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LITERARY MISCELLANY.
For lbs National Kra.
A BKOTHKK'S KSC0LLKCT10M8 OK AN ONLY
usnuL
? T MART IKVI NO.
CHAP. XI?Concluded.
Il was the middle of a midsummer day. The
great glaring bud looked down, in the fierce
nees oi wrath, on the burning blocks and dc- I
eertod streets. Here uud there a slight figure ;
liurried from one house to another; occasion
ally, a servant, with bowildored air, tottered
bj; but every face wus terror-smitten.
As I drew near the now useless and grata- !
grown market, 1 perceived a thin, pale wouiau, j
orouehing by a paving stone, with an appar
ently dying ohild stretched across her lap. She
sprang wildly into my path.
" Ua morceau de pain! un leetle broad,
Monaieur, pour mon puiivre on ('ant1" she pite
ously eried.
Can it be, thought 1, that famine is joining
bauds with pestileuoe in this homo of wealth
and luxury ? I mournfully tihook my head, in
respouse to her ories; for I had no broad to
give her, and monoy would not buy broad
there. Many suffered with her; for the punic
etriokeu planters had out off the wonted sup
plies of provision from the few in the city
whom the fever had as yet left untouched.
A young man, pale and tottering, was slowly
oroestng the street before mn, when the rattling
of wheels broke the stillness, and tho " dead
oart," piled with roughly-boarded coffins,
hoarsely grated by, almost brushing hint from
the pavomont. Behind it, in tho broiling nun- I
shine, oame a half-clothed child, hurrying to
keep pace with its irreverent speed.
"Ala mere.' Oh, Mon Dieu! Laissez ma
mere!" oried the half-frantic little croatorc,
whose world was all in that wretched cart.
I turuod, to see the young man fall. Ho, too,
had been stricken by the unseen arrow!
"Take him to the hospital!" exolaioiod a
gentleman, who had hastily stepped to an ad
joining door. " I have three children, biek and
dying, under this roof!
" Sir, I am a stranger," I began; but his
door was closed.
I sprang from my carriage to aid the soffit
er. But a negro woman, who was hurrying
past with a bundle upon her head, suddenly
stopped, and dropped oo her knees at his side
"Oh, tho Lord havo mercy! Mars' Ernest
is it onmo to you ?''
" Kitty, is that you 1 > fis all right, Kitty!"
faintly spuko tho sick man.liltoono in a dreaiu.
He smiled, and crossed his arms upon his
breast. With tears fast falling, Kitty tried to
lilt his bead.,
"Oh, master! for the love of (Jod, eome lend
a hand !" cried the faithful oreature, for the
first time noti-ing me. " He's cared for the
siok liko an angel! worn himself to diath with
the watching ! and now, there'll just be noliody
to care for Aim / "
It wits a slender frame that lay writhing he
fore me?ono that showed little strength for
the fierce granplo with Death that awaited it.
Kyo and forehead wore the mould of genius,
refined and hallowed; there was something
heaven-lit in the mournful glanoe, that already
told of an intellect wandering.
"Oh. mother!" ho breathed; and, making a
Tain effort to rise, lie sink heavily back, his
long, waving looks sweeping the gray dust of
the pavement.
' Could ye get him to the hos'tle, master ?
and I'll pray f.?r ye the lnogoat day I'll live ! 1
can't stay here to 'tond him ; for they hired me
oat to yon big brick house, where there's a
dozen sick! Poor young master ! "
" A moment, woman ! " I exclaimed, as a
gleam shot across my mind. " Are you a ser
vant of the Livingston's 1"
" Bless yo, yes, mastor, ever esnce "
fell me whore Miss Lincoln is."
' That sweet spoken lady from the Nor'ard,
that read to us all so saint-like out of the |
good book ? Ood grant she's on He de Lvs i
or gone with Mars' Judge's folks to S - !
It wouldn't do for her to come nigh this spot!
The angels aro al'lus looking out for such? i
tbey only want the wings!"
" Direct me to the hospital, and I will see
that your young master is sheltered there. I
know no r?*t until I find Eulalie "
"Eulalie!" repated the fever-Hushed pa- I
tient, with a start that shook his nerveless
form; u who called ktr 1 God keep her away M
No?no! don't call her again!" I lifted him
to the earriage with these words upon his lipp, !
ood bore him, unconscious of all about him,
to the gate of' the hospital. My summons
brought tho superintendent to the uoor, which
was almo?t barricaded by carts, some empty,
some heaped with the dead, and others, etill!
with newly-brought victims
"Another subject?" nervously questioned
thj officer, taking a hasty f>inoh of camphora
ted snuff. " Really?really, sir, I'm sorry to
say we're quite overflowing?nurses overtaxed,
and half sick ; hut?have you a i?ormit front
the Board of Health ? '
m WO'fUr; entering your place, a stranger,
and finding this gentleman in immediate need,
I waited for no formalities. If I understand
aright, yon owe him a debt of care; his name
is Livingston ard "?
/'Ah! ayo! that alters tho case! Emeet
LivioptoD ' I rhnaght he had gone Ion* Hro,
?obis follow ! He shall have a pallet here, if
I have to take to th* floor! Tis not long he'd '
ncad it!" he added, significantly shaking bis
bead. "Consumption has left little there for >
fever to work upon. Boys ! bring him in!" he
called, to two gaunt Africans, who bad already
approached the carriage, and, with eounte- j
nanoM of grief and dismay, recognised one who 1
had been to them indeed a friend.
