OCR Interpretation

Daily national era. [volume] (Washington, D.C.) 1854-1854, May 23, 1854, Image 3

Image and text provided by Library of Congress, Washington, DC

Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn86053546/1854-05-23/ed-1/seq-3/

What is OCR?

Thumbnail for

i he .Senate was not in bettsiou yesterday.
1 he House of Representatives was engaged
in the effort to elect a Speaker. At 9 o'clock,
when we heard from the Capitol, the members
were thus employed, with the probability of a
long uight session before them.
thk organization OF THE HOVgB
It is now more than ,five weeks since the
members of the House df Representatives met
in this city. Ihe whole of that time with the
deduction of two, or, three holidays, invariably
taken, has been occupied in the fruitless effort
to elect a Speaker. Ihis is a spectacle, which,
at the first aspect, presents no encouraging view
to patriots. It would indicate a state of things
from which foreign observers, unacquainted
with our peculiar system of government, would,
and will draw the most woeful auguries; and
yet, in real point of fact, there is nothing in
this continued non-organization of one half
the significance attributed to it by the super
ficial. The fiscal year does not expire until
the 30th of June next. Ample appropriations
to carry on the regular operations of govern
ment, until that time, have been made, and
while the failure to organize may produce a
pecuniary pressure in Washington, and elicit
the financiering talent of hptel keepers and
members of Congress, its effect upon the gene
ral interests of the country will be, and, is
comparatively unfelt. There is, in the elements
of American prosperity, the peculiar feature
of being mainly independent of governmental
action, l'he weal, or, woe of individuals?of
the general mass of the people?is much less
connected with the legislation of the country
than is generally supposed. Bad laws would cer
tainly injure it, but it may well be questioned
whether the failure to pass any laws at all,
would produce half the serious consequences
which seem generally anticipated. It is true
that the organization of the house is important,
and, if possible, ought to be effected by any
proper means. No honest and practicable
effort, to accomplish that object, ought to be left
untried. Our whole purpose iu the above
suggestions, is simply to relieve women and
children and croakers?three classes of the com
munity equally entitled to have delusions dis
sipated and relieved, from those terrible ap
prehensions which now threaten their intellects.
We conscientiously assure all such, that in
our deliberate opinion, were Congress uot
to organize for the next ninety days, not
one of the people, unless, he had a claim
before that body could find out the fact from
any impression upon the country. We also
hesitate not to aver that Jieither wheat nor
corn, nor tobacco, nor cotton, nor anything
else which farmers have to sell would be af
fected one copper in its price. If Congress
will only let alone the great and general inte
rests of the country, those interests will be
much more apt to prosper than if subject to
the tinkering of a body of gentlemen as amal
gamated aud discordaut as the present House
of Representatives. Entertaining these views,
we cordially approve the resolution of the
Democratic caucus which announces adherence
to their original nominee?not being of those
who regard organization, at this time, as para
mount to all other considerations, nor entirely
satisfied that the non-organization of the House
for a while would produce either civil war,
secession, or famine.
But we have another view of this matter to
present, as connected with the Democratic
members. It is well known that this journal
while uncompromisingly democratic is not yet J
the slave, or tool of any set of politicians?
that it adheres to principle and to men only so
long as they adhere to principle. But we can
not refrain from expressing our admiration at
the noble stand exhibited by the Democracy.
"The Northern Democrats stand as firm upon
the platform as the Democrats from Alabama,
or Louisiana. Both stand upon the same great
constitutional principle. Nor is this strange.
The doctrineof the strict construction of the pow
ers of Congress is the ligature, which, stronger
than that binding the Siamese twins, binds to
gether Northern and Southern Democrats, and
causes similar motives of patriotism to ani
mate both. And to the operation of this saving
principle is to be traced the fact that in every
sectional struggle, the Democracy of the North
have presented a strong element of conserva
tism. Let us illustrate. Opposition to slavery,
as an abstract question, fs, perhaps, a sent
iment with many true Northern Democrats.
They would gladly see it eradicated. They
would perhaps desire to prevent its extension
into the lerritories; and these gentlemen
can be relied upon to maintain all the rights
of the South because of the doctrine of strict !
construction. Under that restraining doctrine,
Democrats, however anxious to prevent &e
extension of slavery, cannot consistently vote
for Wilmot provisoes, or resist the introduction
into the Union of a State because it recognizes
slavery. The doctrine of strict construction
limits the powers of government, and by thus
limiting, arrests in its incipiencv all legislation
tending to array one section against the other.
