the Free States residing in the Atlantic and iu the Gulf and Mississippi Slave States. Natives of the Slave States in? Ntw En via/id. Middle Stairs. Frte Wat. Me., 4A8 NY, 12,625 Ohio, 152,319 N. H.. 215 N. J., 4,110 Mich., 3,634 Vt., 140 Pu., 47.180 la., 176,581 Mass, 2 980 ? 111, 144,809 R. I., 982 ? Iowa, 31,392 Conn. 1,390 ? Wis., 6,353 ? ? Cal, 24,055 6,165% 63.915 539,183 Total, 609,631. ^Nativen,of the Free States in the? Atlantic Slav* States. Gulf and Mitt. SI. Stat ft, Delaware, 6 996 Florida, .- 1,718 Maryland, 23,815 Alabama, - 4,947 Virginia, 28,999 Mismaippi. ? 4,517 N. Carolina, 2,197 LoaUana, - 14,567 S. Carolina, 2,427 Tuw, - - 9.982 Georgia, 4,249 Arksosss, 7.965 Dm. Golan., 3,654 Twimism, 6,571 ? Kentucky. - 31,340 ? Missouri, - 55 664 71,687 137.311 Total, 208,998. Natives of the Kaxtcrn Free States in Slave States, .... ) 28,011 Native* of the Western Free Statee in Slave States, .... 80,878 Total, .... 208,889 Tbe general oourae of emigration, uoder the influence* springing from * ml and d/matr, is from tbe North, southwardly ; hat these tables, remarkably enough, show that our country presents an exocption, tbe oourse of emigration being on the whole just the reverse. For, in 1850, while the North and West wore represent ed in the South and Southwest by only 208,000 inhabitiyits, the latter were represented in the former by nearly three times that number. This result of course is attributable to the same oause which turns the tide of Kuropean im migration from the Southern to tbe Northern and Western States. Wealth of soil and bsauty of climate cannot overoome tbe repellent influences of tbe system of Slave Labor. Natives of the flave States more readily adapt themselves to Free Labor institutions than those of free States do to Slave Labor institutions. The States < t the South, in which public sentimsnt on the subject of Slavery is most tol erant, are Dataware, Maryland, Virginia, Lou isiana. Tens, Kentucky, and Mistouri; and in these the proportion of natives of the free States is largest, varying from one-eighth in Missouri, to one sixteenth and a little upwards in the rest. Oa tbe other hand, take the States of the Free West, and yon will find that Indiana Illinois,- Iowa, and Califtirnia, in which the proportion of natives of slave States ia largest, ranging from ooe-fifth to one-sixth, the Pro Slavery sentiment is most decided. Our table, which follows, is still more sug gestive. It shows the number of natives of tbe old Free Slates and tbe old Slave States, in the new Slave States and the new Free Statee. We mean by the old Free States, New England, New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania; by the old Slave States, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, Sooth Carolina, and (Georgia. (Vi/dWi of (Hil Frt* Niiiivr* of Old Slaw Statu in? Stat ft i>? Florida, 1,673 ? - 20,268 Alabama, 4,061 ? ? 147,433 Mississippi, 3,177 ? ? 76,189 Louisians, 12,175 - - 18,361 Texas, 4,105 ? - # 21 513 Arkansas, 1,888 ? 24,878 Tennessee, 4,783 ? ? 140 445 Kentucky, 13 689 - - 80,281 Missouri, 17,470 - ? 67,067 63,217 ? - 596,435 Ohio, 374,17? - - 134,765 Michigan, 179,703 ? - 2,915 Indiana, 87.038 - - 93,015 Illinois, 147 490 ? - 52 572 Iowa, 29,692 - - 12,942 Wisconsin, 106 761 ? - 3,171 California, 27,424 . - - 7,384 912,285 ? - 306,764 Totals, 975,502 - - 903,199 Total of natives of the old States in tbe new Free States - -1,219,044 Do. do , in new Slave States 659,652 Th? old Slave State in 1850 contained an aggregate white populaon, in round number^ of 2.700,000, or 31ttho fquare inile; the old Free State*, a popuhion of about 8,500.000, or 63 to the square me, and yet thin table shows that the einigrabn from the former if nearly an large ahsoluty as from the latter; in other words, that th emigration trom the old Slave States was neily three timed greater, in proportion to its poflution, than from the old Free States; for whi, the latter were repre sented in the uew Stato by 975,512 of their natives, tho latter, with* population not one third as large, was repwented by 903,512 ol their natives! Now, why in it that tese Slave States, con taining an aggregate a?a, 30,000 square mile* larger than the aggrepte area* ot the hreo States, surpassing thei in