^U^?~an' *ir! SUnd bnok!" command., I
the Doctor, as I was about to oross the thresh
old. " If, m you say, you are a stranger here
C are incurring a frightful risk. But tlrs
it you mutt n<?t and shall not pass. WP
have the disease in its most terrific forms. All I
that is needful shall be done for your friend ;
and as for yourself, sir,'' snid he, uarrowly
scanning my face, as though to reoognise it
.?r*L m iU tor* \l ,R7 Cf>orulsed heft*o him
I adjureyou toquittbin city beforetheson goes
duwn e ven at noonday, death walks al?rood :
at night, his shaft is sure!"
A few hours more, and I was on the rock- '
ing ?ulf; washing with pained eyes the 1 >w
dark outline of lie de Lys, which, as we .p.'
proaohed, stretched into a barn n batch of
sand, backed by a few stunted trecn, and dot
ted with the fc'nts and huts in which many of i
the terror-stricken denixens of M. had sought
"fug* from the plague. Myriads of gnnt<,
ar?ng in a thick cloud from the long swamp
O"4 * Nt?g???g weh-ome. Solemnly
the heavily rolling waves heat np the beach,
sad broke in a long, wild moan, as though
?aeh were freighted .with heart breaking
tidiMs from that distant shore.
_.A boat lay moored at the landing, with one
half unfurled?a little boat, unfit to j
breve tfawe strong waves, under the eye of the
thunder cloud whioh glowered-in the' horizon,
???re a water spout already linked the waters
above end the waters beneath.
" My sister! here?and alone!" for Eulalie
rtood on the shore, closely wrapped in an tin
OOM* 'l"11 ????ld not disguise her to my
eye She was guing en the wooder of the
thst darkened the Eastern sky, and knew
?M not, until I laid my hand dims her shoulder
" Brother ? " With this shriek of intense
nmMkm, rhe fell int<? my arms. It was Ion *
befitre she could speak I sat down, and draw
iag ter to my aide, gated into her face?thin,
whito, and ha^ud, with a shadow which 1
felt wu not that of fear.
" Boat putting off, ma'am! " resnectlully ex
claimed a man in a continue whicli combined
thoae of sudor and gYP^y- winter started
to her feet, with a look of alarm.
'? 1 in net go, brother ! i)on't t>peak a word
to detain me ! 1 have rouulvod ; I told them to
leave mo here, when they Hailed for S."
"Keeolved?on what?" I exclaimed in sur
prise. " Wboro are you going, Eulalic'"
"To the spot I nover should have left, if ono
stronger than my own will had not bidden I
me! "Oh, you don't know! Brother, dou't i
keep me here ! I Hhall go wild ! I must not
stay while he is dying! "
The name of Ernest Livingston had uev.tr
Passed between us. hivo in the single paragraph
have before quoted. Vet I felt, by a true in
stinct, the tie that must have been woven be
tween these two self-sacrificing spirits, in the
daily life of oven a few short months.
"He is cared for," I siuiplv answered; "I,
myself, took him to the hospital."
"I knew ho was there!" sho exclaimed, |
throwing on mo a burning glance. " They
cannot take oare of him as I wouid! Thay
are passing and repairing him heedlessly, and
leaving him to d o! and (iod knows I would
give my lite for his! Ob, brother! why did
you oome? And von?you, too, have breath
ed that poisoned air! Leave me, and let me
go!"
"Wherever you go. my ulster, I follow, to
sharo your danger?to brave out lia worst; the
infection 1 shrink not from encountering at
noonday?or to return to Mary and to safety!"
"No, brother?no! not you! " she cried, in
a tone that told the struggle within.
"Two boats wait our bidding/' I calmly
prooooded. " Take the responsibility of two
lives and many hearts, my hister! Decide?
whither!"
Sho stood for a moment, trembling in every
nerve.
"(iod's will bo done, then! Tako mo any
where, brother! " sho faltered, and utagg'oiing,
dropped at my sido.
NEBRASKA AMD KANSAS.
DV ON K WHO IIAS HKKN Til Ell E.
FUchburg, April 8, 1851.?Messrs. Editors:
In the Spy, some time since, I noticed a call,
anonymously signed, for a nicotine of persons
interested in the settlement of the proposed
new territories of Kansas and Nebraska, to be
held at the City Hall, in Worcester. Having
Hpent sevoral weoks on the eaHtern border of
thoso territories, as well as having passed
through their entire length, in 1849, and be
lieving them to bo the very garden of the
world, for situation and fertility of soil, as well
as for loveliness of climate and scenery, I am
deeply interested for their future condition;
and, as I am often queatiourd upon the subject,
1 propose to pen a briotj general description of
the country, for your columns*
The situation of this territory, as all are
aware, is in the very heart of tho country, it
being about two thouoand miles from its east
urn boundary to the Atlantic at Boston; and
also the same distance to tho Pac'fio ocean. It
is comiooted with tho fine-it commercial empo
rium of tho West and South by the Missouri,
Mississippi, and Ohio rivers, and thcnco to
evory State and important city in the Union,
by steamboat or railroad communication. The
groat Pacific railroad wil', undoubtedly, pass
through this whole territory, thus opening a
.more direct route to California and Oregon, as
well as making one of the links in the great
chain of steam communication, that is soon to
girdlo tho whole earth. When this road is
built, and a line of steamships established be
tween San Francisco and China, it will l>e the
great thoroughfare for tho commerco of En
rope and tho United States, with Asia, as well
as between tho Atlantio and Pacific States
SO far, thou, from being out of the world, as
s.'nm seem to suppono, Nebraska is, geographi
cally. in the centre of the most important
oomitry on the glol>e, and will soon be ho, po
Htically and commercially, if saved from that
ourae of all commerce and politics, slavery
Tho roil of Nebraska, for the inc*?t part, is
unsurpHMsed for richncw and depth by any in I
the World. True, in some parte, as near the j
mountains, it is thin and sandy, but for bun- j
drods of niles from the Missouri State lino, not
an acre of waste or j>oor land was to be seen
od our rouU. Tho land is gently rolling, thus :
giving an endlet ? variety to the scenery, as well
as ridding the oountry of all low marshes, ]
swamps, and stagnant pools of water, so pro
ductive of malaria and disease. Lest it should j
be thought that this is written for effect at the
present t<me, and therefore the representation
too strong, I will quote upon this subject a line
from my journal, written on tho spot, in April.