It protects each interest from a combination of
other interests, and it affords a common plat
form upon which all can stand without any
sacrifice of sentiment or feeling in reference to
abstract questions. While conceding the
greatest latitude of individual speculation and
opinion upon abstract propositions disconnect
ed with legislation, it sternly insists upon a
rigid adherance by all the departments of gov
ernment to the powers granted in the Consti
tution, and the protection from aggression of all
the rights that that instrument recognizes and
guaranties. To the " saving grace" we use
the phrase in no irreverent spirit?of the prin
ciple of strict construction, is, in our deliberate
judgment, to be attributed the present exist
ence of our form of government. It is the
only principle which can preserve a national
party, or prevent the success of sectional or
ganizations. It has preserved the nationality
of the Democracy during the late storm of
fanaticism which has swept over the North,
and has enabled it to present teethe country in
this age of faction and isms the noble specta
cle of a great party standing firm and un
yielding, without regard to sections, upon a
high constitutional principle. W hile our friends
staud thus proudly upon principle and patriot-.
ianj, they need pay no attention to the carpings
which would hold thein responsible for the
non-organization of the House of Kepresenta
tires. Adherance to their principles is a mat
ter not to be sacrificed to a fancied or real tem
porary expediency. Out of 234 members of
Congress, there are but 76 Democrats?leaving
158 members opposed to them. How can the
Democracy be held responsible for the action
of the House, when the opposition is more
than two to one against them?
In our last issue we briefly referred to this
document, postponing comment until we could
give it a more careful perusal. The favorable
impression, received from a first and hasty pe
rusal, has been fully confirmed by a secoud
and deliberate reading. What it treats of ia
presented in a manner so lucid aud cogent,
that none can misapprehend and few can differ
from most of the positions taken, whose minds
were not already made up to differ from what
ever might be found in it.
Our foreign relations are presented in a
clcar, concise narrative, giving such clear in
formation that none need be at a loss to deter
mine on which side right preponderates. The
course of England in the Central American
and in the recruiting matter is treated as it
should be?that is, it shows a determination on
the part of England to try how far she may
impose upon our reluctance to have any diffi
culty with her. Knowing, as she does, the
love of peace which characterizes this country,
so great, in fact, that numerous classes oppose
any war, no matter what the necessity, she acts
upon the supposed assurance that no wrong,
however great, or any aggression whatever, if
not inflicted directly upon our shores or peo
ple, can possibly induce us to take a stand, and j
adopt a line of activity to vindicate any other
than personal wrongs to our people. It may be
a very proper question to determine whether,
towards a nation so presuming an England,
the wise course be not, that she should be
made clearly to understand that rather than
permit her to presume upon our u nwillingness
we should determine, in every case, to maintain,
alike by active operations as by resistance or
remonstrance, any encroachments on our rights
and policy. It may be much cheaper for our
posterity that we have a decisive war or two
with England, fully to impress upon her the
fact, that in no case will she be allowed to dis
regard our rights.
The history of the two nations is but a nar
rative of outrages, and attempted outrages, on
the part of England, and of endurance and re
monstrance on ours?the sooner these matters
are brought to an issue the better, or history
will continue to show the same disregard of our
rights and policy as heretofore.
We may take occasion to give a summary of
her constant course in this respeot, there being
scarcely a moment, from the days of the Revo
lution to the present hour, that we have not
had on hand some unadjusted cause of com
plaint on our side, while few or none exist on
the other. Let our people think of these
In regard to State-rights the message speaks
as a statesman should speak, looking to the
rights of all parties under the Constitution, and
properly censuring the course of all who disre
gard its high behests?the language is clear
and the arguments on this point convincing to
every candid mind.
The message has been received with a very
general approval. We could quote pages full of
authority, if every one could not, for himself,
come to a clear conclngion.
The President's inaugural and the Presi
dent's message present a rallying ground upon
which all national men can find ample room and
verge enough to stand upon.
The reports accompanying the message con
tain matter worthy of consideration, and we
shall take occasion to refer more particularly to
their several recommendations.