climate, and at least equalling them irwoil, water-power, min eral resources, and i natural capabilities, with a white populatio not one third as large, and not one fourth Bcdense, should send out nearly as many emigants to new States and Territories? What oher reasons can 1* as signed but the exhusting nature of slave labor, its inherent (inoinpatibility with other and productive wodenof Industry, and its op pressive bearing upu the masses of the Poo P,6? \ f ; Slaveholder* seek, tho rich bottoms of the new Slave States ; tlflir poor white neighbors crowd into the new FVee States. In 1852, for example, Indiana furbished homes to thirty three thousand peisots, who had been born in North Carolina, anl nxty-eight thousand, bom in Kentucky?the peat mass of whom had sought shelter in thqt Free State from tho op pression of a sybtem %h$ch, by excluding free labor to a great extentjmust drive out a freo laboring population. Look again at the tifcle, and see how Free Soil attracts the tide <vcn of home em^ra tion: 1,219,000 nativef of the old States in the Free West, and o?ly 659,000 in the Slave West--the old free States sending nearly a million of their sonii to the Free WcBt, and only 63,000 to the Styveholding West?while 300,000 natives of thi old Slave States seek their homes on Free Sfil. And yet the Slave holding West has an area 200,000 square miles larger than that of the Free West, (even em bracing within the latter the whole of Califor nia,) and is equal to it in all natural attributes. Facts like these speak trumpet-tongued for Free Soil and Free Labor. They show that the instincts of the American People are in favor of them?that their necessities require ? them?that Slave Labor exhausts tho soil, dis courages Industry, oppresses and drives into exile the poor freeman, cheeks population, im pairs the power of the State, and is detested and shunned by four-fifths of the American Peoplo. In full view of all this, the present Con gress is called upon by the slaveholders and urged by the President, to repeal the Missouri Compromi^w1820 has consecrated tn Frssrtrir and Free Labor the soil of oar Li W+m, TWn?, * *? olasses Of the *mth, the working saeo of the North, md the hardy sons of teal, driven out of oppressed Europe, are looking for free and independent homes! No wonder that the Peo ple. wherever they are free to Bpeak, are thun dering their protects against this meditated outrage. The exoitement is more manifest among our Northern oitiaens and the natu ralised population, but there are hundreds ot thousands in the South who sympathise with them. The following memorial, signed by forty-one citizens of one or two counties in North Carol ins, presented the other day in the Senate by Mr Badger, utters the sentiments of a large olass of Southern men, specially in terested in the preservation of Free SoiL u To ike Senate and House of Rej>re*en<atti?* of the United Stalet in Congress a**embltd : We the undersigned, citiaens of Perquimans and Chowan counties, North Carolina, reepeot fully, but earnestly, entreat Congress to pass no bill interfering in any way with the "f the " Missouri Compromise to the leffitory of Nebraska. We do so from the conviction that the passage of any l?ill rendering said Compromise inoperatiix will be an aot of in jnetioe and a breach of national faith. The friend who sent the petition informs us that several slaveholders signed it unhesitating ly. and that more signatures might have been got, had there been time. And let it be ob served, that although the politicians through the Press of the South, always in the interest of the Holing Clean, are vociferously demanding the repsal of the Compromise, not a public meeting of Southern citiiens anywhere has yet l>cen held to enstain the demand. Look at the tables, members "of Congress, and say whether, in the fare of the facts they reveal, yon will persist in attempting to ooo Humiliate this outrage upon Free Labor Insti tutions and Interests TH* nw HAMPSHIRE ELXCTIO* The I mm the Admin istration ptiper* say about the New Hampshire election, the tatter for the comfort of the President. He feels that it in a defeat, whatever coloring they may put upon il. The New Hampshire Patriot, for the sake of keeping the Nebraska men in cnnnte nance