1849, afirr visiting tho Wyandott tribe of In
dians in this Territory, as follows: "Tho land
they occupy is immensely ritdi and very beau
tiful. All this region, both the Indian Territo
ry and this side of the Kansas river, (in Mis
souri.) is superior to any I over saw for cultiva
tion, and if it were occupied by New England
society, I would m ver think of visiting Califor- i
nia." The soil is not only rich, but well wa
tered. Not only are tho clouds more prodigal !
ot their treasures than at S.tlt Lake Valley I
and in California, during tho summer sexaon I
but streams of pure water are to be found, at
short intervals, in every direction. These
streams are almost invariably skirted with
timber, in the eastern portion of the territory,
and can afford water jiower in abundance, fjr
every kind of manufactures
Of the climate, scenery, &c., &c , I may say
something hereafter, as well as give some quo
tations from my journal, kept while travelling
through tho Territory in question, should you
think this worth publishing ? Worcester Spy.
Whippino In?The Hem cr&tic Vnion, in
reviewing the recent defeat of tho Democrats
in New Hampshire, Connecticut, and Rhode
Island, thus refers to the Pennsylvania De
mocracy :
"Whatever timid leaders or time-serving j
politicians may say to tho contrary, wo eon
tend, as we have from the fir?t contended, that
the Democracy of Pennsylvania iavor the prin
ciples < f the Nebraska bill, and that he or Ikiy
Who desert the parly on that issne can he looked
upon in no other light than as allies of IVhigi
and Aboliiitmuta"
Let the infamons principle of the Nebraska
bill bo made an open it-sue in tho nexteleotion,
and tho Union will soo where that good old
fashioned Dcmociatio majority will lie. It is
an insuft to the great body of Domooratu in
this State to charge them with favoring such
an ugly perfection of legislative iniquity ; and
we are much m:siaken if they will submit to
such a course of tyrannical whipping-in as is
threatened in the above extract, which we have
placed in Italics ? Ijancaster F.rpress.
The incomes derived from some of the
Pennsylvania ooal lands are enormous. Mr.
Hecahor, formerly a merchant of New York,
has on income of fifty thousand dollars a
ynar from this source; that of Henry C.
Carey ('he wriUr on Political Economy) is
put down at tVe samo figure. Swain, one of
tho editors and proprietois of the Philadelphia
ledger ('uoky fellow!) holds, in connection
with his partners, ooal lands which rent f>ir
eighty thousand dollars a yoar ! A Mr. New
kirk has one hundred and fifty thousand a
year, and a Mr. Wether be two hundred thou
sand a year! Pennsylvania nabohry would
compare favorably with that of East India.
The population of Montgomery, Alabama,
is 6 095
Q7" The Daily Era can bo had every morning
ut the Periodical Stand of Mr. J. T. Uatks, Ex
change, Philadelphia; alio, the Woekly Era.
UT* Mr. Jam km Em.iott i* authorized to receive
and roeoipt for aubioriprion* and advertisement* for
tho Daily and the Weekly Ni*lio?al Era, in Cincin
nati and vicinity.
WASHINGTON, D. C.
TUESDAY, AI'KIL 18, 1854.
THE GADSDEN TBEATY.
Wo have simply to record tho (lof>-at of thiH
isio inure in the Senate. It was not only too
corrupt in fact, hut even in appearance it was
too had, to roceivo tho sanction of the Senate.
The vote in nnderHtood t<> havo beon 28 to 18.
CONQJ11S3.
In tho Sonata, to-day, tho prominent event
was tli? presentation uf a petition froui a num
ber of American Jews, who ask tho protection
of our Government for ail our couutiymon
abroad, in tho exercise of tho religious privi
leged tboy enjoy at homo. We approve of the
bentimontd expressed by Mr. CafM, on thin oc
casion, and we trust bo w ill not lone night of
the great purpose lie ha* avowed until he shall
witnrt* its aohiovouiont.
In the House of Roprodontative.", the bill
increasing tho compensation oi the employ
con in tho Djpartmonts in Washington,
firmed a subject of much oxcilcmcnt. It was
op^od by somo members because of particu
lar feature*, and in toto by others. It was,
however, finally passed. There is littlo doubt
that tho Senate will tigreo to the amonduicnts
made by tho House; none, wo presume, that
Ibu ouautment will reooivo tho Executive sanc
tion. Tho House, in Committee, do voted somo
timo to tho consideration of tho bill making
appropiiations in aid of the National Military
Academy.
1HE SOUTHERN COMMERCIAL CONVENTION.
An annual Southern Commercial Conven
tion has come to bo ono of tho " peculiar insti
tutions" of tho South. In tho Northern and
Western States, in which production and ex
change aro carried on in conformity to natural
laws, and men are left free to take oare of
their own interests, individual intelligence and
enterprise produce etfeots which aro attempted
to bo accomplished in the South by extensivo
combinations.