The reports of the War and Navy Depart
ments abound with matter for consideration,
and we hope they will receive that full and
candid examination and support to which they
seem so well entitled. They appear to have
been written with an earnest zeal for the wel
fare of those branches of the national defences
over which they preside, and present on broad
liberal grounds the sev/eral measures they com
mend to Congress.
This, for us, may be considered strong com
mendation, for we have made it a rule, an in
exorable rule, to condemn every Presidential
recommendation that we disapprove of. When
we blame, we mean to blame; when we praise,
we mean to praise.
In pursuance of previous notice, the Demo
cratic National Committee assembled in the
city of Washington, at twelve o'clock, m., on
the 8th day of January, 1856, and was called
to order by Hon. R. M. McLane, of Maryland,
chairman of the committee.
On motion of Hon. George W. Jones, of
Tennessee, Wm. H. English of Iudiana, and
George Read Riddle, of Delaware, were chosen
On motion of Mr. Henning, the roll was
called ; whereupon the following gentlemen an
swered to their names, viz:
Maine?Cyrus Moore.
New Hampshire?John H. George.
Vermont?David A. Smalley.
Massachusetts*-!}. F. Hallet.
Rhode Island?Welcome B. Sayles.
Connecticut?James T. Pratt.
New York?John P. Beekman.
New Jersey?Joseph C. Potts. ?
Pennsylvania?John Oakford.
Delaware?George R. Riddle.
Maryland?Robert M. McLane.
Virginia?William H. Clark.
North Carolina?Warren Winslow.
Alabama?C. C. Clay.
Mississippi?A. G. Brown.
Louisiana?John Slidell.
Ohio?Alfred P. Edgerton.
Kentucky?J. M. Elliott.
Tennessee?George W. Jones.
Indiana?Wm. H. English.
Illinois?Isaac Cook.
Michigan?T. F. Brodhead.
Florida?R. S. Mallory.
Iowa?George W. Jones.
WiBconsin?-Beni. 8. Henning.
California?J. W. Denver.
Mr. Brodhead moved that the meeting ad
journ until 12 o'clock to-morrow; which was
decided iu the negative.
Mr. Riddle moved that the committee now
proceed to fix the time for the meeting of the
next Democratic National Convention to nom
inate candidates for President and Vice Presi
dent of the United States; which motion was
decided in the affirmative.
Whereupon^ Mr. Jones, of Iowa, proposed
thtj first Monday in June next, at 12 o'clock, m.
Mr. lienning, the 4th of March;
Mr. Kiddle, the third Saturday in May; aud
Mr. English, the first Tuesday in June.
Mr. lleuning moved that the committee ad
journ until to-morrow : decided in the nega
Mr. Henning and Mr. Riddle having with
drawn their propositions fixing the day for the
meeting of the National Convention, the ques
tion was taken upon the proposition of Mr.
English, and was decided in the negative.
The motion of Mr. Jones, of Iowa, was then
unanimously adopted.
Mr. Cook moved that a committee of three
be appointed by the chair for the purpose of
carrying out the resolution of the last National
Convention in reference to procuring a hall,
arranging seats, &c., for the approaching con
vention ; whereupon the chair appointed the
following gentlemen said committee:
Mr. Edgerton, of Ohio.
Mr. Cook, 0( Illinois.
Mr. Broadhead, of Michigan.
Mr. lienning moved that the thanks of the
meeting be returned to the Hon. R. M. Mc
Lane for the highly satisfactory manner he
has discharged the duties of chairman; and
the vote being taken thereon by Mr. English,
one of the secretaries, was unanimously decided
in the affirmative.
Mr. Riddle, in behalf of the Jackson Demo
cratic Association of Washington city, invited
the committee to attend a meeting of said as
sociation this evening; which invitation, on
motion of Mr. Jones, of Iowa, was accepted.
On motion, the committee then adjourned.
Willam H. English,
Geokge Reed Riddle,
The Democratic National Convention.
In pursuance to a call, regularly made, the
" Democratic National Committee," consisting
of one from each State, appointed by the De
mocratic National Convention of 1852, to
" promote the Democratic cause," and " desig
nate the time of holding the next convention,"
met at the National Hotel, in the city of Wash
ington, at 12, m., on the 8th day of January,
1856, and, with entire unanimity,
lieaolved, That the Democratic National
Convention of 1856 meet in the city of Cincin
nati, at 12 o'clock, m., on the first Monday of
June next.