in Congress, labor* hard lo make oat a majority of Administration me inborn in the Legislature, bat scarcely to it* own satisfaction The Concord Independent Democrat, of the 3(>ih March, nays: " In onr last paper, we published a carefnlly prepared table of Representatives, giving their K"ty designations, a* we understood them, at table we have seen no reason to materi ally change, notwithstanding the blunter of the Patriot. When we do see reanon, we nhall change it. An now informed, we are confident that the Administration are in a minority, and will continue to be no in June, when the Legis lature shall come together. In relation to noarly every man about whom wo differ from the Patriot, we know that we were right, and that paper was wrong, In relation to several of the men in dispote, the Patriot know* that it or its party has nothing to hope from them. It has been no informed on the highest anthor ity." Anotiikr CoNURCsnioNAL Candidate.? The National Democrats of the First Gongras. sional District of Massachusetts have pnt in nomination Kdward M. flardnev, Esq., of Nan tucket, to fill the vaoancy in the Massachusetts delegation occasioned by the resignation of Mr. Sendder. " POLITICAL PKSACHKB8 " " The National Era, of this city, the peat gun of Abolitionism, is rather gravelled by the repruofn we have felt it our duty to administer to the Political Preachers. It seeniH to think that we would have had nothing hut kind wordn for theni, bad tbey acquiesced in Slave ry a? 1 a necessary part of the religion of the humble Saviour.' All that we have to nay on that subject if, that'we desire the clergy, whether for or against Nebraska, to keep the subject disconnected from religion. "The doctrines of the diving Founder of the Christian system, like the Constitution under which wo live, neither establish nor inhibit Slavery. They permit and protect it. Under those doctrine*, a man may hold slaves and bo a Christian, or a man may refuse to hold slaves, and be a Christian. Men are not commanded by the Saviour, in any of his teachings, to abol ish Slavery. So far fr>m there being any command to abolish it, certain rules are pre scribed for the treatment of men held in servi tude and bondage."?Washington Seittinel. Our neighbor thinks there is something in congruous in the oharaoter of a " Political Preaohcr." What does he think of a theologi cal politician ? The Sentinel arraigns Doctor Beecher for meddling with a political question, and.at the Hame time undertakes himself to meddle with a religious question. Is not the Dootor as well qualified to deal with the poli tics of his oountry, as the politician of the Sen tinel is with the polomics of tho Bible ? The Sentinel practically repudiates what it calls upon the clergy to do?' Keep tho subject disconnected from religion."* It appeals to Christianity to sliow that it has no connection with Christianity?they appeal to Christianity to show that it has.' A fair question, Mr. Sen tinel, and it will not do for you to deny them a right you ola\pi for yourself. On the whole, your performances as a " theological politician " are not quite M) cred itable as theirs, in the oharaoter of "political preaohers." Their politic* are sound, which is more than cau be taid of your ]M)lemics. The Slavery prevailing in the Roman einpiro at the time of tho advent of Christianity, was ohi(Hy white slavery; tho Slavery, then, which the Sentinel's Christianity permitted and pro_ tecled, was the Slavery of white men ; and it had its origin in just such causes as blaok Sla very in our day has grown out of. ' The editor of the Sentinel, who is a Democrat, a progres sive Democrat, a Jeffersoyian Democrat, a Democrat of tho largest liberty order, believes, that the religion of Jesus Christ sanctions Sla vory iu itself, without regard to the color or ra<;e of its victims, tho Slavery of the white as well as the black man?sanctioned and protected a system, under which whito slaves were bought and sold like brutes, work ed without wages, scourged without mercy, and put to death whenever it suited the whim or passion of the master, without violation of law ! That is the Sentinel's idea of Christian ity, which it acocpts as a beneficent system of Norn-Intervention, like tho Constitution of