Slave labor, being mere brute force, without
intelligence, versatility, forecast, or tho hope
of reward which nerv< s and elevates the labor
of a free man, can bo rendered most profitable
in simple forms of industry, and naturally
tends to tho production of one or two great
staples. The owner of slaves finds it easier
and cheapor with such labor as ho can com
mand to raise tobacco, or indigo, or rice, or
cotton, or Bugar, and depend, for tho infinite
variety of articles entering into his consump
tion, upon exchanges, than to attempt to diver
sify Jiis enterprise, by using one portion of his
slaves in farming, another, in planting, anoth
er, in tho mechanic arts, another, in manufac
ture^ and anothor, in trading.
Of course there aro exceptions to tho remark,
but, as a general rule, tho peculiar nature of
slave labor compels the country in which it
prevails to the adoption of simplo modes of cul
ture, and prevents the diversification of indus
try.
To oountcraot these workings of tho system
of Slave Labor, slaveholders aro constantly
driven to extraordinary expedients. Violating,
by thoir fundamental institutions, tho laws of
nature, they would attempt by artificial con
trivances to prevent tho effccls of such violation,
and secure results which tan l?e accomplished
only by oonformity to those laws.
It is curious to turn back to tho colonial his
tory of Virginia and Maryland, and find the
planters even at that time pursuing the same
policy, substantially, which is so }K>pnlar among
them now?the principal difference being, that
then they sought by legislative enactment
what now they aim at by convention resolves.
During tho first contury of their existence,
all kind* of experiments were tried, to check I
tho over production of their staples, to stimulate
tho production of article* of general oonsump
tion, to encourage the growth of the mechanic
arts, to build up towns, to bring into existence
a navigation interest, and to ostablish direct
trade in their own bottoms with Kngland and
Europe?in other words, to d.? just what their
Southern Commercial Conventions have been
laboring for, during the la?t twenty years.
Among tho first statu to* in Virginia, was
ono to encournge the growth of corn, by leav
ing its price unrestricted, while all other prioes
were to remain as fixed by proclamation ; and
it wai provided, that in every parish there
should be a public granary, to which each
planter, over eighteen, was to bring yearly a
bushel of oom, to be disposed of for the public
use; and three sufficient men were to be sworn,
in each parish, to see that every Miller planted
and tended corn enough for his family /#
In 1832, a law was passod, to limit the pro
duction of tobacco, their groat staple, and to
raise the price, and also requiring every planter
to cultivate two acres of corn per poll.
* In 1639, the planters still devoting their at
tention chiefly to the culture of tobaeco, the
price went down to three pence, and thereupon
the Assembly enacted that half of the crop
should be burned, and that tho crops of tho
two succccding years should bo kept still
smaller!
In 1843, legislative attempts to diversify the
industry of the Colonies were renewed, and
premiums off?red to the producers of potashes,
soap, salt, flax, hemp, and cotton.
All these attempts failed. In 1880, it is ro
cordod, the tohacoo culture still attracted the
greater portion of cmpital and labor, and the
result was, the dependence of the colonists
upon others for their supplies of necessaries
Cloth was manufactured successfully in New
Kngland, but nothing of the kind was at
tempted in Virginia; and tho maritime char
acter of the former was alroady recognised,
while, notwithstanding tho efforts of the As.
setnbly of Virginia to encourage ship building
and navigation, only one or two small vessels
were owned in that colony.
In 1882, the Assembly pa"sed various acts,
* Me? Hil<tr*th's CnlonUI History for many mrh
exarapki.
to compel a diversification of industry??n
foroiug the planting of mulberry tree*, offer
ing premiums for silk, for ships built, for wool
len and linen cloth, home-made-. Two aore*
of ooro, or one of wheat, wasj to be cultivated
for every tithable; and a tan-house, with cur
riers and ahoomakers attached, wan to be
established at the publ^) exponso in oaoh
county, hided being received at a fixed price,
to be manufactured into Hhoos, and Hold at
ratea prescribed in the statute.
1 he next effort was, to forco the growth of
towna. An aot was passed, for converting the
hamlet of Jamestown into a town of thirty-two
brick houses, each of the counties being re
quired to build one house, for which laborers
might be impressed, at certain rates. To on
oourago the building of the others, each indi
vidual who built a house was to receive from
the public ton thousand pounds of tobacco, and
all porsona settling in the towu wore to be
privileged from arrest for two years. This
scheme waa extended so as to embrace projects
of other towns.
In 1666, an arrangement was effected, by
which aota were passed by the Atsomblies of
both Maryland aud Virginia, ordering "a ces
sation," that is, an omission to plant tobacco
for one year, so as to raise its price ! The pro
prietary of Maryland vetoed the Maryland act,
and the project failing, new legislative efforts
were made for the production of manufactures.
" Every county was to set up a loom, at its own
expense, and to pvovido a weavor."
lu 1682, tho price of tobacco had fallen to a
penny, and the Colonists could scarcely buy
common necessaries. New efforts wero made
, to counteract tho natural workings of their
rude system of labor. Towns, trade, and man
ufactures, wero to be built up by legislative
cnuotrnent. Rach county was directed to buy
fifty acres of land, and lay it ont for a town
and store-house; all tobacco and other export
able goods wero to l?e carried to these towns
for sale and shipment, and all imported goods
to be there landed.
Another " cessation " was demanded by the
planters, but, as tho Assembly proceeded no
further than to petition the King to order it,
the planters assembled tumultuously, and cut
up the tobacco plants.
And so they staggered along, devoting them
selves to the cultivation of a singlo staple, when
their soil was susceptible of every variety of
product ; and fostering a system of labor, the
legitimate effects of which they constantly
labored, although in vain, to counteract by un
reasonable legislation.