The National Convention of 1852 adopted
the following resolution as to the' number of
delegates to be chosen:
u Resolved, That, iu constituting future na
tional conventions of the Democratic party, in
order to secure the respective rights of the
States to their relative representation in such
convention, each State shall bo entitled to
twice the number of delegates that it has votes
in the electoral college, and no more; and that
the Democratic National Committee, in mak
ing arrangements for the next National Con
vention, provide such number of seats therein
for each State, aud secure the same to the dele
gates elect."
It is requested, with a view to the proper
arrangements of seats of members, that the
delegates from the several States or districts of
the United States to the next National Con
vention forward to Hon. A. P. Edgerton, Hicks
ville, Ohio, chairman of the committee of ar
rangements, their respective names and post
offices; and the Democratic papers throughout
the United States are requested to copy this
call, and the proceedings of the Democratic
National Committee.
By order: ROBERT M. McLANE,
William H. English,
Geo. Reed Riddle,
It h&9 been but a short time since the word,
Cuba, was on every lip. It is now scarcely ever
heard. Why is this so? Is Cuba less desira
ble to us than she was twelve months'ago?
or have we been intimidated by the menaces of
England and France t
Cuba, certainly, has not changed her geo
graphical position. She has not become less
important to us in a commercial point of view.
Iler people arc not less ardent in their earnest
aspirations after liberty, nor is she less op
pressed by despotic old Spain.
We fear that the too moderate course of
our Government in regard to Cuba has done
much to delay the acquisition of that Island,
and when we say so, wo wish it to be distinctly
understood that we do not allude to its acqui
sition by means of Filibustering enterprises.
We desire to acquire Cuba by right, honest,
legitimate means.
But a few months have passed since all of
us looked forward to the acquisition of Cuba
as a thing likely to occur in a short time. In
deed, the people at the North, South, East, and
West, ardently desired it. But we are con
strained to believe now, taking the President's
message as our guide, that the acquisition of
that island is an exploded idea. All that the
message says on tho subject is :
"With Spain, peaceful aelatiorls are still
maintained, and some progress has been made
in securing the redress of wrongs complained
of by this Government. Spain has not only
'disavowed and disapproved the canduct of the
officers who illegally seized and detained the
steamer Black Warrior at Havana, but has
also paid the sum claimed as indemnity for the
loss thereby inflicted on citizens of the United
"In consequence of a destructive hurricane,
which visited Cuba in 1844, the supreme au
thority of that island issued a decree, permit
ting the importation, for the period of six
months, of certain building materials and pro
visions, free of duty, but revoked it when about
half the period only had elapsed, to the injury
of citizens of the United States, who had pro
ceeded to act on the faith of that decree. The
Spanish government refused indemnification to
the parties aggrieved until recently, when it
was assented to, payment being promised to be
made so soon as the amount due can be ascer
"Satisfaction claimed for the arrest and
search of the steamer El Dorado has not yet
been accorded, but there is reason to believe
that it will be, and that case, with others, con
tinues to bo urged on the atteution of the
Spanish government. I' do not abandon the
aope of concluding with Spain some general
arrangement, which, if it do not wholly prevent
the recurrence of difficulties in Cuba, will ren
der them less/requent; and whenever they shall
occur, facilitate their inorce speedy settle
ment." ?
HUT We publish to day the report of the
Secretary of the Navy. Its length precludes
Wu The sleigh bells made merry music in
the streets yesterday, and hundreds of ladies
gentlemen indulged themselves in the pleasure
of sleighing.
i Commuiuraftir,
j Developments in the efforts that have been
I made to organize the House of Representatives
have placed the Southern Know-nothings in a
j new position before the country. They stand
separated from those who heretofore afiiliated
with them at the north?to a great extent at
least. The voting for a Speaker ha?, disclosed
the fact that on the slavery question the party
north and south cannot agree. Without har
monizing on that question, it is useless for the
party to expect a national organization. A
few good and true Northern men have stood
by the Know nothings of the South in occupy
pying conservative ground. With that excep
tion the National Know-nothing "party is con
fined to the Southern States.