the United States! We claim to live under a bettor dispensation Let tho editor of the Sentinel, if ho please, eling to a religion that would authorise bis brother of the Union, hod he the power, to set bias to work in hie < ttoe, work without wages, to flSR kiss for di?bedisnoe, to sell him on the block, and to separate him at Ms pleasare from his family. We bfllieve in no suoh reli gion. The Christianity we believe and reverence is that, who*! golden rule is, Do unto others what you would have others do to you?a grand, ever-present, ever-working Principle of In tervention against all wrong-doing. THE PEOPLE OF ALEAlfY IF COUNCIL. On Monday evening last, a meeting of oiti zenc, without distinction of party, met at the Capitol, to protest against the Nebraska scheme The Atlas remarks that it was particularly in teresting on aooount of the number of electors of Gorman birth present. But, that paper adds, we know of no portion of our oitizena who approve of the Nebraska bill. Any ex pression of a public meeting, less than the whole body of eleotors, must, therefore, neces ! sarily be inadequate. The meeting was called to order by Mr. Cap ?in Pepper. Hon. William Parmelee, Mayor, was elected President, and fifteen Vioe Presidents and five Secretaries were appointed. Hon. Amos I>ean addressed the meeting, and his eloquent remarks were received with ap plause A series of admirable resolutions were read by Isaac Rdwards, Ksq., and unnmmmmly adopted. Hon Bradford R. Wood addressed the meet ing in his usual effective style. His speech is thus epitomised : "The people are not on the fenoc in this matter of Nebraska. You have assembled this evening, to protest against a most outrageous attempt to desecrate free territory by Slavery, and very likely you will find out to-morrow morning, in some veracious print, that von at tended an Abolition meeting! The Nebraska bill is an attempt to extend Slavery over a ter ritory larger than all the free States east of the Mississippi. I know you are told by the friends of this measure that this country is un fitted for Slavery. Why, then, re| eal the Com Cimise that shuts it out? The assertion is He; for in the sume latitude lie Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, Kentucky, and Missouri, all. except the first and last, full of slaves They who talk aboot God's having written bis lawH of freedom on the soil and climate, claim a blasphemous* intimacy with their Maker, or are grossly ignorant of what he has written. "Neither soil nor climate has abolished Sla very anywhere. It exists among the barren pines of the South The bill t>f rights abol ished it in Massachusetts, and the moral sense ! of the people in Connecticut and New York. Slave and free lab.ir are everywhere antago i nistic; and wherever Slavery gets a foothold, it will bold its own. Should it enter this ter ritory, it will not be eradicated Missouri bad but few staves when she entered into the Union, and she has now probably over 1.000,000. Had Slavery b?en confined whore the Ordi nance of 17#7 left it, It would now have lieen powerless. The giving up of all south of 36 deg. 30 min. to Slavery greatly enhanced the value of slaves^ and stimulated their produc tion. The repeal of the Missouri Compromise will have a similar effect. " The foreign slave trade is treated as piracy on the high seas. The domestic slave trade is the special care of Congress, and over this trade is sought to throw the regis of tho Con stitution. This is non-intervention with a ven geance! The Ordinance of 1787) which abol ished Slavery in all the territory then belonging to the Confederation, and the (lonstitutior, were simultaneous The first acts of the Cimstitu i turn recognised that Ofdinance. They were, in fact, put nod paroel of each other. rh? Con stitution does not sanction Slavery; it only per mitted it where it existed previous to its adop tion, in the old thirteen colonics. Every prin ciple that lied at the foundation of the Cousti tution is opposed to Slavery. For more than thirty years, this reading of that instrument was adhered to. Then cume, and simultane ously, too, Slavery-compromise, and dough faceism. * "This was the first compromise; a Southern measure. Then followed u series of compro ?nines. Slavery, as