The policy of the Colony is reproduced in
the State. Ono might imagine that the spirits
of the old legislators, who fancied they could
> increase tho woalth of a country hy destroy
ing half its crops, or regulate tho natural laws
of production and trade, by legislative declara
tion, had taken possesion of the politicians
who figure in these Southern Conventions.
For the last twenty-five years, theso Conven
tions havo been resolving that tho slave States
are superior to the free States in natural re
sources; that their labors ought to be diversi
fied; that they ought to supply their own
broadstuffs, do their own manufacturing, have
their own shipping, carry on their own trade;
but their resolves have been as fruitlem as
were tho old colonial enactments of kindrod
character.
As a pretty fair illustration of (ho influence
of Conrention-declaratims of opinion on tho
question of direct trad.? with Rurope, take the
following facte:
imports.
In 1840. In 1852.
In the Slave States, Si 9,858,701 824,722,573
In the Free States. 87,283,218 183,575,342
Increase in twelve years :
Free States, $96,290,124
Slave States, 4 863,872
Difference in favor of tho froe States;
In 1840, $67 425,507
j In 1852, ....I.. 158850,769
EXPORTS.
In 1840 In 1852.
From Slave States, $77,510,283 $97,296,256
From Free StaU<s, 54 565 863 113,362,713
Increase in twelve years:
From Free States, . . . $58,786,850
From Slave States, . . . 19 785,973 ...
Difference against tlio Froe States :
In 1840, $22 934,420
Diffcrettoe in favor of?
In 1850, 16,066,457
So muob for the direct trade on which these
Slavebolding politicians have resolvod on so tre
mendously. In twelve years, the Free States
have increased their imports ninety nix millions,
and tho Slave States, not qute five millions.
In 1840, the import trade of the former was
sixty-seven and a half millions greater, in
1852, nearly ono hnndrod and fifty-nine millions
greater than the import trade of the latter.
In twelve years, the Free States increased
their exports noarly fifty-nine millions, the
Slave Statea, nearly twenty millions.
in 1840, the exports of tho latter exceoded
those of tbo former by twonty-throo millions;
in 1850, they wore sixteen millions less ! And,
let it lie remembered, the export as well as im
port trade of the South is oarriod on ohiefly
in Northern bottoms, by Northern men.
In tho Convention that has just adjourned,
tho subject of direct trade ooeupied rather a
subordinate plaoo, the attention of the mem
bers l?eing engrossed by projects for railroad
communication with the Pacific, and oom
meroo with the oountry of the A mason. On
the day before adjournment, the Committee on
Business reported resolutions to the effect, first,
that tho
" Pnoific railroad project was of vital neces
sity to tho prosperity of the Southern States.
The second resolution declares that the route
should be commenced on the Mississippi, be
tween St. l^>uis and New Orleans, and should
run through Texas, connecting with all the
Northern and Southern roads. The third
urges that the Gadsden treaty, so far as it se
cures the right of way through Mexioo, ought
to lie adopted. Tho fonrth recommends a
combination of the Southern States for the
construction of the railroad, independent of
the National Government. The filth recom
mends tho incorporation yf the road by the
Legislature of Virginia, and subsequently by
the Legislatures of all the Southern States.
The sixth provides for the appointment of a
committee to prepare a charter, and to procure
its passage by Virginia and oilier Southern
States
''All the resolutions were adopted except
that in relation to the treaty. Mr. Gadsden
addressed the Convention, and indirectly inti
mated that the treaty watt prepared to aeoure
a route for the South through Mexioo He
had heard a rumor that the Northern Senators
had combined to defeat that part of the reso
lution ottered to the Convention. The resolu
tion wad subsequently withdrawn by the com
mittee. A resolution was adopted, providing
for the encouragement of direot trade with
trope for some of the Southern porte by legis
lative assistance. Treaties to secure the re
duction of duties imposed on tobacco and hemp
by foreign countries wero reoommended; aftor
which, the Convention adjourned until the fol
lowing day."
Whether these resolutions will be more effi
oaoious thau resolved of kindred character
heretofore adopted, or than the primitive en
actment* of oolonial times, remains to be Been.
But, there is one"tendency of such action as is
proposed by tho Convention, that must not be
overlooked,?it is, the tendency to train the
slaveholders of tho different States to act to
gether-?to knit tkem in a compact, sectional or
ganization, for purely sectional purposes.
LITERARY NOTICES
Putnam's Monthlt. April, 1854. New York: Q.
P. Putnam A Co. For sale by Franck Taylor, Pa.
avonue, Wa?hington, D. C.
This exceedingly attractive Monthly contains
a Poem, entitled tho Two Angels, (from the
pen, wo believe, of Longfellow,) worth in itself
tho prico of half a dozon volumes of the Maga
zine.
Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine. March, 1854.
New York : Leonard Scott A Co. For sale by
Taylor A Maury, Pa. aveniio, Washington, D. C.
The Russian Question, of course, is discussed
in this Magazine, as in nil the British periodi
cals ; but wo are not aware that anything new
is brought to light. It contains, Itesides, sev
eral political articles, spicy enough, but not of
tho liberal'port. Its literature is as usual.
Graham's American Montiii-y Magazine. April,
1854. Philadelphia
Among the contributors fco this number wo
notice J. T. Hendlcy, Jus. Russell Lowell, John
(}. Saxe, and other popular writers.
The Nkukaska Question. New York: Redficld,
Nassau street.
Wo have received from the publisher, a
large pamphlet, with this title, comprising tho
speeches in the United StatoB Senate, on the
Nebraska Bill, of Messrs. Douglas, Chase,
Smith, Kverett, Wade, Badger, Seward, and
Sumner; togelhor with a history of the M is
souri Compromise, Daniel Webster's memorial
in regard to it, a history of tho Annexation of
Texas, of tho organization of Oregon Territory,
and of tho Compromise of 1850.