The Southern Know-nothings have been
betrayed and abandoned by their Northern
brethren. The course of the Northern Know
nothings has been such as to preclude all hope
that they can be induced to occupy a national
position on the slavery question. The party
was not in existence six months, before
many of those composing it at the north
showed the cloven foot on this issue. We
were told at the South that it was an organiza
tion which had for its object, among other
things, that of putting down the agitators of
the slavery question, such as Seward, Greeley
Si Co., that it was to establish a national, con
servative party. But it was not long before
two of the most rampant Abolitionists in the
Union were elected to the Senate of the United
States from States having Know-nothing leg
islatures. They brought about, or permitted
to be brought about., the very evil they prom
ised to try and prevent. In the Northern
State elections they almost invariably cast
their votes for candidates holding Freesoil
In the very first national assemblage of the
party, they refused to place themselves upon
ground sufficiently conservative on the slavery
question for the Southern members of the
party to affiliate with them. The test was ap
plied in the late Philadelphia Know-nothing
convention. A resolution in reference to
slavery, satisfactory to Southern Know-no
things, it is true, was passed by that con
vention ; but it was passed by Southern votes.
1 he .Northern Know-nothing members subse-?
quently repudiated it, a number of them called
an opposition convention at Cincinnati and
took strong anti-slavery ground. The Know
nothing councils of nearly every Northern State
repudiated the Philadelphia platform, and a
large majority of the party throughout those
btates still persist iu refusing to sanction the
feature in the platform most important to the
At the opening of Congress the Northern
linow-nothing members of the House formally
separate from their Southern brethren and
unite themselves with the Black Republicans.
I hey refuse at least to vote for any man for
Speaker upon whorn the Southern Know-noth
ings can consistently with their duty to the
South cast their votes. They vote, with a few
exceptions, for the Black Republican nominee,
and show thereby that they prefer enlisting
under the flag of Black Republicanism to
uniting with their party of the South. The
line of demarcation has thus been distinctly
drawn, and parties stand divided under a new
shuffle, and deal somewhat into Black Repub
licans, Democrats and National Know-noth
ings. The two first being the larger parties,
the cont?^t is mainly between them, and Un
balance of power with the latter.
On the great question of the day, and the
one in comparison with which all others of a
political character must sink into insignifi
cance, the National Democracy and the National
Know-nothings stand shoulder to shoulder
both occupying conservative positions on the
subject of slavery. The idea of the Southern
Know-nothings ignoring the slavery issue, as
has been proposed by a desperate Virginia
politician belonging to the party, is something
too preposterous to be seriously considered,
unless we very much mistake the character of
the men. That, to defeat Black Republican
ism and secure the guarantees the Constitution
provides for the institution of slavery, they will
prefer casting their strength with the party oc
cupying the most conservative, national posi
tion, 13 the opinion of one who, when there was
a Whig party, was A WHIG.
In thi* city, at Wesley Chapel, January 8th, by
. M4Uv'PxT^n,!L' Wr WM H. FALCONER
to MARY ANN, daughter of C W. Boteler, Br
esq. ' '
At Richmond Hill, Yadkin county, North Caro
lina. on the 27th ultimo, Mr*. MARGARETT
PEARfcON, aged 42, wile of Hon. R. M. Pear
son, of the Supreme Court, and daughter of the
late Col. John Williams, of Tennessee.
Mrs. P. was endowed with many bright and
noble qualities. With intellectual faculties of the
highest order were combined the moral traits re
quisite to make up a rare and excellent character.
She was generous, charitable, truthful, and disin
tererested in a remarkable degree She was
frank, confiding, and afTectionate, add to which
she was patient, resolute, and firm in the dis
charge of duty.
The deceased was for many years h member of
the Presbyterian Church, and her walk and con
versation as such were consistent and exemplary.
Besides her husband, she left a family of eight
Manager JOHN T. FORD
Box tickets ? ? ? 25 cents.
Parquet armchairs 50 "
Tiiumphant success of the principal members
of the original and world-renowned
Organized ? 1842, whose concerts are nightly
attended by the beauty and fashion of Washing
ton. They appear every evening this week, with
new features on each occasion.
For particulars see the programme.
Jan. 9?4t.
This great curiosity is now on exhibition in this
city, on Pennsylvania avenue, htlow the Na
tional Hotel.
All lovers of curious sights should go and see
this wonder.