insatiable as the grave, de manded more territory, and we had compro mise No. 2. The annexation of Texas, hy which territory for five more slave States wan seemed, instead of one slave State, the remain der territory, all to be done without war, a* was proposed by the patriot statesman, Benton. The attempted compromise No. 3, of 1848 was defeated?n significant fact fur the future. Compromise No. 4 was the President making, President-killing compromise of 1850?the fa ther or mother, (( am not sure of the sex,) as 1 contend, of this infamous Nebraska bill. Had the former never been done, you would have never heard of the latter. Neither party oan criminate the other as to the paternity of these cheateriea " Negotiations, or something worse, are con stantly going on, for more slave territory. The Gadsden treaty takes another slice from Mex ico. We are, ever and anon, negotiating, bul lying, or filibustering with, Spain for Cuba The idea that the South will out loose, as long as the North is supplying her with fresh terri tory, and mounts guard upon her slaves, is pimply preposterous and absurd. But if this villany succeed, it will be the turu of some body else to talk about disunion. There is but one way to treat this slave nropagandism. The South are all united on Slavery. We must profit by their example. In this matter she boasts that 'sho has no traitors.' We can Kend her some. When we treat our traitors as she does here, wo Hhall have none either. The North has forborne too long. The object of the South is future empire. The object of the movers is mischief and the Presidency, and what care they what fires are kindled, whut discords sown, or what mischief done, any more than Louis Napoleon did, whon in his mad ambition he marched over the mangled oorpsfs of his oountrymen to empire ? " The White House is a splendid bait, and the tempter onoe held it up to Daniel Webster, if he would but bow to Slavery; and a giant fell! The South deeerted Webster. She has no objeotion to Northern Presidents, of her own selection, but whom she has first debauch ed. She knows her men better than we do Th^e Nebraska swindle cannot be consumma ted without Northern votes. It is said there are thirty-two. 01 these, seven are assigned to New York, aud eleven to Pennsylvania. That New York should have seven doughfaoes in Congress, is disgraceful. You have now awoke to battle for the la*t spit of free territory you will ever have, and find Slavery embroiling you in a foreign war for Cuba. I am glad you are awake. 1 thank God that the moral element of the country is arout-ed. The whole North must be roused to one concentrated action, un less the South abandon her course. Write on your ballots, 'No more slavo Territory; no more Blave States.'" Mr. Wood was followed by Mr. Hertle of the Deutche Freie Walter, and by Oliver B Pieroe, Esq ,.of Rome, O. S. Pieroe, and Deo dotus Wright, of Albany. WORDS OF FEARFUL IMPORT! Tha Richmond Examiner says: " A hundred Southern fntleien, aimed with riding whips, ooold ohase an ansy of ia ladhiK Abolitionist* into the Atlantic." If ?? have any AhoKtioabte saaoag oar readttra, we woold henoe advias them not to gu an an invading army among Southern gentle men, and especially in the vicinity of the At lantic, or any other considerable) body of Halt or fresh water. The Examiner Hay*, further: " When they desire *n act of courage to be performed in their cause at the South, they send women amongst us to violate our lawn, and to play volunteer and mock martyrs to their ferocity?as in the case of Mrs. D.>ugla?, in Norfolk, now quietly ensconced in a jail, with doors open to hor bidding." To teaoh a fi&w poor sinners how to read the word of God is "an act of courage" in the South, and in violation of law; and for tha^ crime Mrs. Douglas is in jail, and will not de part by breaking her parol, nor hy crouching before nor stealing away from her captors and judges. The Abolitionist* cowardly send their women into dangers, and tho Southern gentle men bravely and magnanimously oondemn to a common jail a woman who is guilty of the atrocious crime of toaching one of God's ta tional and aooountable lieings to read! But the Examiner has still more to say : " Why, a hundred wild, lank, half-horse half alligator