Tho reader sees at once that it is a valuable
compilation.
The Lamplighter. Boston: John P. Jewctt A Co.
This volume has been warmly commended
by tho Press, and has had a great run among
the People. It is a story, full of incident, with
lino shades of character, many'passages of
highly dramatic interest,- pervaded by a health
ful spirit, and gratifying the interested reader
with a most pleasing denouement.
A Month in England. By Henry T. Tuckorman
Kttlfirld, Now York. For sale by Taylor A Maury
Washington, D C.
Of oourse, Mr. Tuckerman could not expect
to give in* much new information concerning
Old Kngland, but he ha.4 a very agreeable way
of looking at the Present in tho light of the
Past, and giving his improssions in a style not
cumbrous or elaborate.
Cotton is Kino ?Charles Diokens, in alato
number of his tiouvkold Words, after enumer
ating the Rtriking facts of Cotton, says:
" Let any social or physical convulsion visit
the United States, and Kngland would feel tho
slunk from Laud's F.nd to John O'Gront's.
Tho lives of nearly two millions of our coun
trymen aro dependent upon tho ootton crops
of America ; their destiny may be said, without
any sort of hyperbole, to hang upon a thread.
" Should any dire calamity befall the land
of cotton, a thousand of our merohant ships
would rot idly in dock; ten thousand mills
must stop thflir busy looms, and two million
mouths would starve for lack of food to feed
them.''
How many non-slaveholders elsewhere aro
thus interested in the products of slaves ' Is
it not worthy the attention of gonu'me philan
thropists to inquire whether cotton cannot te
profitably cultivated by free labor ? The ques
tion is of easy solution. At all events, "the
laborer," no matter what his color, u is worthy
of his hire."
Mr. Keitt, of South Carolina, in a reoent
speech in the House of Representatives, took
the proper distinction between popular liberty
and popular tyranny, and said : " Of all tyran
nies, popular tyranny is the mnet base and
devastating, because its appetites are the most
gr<ws and inapjieaeable, its life the most con
vulsive, and its note the most cursed with crime
and wrong. Popular tyranny is popular law
lessness and publio pillage." People do not al
ways " mark tho difference."?Alex. (Sat.
It is pleasant to know that Mr. Koitt and
the Alexandria (raz'tte do mark the difference.
The only popular tyranny we have known, is
that of literal slavery. All other speoios of
tyranny aro unpopular. Popnlar tyranny,
therefore, is indeed " the most base and devas
tating," as onr Southern friends should know
by this time. Its appetites are " gross and in
appeasable/' and its acts are "cursed with
crime and wrong." Mr. Keitt and the (iazette
have been undor a Angular delusion, to imagine
they wero lookiag apon a j>ortrait while a mir
ror stood liefore them !
CoNNCCTttnrr Ei.ection.?The result of the
election is officially announoed as follows: for
(iovemor, Dutton, (vVhig,) 19,4?5; Ingham,
(Democrat,) 28,538; Chapman, (Temperance.)
10,<>72; Hooker, (Froe-Soiler.) 2,500. Majority
against Ingham, 4,090.
In New Philadelphia, recently, at a
?mull party, it was remarked that a certain
young man ouuht to have a wife. His reply
was, " I would have if I eould fled anybody to
have me." A young lady present, with whom
he had never spent an hour, said I will "
The preacher was sent for, and the next paper
contained tho fallowing announcement: Mar
ried, on Sunday evening, 19th Inst., by Rev.
Mr. Bartholomew, Mr. Morgan Buthler and
Miss Mary Bartholomew, all of this town.
Mrs. Nathaniel Long was killed, on the 221
nil, at Fr<?g Creek, Florida, by a. rattlesnake.
The most revolutionary artiele is bread , Iwr,
on the least rumor of an outbreak, it is in
variably the flrtt thing to rise.
C0H8PIBACY CAJBE AT PITMBUMH.
I A lawyer named Hmwd, and three other*
named Davis, MorriB, and Lawfton, were ohar
ged with the otfonoe of leading the agents of the
Pennsylvania and Ohio Railroad Companies,
and one or two other1 corporations, to violate
the law against taking and pawing bank notes
for lew than $5 of other States; their object
was to sue for the penalty. They oonfcinued
their operations until the penalty in all the
cases amounted to about seventy thousand dol
lars, whon they became informers against the
companies.
For this conspiracy they have been indicted
and tried, and on Saturday last Judge Mo
Clure charged the jury strongly for the prose
cution, and nfter an almence of three hours
tlifly returned with a verdict of guilty. -Mr
Stokes, in behalf of the prosecution, moved an
immediate sentence, when it was found that
the defendants had tjed. Their bail was for
feited, and warrauts issued for their arrest
Hazen and Davis were subsequently arrested
and committed to jail, but Morris and Lawson
have not yet been found.
CUBA IN PARLIAMENT.
An interesting debate in the British Parlia
ment upon the war message, and a discussion
upon the relations of Great Britain and the
United States to Cuba, are the chief points of
interest in tho news from Groat Britain. In
the course of the discussion, a Mr. Baillio made
this remark:
" Most assuredly, unless she fulfilled her
engagements with us, and took care tUat Cuba
should no longer be tho grand, and indeed the
solo, seat of tho- slavo trade, which she had
undertaken to suppress, sho could not fairly
complain if England took no measures to pre
vent Cuba from failing into the hands of the
Americans."