Admistidu 25 cents; children 12J cents.
Jan 10?
alery and Under-Garmenta.?STEVENS,
Brown's Hotel, is now opening a fresh and large
variety of Gent's Undershirts and Drawers. Also,
a large assortment of silk and cotton Half-Hose,
plain and fancy. STEVENS'S
Feb 24?3tif Sales Room, Brown's Hotel.
And Agents for h Kerr's" " 8umm*rJmnn Old Rye,
and P. Hanger's "Old Rye" Whisky. Premium
All letters promptly answered, and orders filleo
Feb '20?3m
KEWAR I>.?Mtrayed from the Com
mons,about 2 weeks sin<efca small speckle
red and white Cow, with one horn half broken
ofT?the other a crump horn. She has a wen or
wart on her side, near the flank, about the size of
a man'a fi*f. She is marked, hut not recollected
The above/eward will be paid by returning her to
the owner, on I street, between 6th and 7th, No.
502. * Sept 19
ttujurciuc Court of tike liulUd IUt?i.
Tuesday, Jakuaky 8, 1856.
Alexauder Clarke, esq., of New York,
was admitted an attorney and counsellor of
this Court.
No. 30. Guild & Lightner et al. vs. Joseph
Frontin. Iu error to the District Court of the
United States for the northern district of
California. Mr. Justice Grier delivered the
opinion of the Court, reversing the judgment
of the said District Court, in this cause, with
No. 23. Robt. H. McCready et al., claimants
of steamboat Bay State, &c. vs. Goldsmith,
Wells, et al. Appeal from the Circuit Court of
the United States for the southern district of
New York. Mr. Justice Nelson delivered the
oipinion of the Court, affirming the decree of
of the said Circuit Court in this cause, with
costs and interest.
No. 4. Thos. Barnard's heirs vs. Chester
Ashley's heirs et al. Appeal from the Circuit
Court of the United States for the eastern
district of Arkansas. Mr. Justice Catron
delivered the opinion of the Court, affirming
tho decree of the said Circuit Court in this
cause, with costs.
No. 36. Josiah S. Griffith et al., plaintiffs in
error, vs. John B. Bogert et al. The argument
of this cause was continued by H. S. Geyer for
the defendants iu error, and concluded by Hon.
J. J. Crittenden for the plaiutiffs in error.
No. 37. Edwin C. Little et al., appellants, vs.
Levi W. Hall et al. The argument of this
cause was commenced by Hon. W. H. Seward
for the appellants.
Adjourned until to-morrow, 11 o'clock.
Wednesday, January 9, 1856.
No. 37. Edwin C^ Little et al., appellants,
vs- Levi W. Hall et al. The argument of this
cause was continued by Hon. Wm. H. Seward
for the' appellants, and by Hon. S. G. Haven
for the appellees, and concluded by Hon. Wm.
H. Seward for the appellants.
No. 38. James M. Cooper, plaintiff in error,
vs. Enoch C. Roberts. Ihe argument of this
cause was commenced by Mr. Buel for the
plaintiff in error.
Adjourned until to-morrow, 11 o'clock.
Foot-Prlnta of Reptile* In the Coal
Strata of Pennsylvania.
At the October meeting of the Boston So
ciety of Natural History, Professor Wyman
read an article on the foot-prints recently dig
covered in the coal strata of Pennsylvania.
The Boston Traveller of the 23d says :
" Prof. Jeffries Wyman read a part of a me
moir on the foot prints discovered by Professor
Henry D. Rogers in the carboniferous strata
of Pennsylvania. (Vide proceedings of meet
ing of April 4th, 1855.) He gave an analysis
of the anatomical characters by which reptiles
aud fishes are distinguished from each other,
and attempted to demonstrate that, although
there are but few characters, which, taken by
themselves, are of absolute value, yet when
the combinations of characters, which exist in
any given instance, are considered, there can
be but little room for doubt as to the true
zoological affinities.
" There exist no known forms of recent or
fossil reptiles or fishes, which, where all their
osteological details are known, cannot be re
ferred unequivocally to one or the other of
these classes. A comparison of the Ichthyoid
reptiles and sauroid fishes shows, that although
it is through them that the two classes ap
proach nearest to each other, yet there are no
forms so completely intermediate as to bridge
over the space that separates them.