Missouri and Arkansas emigrant*, would, if so disposed, chase out of Nebraska and Kansas all the Abolitionists who hav? figured for the last twenty years at Anti-SIa | very meetings.'' Having no doubt of the disposition of the half-and-half personages here spoken of, we oan do nothing else upon this assurance than admonish every Abolitionist, who shall read these lines, of the peril that lies in his path, 1 should he visit Nebraska: and in view of this barrier to his journey to that vast domain, we would submit the question whether it would aot lie as well to let the Territory go to th<> slave-owners, after all ? Of what use is it to attempt to exclude Slavery from it, if the friends of Freedom are certain to be chased out of it by the forooious boings here described ' The student of geography is requested to bear in mind that Gasoony is not in Virginia, hut afar ofT beyond the Atlantic ooran, wher< the writer of the lines have quoted has probably never l?een, and not far from where the senior editor of the Erammer, no doulit. wishes he had never strayed ! Wickkd Intkkmkddi.krs.?The multitude to whom Pilate would have given Harabba* a* a victim have changed but little in their taste* and appetites sinoe then. Had Messrs. Cut ting and Breckinridge lieen indisposed to meet in mortal combat, the evident expectations and desires of thousands, were they men to be thus moved, would have urged them on to it. Thr Washington Sentinel justly oensures this mor bid love of excitement and oruelty, and say* ; "This is a free oountry, and the press, a* well as the tongue, is allowed many privileges It is not always wise, however, nor is it always propeT, to exercise the privileges we are al lowed. We oannot avoid expressing our re gret at tho remark* made in some journals in regard to the difficulty to whioh we allude There seems to be a disposition on the part of some of them to make this difficulty between two gentleman a sectional quarrel?a cvmtro versy between the North and the South We oan scaroely find terms of sufficient severity properly to characterise suoh aa effort" W* folly concur in this asntiaient. Quit* an Important Discovery!?' Ion wye, this morning: " it id lately foui <1 that there are two (tide* to the Black Wairior case, and it begins to be doubted whether we can make it a casus belli. But it is not doubted that the Cuban authori ties have redoubled their vigilance, and begun rigidly to enforce their port regulations, in consequence of the anticipation of revolution ary or other attempts, threatened through American rumors, and with aid from Ameri can part*, especially that of New York/' It is possible Cuba it wise in rigidly enforcing its regulations! Quaint!?" X." sayeth to-day: "The price paid for oourage by the United State* is $7 a month, (unless General Shield*'* bill for increasing the pay of the rank and file in tbe army passes both Houses.) and the pay of a membar SB per diem, or $f240 a month. We thus have the geometrical pro Crtion: as 8 are to 240, so is oourage to inte! it Q.E. D.? IndianOutraojchon thbTbxas Frontier.-? The New Orleans despatches of l he 30th March state that advioes from Texas have been re ceived to the 26tb. The Indians have been committing dreadful outrages upon the fron tier, and the pitizens have held meetings at Laredo, to take measures for their defenoe. They had determined to exterminate the Lapas tribe of Indians, who were considered to be the perpetrators of the outrages. PEBI0DICAL8 Putnam's Mofithly for April in welcome to our table. It opens invitingly. The Knickerbocker for April is varied and interesting, worthy a kind reception in every family. The Wostein Literary Cabinet, Mrs. E. M. Sheldon, editress, Detroit, Michigan, contains, among other good articles, a sketch of the early history of Michigan. The People's Journal, New York, completes this month its first volume. It is a fine and cheap pictorial monthly. LOCAL. Death or Mr. Gunton.?W? regret to learn that Mr. Win. Gunton, jr., who was in jured on Thursday of this week, by being thrown from his horse, died this morning at eight o'clock, at the residence of his father, corner of Pennsylvania avenue and Ninth street. Mr. G. wan a widower, aged about 27 yearn, and leaves two children. He never spoke after