To which Sir James Graham officially re
sponded :
"Sir J. Graham said, that though he could
not at all concur in tho proposition, that, by
way of collateral argument, wo were to hand
over C'ubu to the United States, the ondeavors
of our cruisers, both on the ooast of. Cuba and
on the coast of Africa should bo, if possible,
augmented, and ovory means used for securing
the real co-operation of tho authorities of
Cuba." [Hear.]
Mr. Cobden took up tho defenoe of his oqI
loague, and made tho following emphatic dec
laration:
" Without saying one word about the expe
diency of giving Cuba to the United States, or
assisting that country to tako possession of the
island, be thought it would be greatly for the
interests of hnmanity, if the United States, or
auy other Power that would altogether dis
countenance tho slave trade, should posses* it"
(Cheers J
We agroo with Mr. Cobden, if the United
States are disposed to discountenance the slave
trade in every form!
THE BLACK WABJUOB CASE.
The Now Orleans Crescent considers the doc
uments receutly laid beforo the world by the
Cuban authorities as clearly establishing?
1. '1 hat the seizure and confiscation of the
Black Warrior were, under the port regulations
ot Havana, legal and just.
2. That Captain Bulloch, bis consignees,
Tyng & Co., and our consul, admit the fact
that it was legal.
3. That they ouly in reality contended that
they should be let otf, 1st, because thoy were
ignorant of the law and language ; 2d, l>coauee
they had done so before; 3d, because they had
no intentions of fraud.
4. That to this thu Spaniard replies, '? It was
your business to kuow our regulations, that you
might comply with them; besides, we fur
nished you them in English.' 2 " We never
suspended our laws; and if you have beforv
been violating them, it was without our knowl
edge." 3d. "We have no laws that are gui
dod by men's intentions. Wo can only oonsid
or th. ir acts."
5. That the British steamers h:vvo always
submitted to precisely what wan required of
the Black Warrior.
6. That while the language and tho state
ment-! of Bullock, Tyng, and our oonsul, have
l>ecn violent and denunciatory, they have been
holding to the Cuban authorities only the lan
?juage of apology and supplication. Thus they
were at onoe encouraging the Spaniard to per
sist in his course, and exciting our Government
and poople to mnke war upon him lor that
coarse.
7. That tho owners, by submitting to tako
back their ship and cargo, confessed that they
had donn wrong in abandoning them,
8 That they havo siuce still further givon
up their wholo case, by a fact now brought to
light: that they have addressed a petition to
the Queen, supplicating her to remit, as of her
graiw, the fine of $6,000 imposed on them.
Soberly, alter this, wo cannot s*e that there
is loft a single vestige ot the case.
This, from a New Orleans paper, is rather
significant.
Qjp*Tlio London Times circulates more than
three-fifths of all the daily papers in Great
Britain, and is increasing, while almoet all
others are diminishing.
Anti Nebraska Mketinu at Trenton ?
A very largo and enthusiastic anti-Ncbrafka
meeting was held at Trenton, Now Jersey, on
the 14th. I). Loder was appointed Chairman
R. C. Bidlville, Secretary, aud ten Vice Presi
dent*. Resolutions were adopted strong ano
emphatic in their tone, agitinst the Nebraska
bill, denouncing Senator Douglas, and applaud
ing Oharles-Skelton, tho Representative from
that district. Judge Randolph, Rev. Isaac V.
Brown, and Lewis R. Parker, were tho speak
era. The mooting was without distinction ot
party, and was made up of about half of eneh
of the groat parties.
The next morning, an effigy of Senator Doug
las was found suspended from tho telegraidi
wires, and ordered to bo cut down by tne
Mayor. *
The Mysterious Moskkts.?Tho barque
Graposhot, with George Law's muskets on
Ward, was at last advices lying ?t the Balise.
mouth of tho Miwsisnippi. Wie New Orleans
Delta says that the Spanish Consul in that
oity was so alarmed by her arrival that be im
mediately chartered a vessel, and despatched
intelbgenoo of tho fact to Cuba.
Baltimore American.
The CtmAN Emancipation Scheme appears
to be steadily progressing in its development.
Tho Captain General has now under Consider
ation a plan of sendirg a Special Commissi<Mrior
to the plantations on the island, to report upon
the number of nogroes held to servitude, for
which there Is no legal bill of sale?that is, il
licitly imported Africans?With a view to their
ultimate emancipation.
The Irish Exti.es in the United States,
Mitchel, Meagher, and Doheny, aro violently
ridiculed and abused by a Dublin newspapet
called the Telegrapk^mk'tuk doubts their pre
tence to the ohampmnship of Irish nationality.
CONGRESS.
THIRTY-THIRD CONOKtSS?HRST SICSNIOK.
Senate, Tuemlny, April 18, 1854.
Mr. Everett presented the memorial of the
Amerioan Statistical Association, praying that
'hey ho furnished with copies of uii documents
published by order of Congress.
Mr. Sumner presented remonstrances from
Windsor county, Vermont, against any pay
ment by Congress for the Amistad olaim.
Mr. Cooper presented three remonstrances,
and the proceedings of two publio meetingH of
citizens of the State of Pennsylvania, against
the repeal of the Missouri Compromise. V
Mr. Jones, of Iowa, submitted a resolution
directing an inquiry an to the exfiedieney of
establishing a marine hospital at Dubuque,
Iowa. Adopted.
Mr. Dodge reported a bill for the relief of
the Burlington University, Iowa; and thesamo
wan considered and panted.