the accideut, and, it is believed, wus at no moment cotu-eiouti of pain. Juli.ikn Acain!?TJ>e people of Washing ton and its vicinity will be delighted to learn that the orchestra of thin eminent leader and composor will give two of its beautiful concerts on Monday and Tuesday, April 10th and 14th, at the National Theatre. This troupe is to Hail from New York on the 1st of June, for England, where an engagement has beon en tered into for six months. Mr. Brough, the once distinguished vocalist and skillful mana ger, is now in this city, Making preparation* for the forthcoming ooneerts. \LT TlHfjBty In the Sdnmartravg mm, who retired ? Wafeesdap Iteieooe, have so* yet age?d mfom a u??i>. A Duellist.?A writer in the Detroit In quirer sayn: "About the year 1822, as near as I can rooollect^ggva* on board one of the old Fnlton and Livingston line of l>oats, (my the James Kent, or Chanoellor Livingston,)'on my way from New York to Albany. All who travelled in tBbse days will recollect that the dinner hour was quite as interesting as now. Tho ladies were of oourso provided for first; aud the gentlemen, who stood near the foot of the ta bles, could croWd upon the back seats, (so that they respectfuty recreated as the ladies canto down.) until the latter were all seated; then > such as were not crowded quite (iff could tuke a seat oa the signal !>eing given. u Among the first that were passing up next to the berths, and back of one table, was Aaron Burr, and it was my lot to be next to him. We got as far up as those ahead of us onuld go before coming to seats occupied by ladies on that side and all cams to a stand facing the table. At that moment them came down opposite to us a large lady, richly dretwed in black, and veiled, and while yet Htnuding directly opposite to Burr, she put her veil aside, and raising her eyes across the table, ehe saw, with his eyes directly upon her, Aaron Burr, and only separated by the width of the table. She gave a loud scream and fell, but tli?re be ing quite a number standing by, they caught her, and took her out The boat was then abeut approaching Newhurgh, and she insisted on being put ashore at onoe, as she would go i no further in the boat with Burr on hoatd, and ! it was done as she wished. " During tho whole scene at the table, Burr stood like a statue, lookiog on with a stoic-like indiffereooe and composure, never moving a musole ; and as soon as Mrs. H. was removed he sat down and ate a very hearty dinner, and went on his way as usual " But, to say I relished and enjoyed my din ner, orowded up in olose proximity to that man, with the history of that fatal duel rnsli ing through my mind, I cannot " It was remarkod, at the time, that Mrs. Hamilton said it was the first time she had ever set her eyes on Aaron Burr Wnce the day he killed her husband; and no dunht it wss the last." We have again to thank Hon S A. Douglas for pnhlie documents. His determination to keep us posted up in tho politics of the country may be from the generous design of calling his namesake into the public service, trhen the people shall mske him President of the United State*. >> We shall *o? ? Fretl. /Mug/a*'* Paper. V.rumah?Dedicated to Tetntalters in general, " Hold, man?forbear! nn<l drink no hiore j Tho hahit on you grown.'' " Urog grow upon mo * " "Yes: T see ' The blossom* on your aoSS."? Ihvfrrmrl. The Bhitish Ship "Three Bells," Capt. Crighton, which left New York on 22d Febru ary. arrived at Glasgow on March IOth, thus making the passage in sixteen days?the quick est trip ever made. | '?!? AIM AOKM Y. WASHINGTON, O. r M THOMPSON A 0. C. VRNABLK, Attorneys st ? Law. proeecnte every description of claimx ho fore the varion* Departments of the Ueaeral 0<rrern meat. s?d before Congress. They likewise Mill Land Warrants at thf highest current price*, and remit the prooeed* promptly to order to any part of the United mate*, for reasonable commissions. They also attend strictly to the practice of law in all tho t'onrts of the District, and tbe adjoining coun tie* ol Maryland and Virginia. Address THOMPSON A VKNABLK, March 1. Washington, D. C. I' S. Refer, If need tie, to almost any of the wort prominent cititens of Washington. Heads of Depart menu and Bureaas, and to member* of Ooagreo* gen erally.