Mr. Cass. It affords me mnch pleasure to
present a petition from a number of American
citizens of the Hebrew faith, who desire to
unite with their Christian fellow-citizens in
asking the interposition of the Government to
Becure to all our oountrvmen abroad the rights
of religious worship. This Union, in order to
promote the accomplishment of this great ob
ject, is a happy illustration- of the spirit of
equality and toleration, which marks our in
stitutions. Persecuted for oonturies' with bit
ter hostility, subjected to a tyranny both civil
and religious, more oppressive than that en
dured by any other people, driven from the
promised land grunted to their-f irefathers, the
separate existence, to this day, of tho children
of Israel, is a perpetual miracle, establishing
the truth of their history as well as of our reli
gion, foretold as it was in the earliest period,
and seen as it is stillin the latest.
In their migrations they have at length
reaohed a continent, unknown to the patriarchs,
by whose rivers they may sit *down without
weeping, to change tho' language of their
Psalmist, even when remembering Zion, and
whero tho law secures equal rights to all, bo
they Jew or Gentile. Exposed as the members
of this persuasion yet are in portions of Europe
and America, both Catholic and Protestant, to
the most illiberal prejudices and to religions
disabilities, tho position of our citizens abroad,
who belong to it, has peculiar claims to tho
consideration and interposition of the Govern
ment. Besides their legal right -to equal pro
tection, there is no portion of our population
whoso peacoahlo and law-abiding oonduct bet
ter proves than theirs does that they are well
entitled to all the privilegos secured to every
American by our system of government.
I repeat, sir, I am gratified that they are
taking part in this great movement; and I
trust that, ero long, they, as well as ail our
other citizens sent by the accidents of lifl? to
foreign countries, may receive the benefit t.f it.
I move the reference of the memorials to tho
Committee on Foreign Afl'.iiis.
Agreed to.
On motion by Mr. Walker, the Senate pro
ceeded to tho consideration of the bill from the
House of Representatives, called the florae
stead act. ' ?
Mr. Pettit read a brief statement of the rea
sons which would induce him to support tho
bill.
It was then postponed till to-morrow.
Oil uiotiou by Mr. Evans, the Senate took
up tho bill to settle the claims of the officers of
the Revolutionary army; and after some de
bate thereon, it was postponed till Wednesday
ilext.
The Senate then proceeded to the considera
tion of Executivo business.
House of Representative,*, April 18, 1854.
The Civil and Diplomatic Appropriation bill
came up for consideration, on the motion made
yesterday by Mr. Jones, of Tennessee, to re
oonsider the vote ordering it to bo eMgroaoed
for a third reading.
Mr. Robbins expressed his desire to aceept
the amendment Mr. Jones wished to propose,
namely, to insert a proviso limiting the in
creased oooipensation of olerks to the present
year.
The Speaker said this eonld only be done by
unanimous consent.
Mr. Clingman objected, being determined to
oppose the whole bill.
The House determined to reeont-idor the bill
Mr. Jones's amendment was then proposed
Mr. Cobb moved to strike out the clause re
quiring every appointment to be made from
the grado next below that in whioh tho vacan
cy occurs.
Mr. Rohhiris expressed his aequiesconoc in
this amendment. '
Mr. Sage, of New York, stated that the clerks
of the navy yard at Brooklyn desired an in
crease of compensation, and were equally en
titled to it with thns^ of Washington. He
wished to propose ao amendment to that effect.
Mr. Phillips spoke in fiver of Mr. C..bb's
motion. He oontended that a new principle
in civil afftirs was proposed to be intrmfocod,
that of instituting the military mode of promo
tion. He thought, alee, the custom Inn wo at
Mobile ought to be included in a law it-creas
ing the compensation of clerks ; and occluded
by poving that the bill bo referred to the
Committee of the Whole.
Mr. Smith, of Virginia, called for th(f pre
vious question on the motion to refer.
Mr. Whooler, of Nsw York, moved to lay
the bill on the table; which motion did not
prevail.
The question was then taken en the motion
to refer the bill to the Committee of the Whole;
which was decided in the negative?yeas 59,
nays 87.
The motion of Mr. Jones, of Tennessee, was
then adopted.
The question on Mr. (Yhh's motion relating
to promotions then coming up, Mr. Cobb de
manded the previous question, whioh demand
was sustained: when
Mr. Pratt moved to lay the bill on the table,
[ and called for the yeas and nays on his tn<>
I tion. Decided in the negative?yeas 58 nays
84.
The bill was then read a third time.
Mr. Rohbius moved to reconsider tho v.-te
last taken, and to lay that motion on the table.
Mr. Pratt called for tho ayes and no.*s on the
motion to lay on tho table; which were nrdor
I ed. and resulted in euMaining it?yeas 83, nays
GO.
Mr. Pratt moved lhat the House shonld go
into Committee of tho Whole on the state of
the Union, and demanded the yeas and nays.
The yeas and nays were not ordered, and the
| motion did not prevail.
I Mr. Pratt made similar motion* for an ad
journment. which resulted in like manner.
Tho main question was then ordered.
Mr. Bridges called for the v^as and nays
which wrro ordered; and the bill was finally
parsed--yeas 7?, nays 68.
Tho title was then adopted, as follows:
An aot to amend the third section of the set
! making appropriations lor the civil and diplo
matie expenses of the Government for the vear
1854.
Mr. Lane, of Oregon, by consent, introduced
a bill, of which previous notice had been given,
| to enable the People of Oregon to adopt a
Constitution and toim a State Government,
and admitting them into the Union. Referred
j to the Committee on Territories.
i On motion of Mr. Pratt, the House resolved
itself into Committee of the Whole on the state
of the Union, and proceeded to the considerr
l tion ol the bill making appropriations for the
| support of the Military Aoadcmy at West
I Point.

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