" He made comparison between the form
and structure of reptiles and the fins of fishes,
showing that although they resemble each other
as regards their functions, yet morphologically
they are always distinct. There is no known
fish, recent or fossil, the pectoral or rental
fins of which could produce a series of tracks
like those discovered in the coal strata of
Pennsylvania, by Mr. Lea and Prof. Rogers.
" Although among Lophioid fishes the pec
toral fins are used for locomotion on the shores,
yet they in every instance conform to the fish
type?are fins and not feet. An analogous
condition of things is found among cetaccean
and marine saurians, where the limbs serve the
purpose of paddles, and may be compared to
fins, yet morphologically they can be referred
only to the mammalian or reptalian types.
" Professor Wyman therefore thought that,
in the present sfate of kuowledge, there was no
?ground for denying that the quadrupedal tracks
ound in the coal fermations were made by
torn 10 Washington are respectfully informed
that at TAYLOR <3t MAURY S Book and Sta
tionery Store, near Ninth street, tbey will meet
all their requirements. Their extensive stock, in
addition to the following important works, com
prises every department of Literature, Science,
and Art.
New books received immediately on publica
Weekly importations from England.
Calhoun's Works, 6 vol*.
Jefferson's Works, 9 vol*.
Webster's Works, 6 vol*., autograph edition.
Everett's Orations and Speeches, 2 vols.
Clay's Private Correapondence, 1 vol.
S. S. Prentiss's Memoirs. 2 vols.
Bancroft's History of tbe United States,0 vols
Statesman's Manual, 4 vols.
Mickey's Constitution, 1 vol.
Jefleraon'a Manual, 1 vol.
The Constitution of the United States, 1 vol.
Elliot's Debates and Madison Papers, 5 vols.
Marsh's Orators and Statesmen, 1 vol
Siory's Works, 3 vols.
Lives of Chief Justices of tbe United States,
1 vol.
Lieber's Civil Liberty and Self Government,
2 vols.
Wirt's Life of Patrick Henry, 1 vol.
Kennedy's Life of Wirt, 2 vols.
Garland's Life of John Randolph, 1 vol.
Party leader'*, by Baldwin, 1 vol
De Tocqueville's Democracy in America, 1
The Federalist, 1 vol.
Grimke's Nature and Tendency of Free Insti
tutions, 1 vol.
Constitutional Text-Book, 1 vol.
Carey's Past, Present, and Future, 1 vol.
Seamair's Progress of Nations, 1 vol. ?
McElligott's American Debater. 1 vol.
Future Wealth ol America, 1 vol.
* Smith's Wealth of Nations, 1 vol.
Every description of American, English, and
French stationery of the finest qualities, at tbe
lowest priees.
Visiting Cards engraved and printed with tbe
greatest promptitude.
Decb?dtf Near Ninth street.
JUVENILE BOOKS of amoral and religious
character, five hundred or six hundred different
kinds, beautifully illustrated.
100 portable Writing Desks, froot $2 50 to $25;
together with every kind of Fancy Stationery,
w.bich will be sold at less prices than they have
ever before been sold at in this city.
The Prophets, or Mormorism Unveiled, with
illustrations; price SI.
Just published and for Mile at
July 17 near 9th at
MRS. FRANKLIN respectfully informs the
Ladies of Washington that she continues
to give instruction in Vocal Music. From her
long experience and professional intercourse with
the best Artiite*of Europe and America, she feels
confident that ber method of cultivating the voice
and imparting correctness of style and expression
will render satisfaction.
For terms and hours apply to Mrs F. at her resi
dence 405 E street, between 9th and 10th streets.
Reference is made to Mr. R. Davis and Mr. G.
i Hilbus, at their Music Storea on Pennsylvania
Avenue. Dec 13
1.1 AMI1,1 AK QUOTATIONS.? A collection
; of Familiar Qiiotationa, with complete In
dices of Authors and Subjects; price $1.
Memorials of Youth and Manhood, by Sidney
Willnrd, two volumes; prire $2.
Ellie, or the Human Cbmedy, by John Eaten
Cooke, author of Virginia Comedians, &c.
TAYLOR k MAURY'S Bookstore,
?ocal anii personal.
Tlie Couveutlwu ul'Old Soldier* commenced
its annual session, on Tuesday morning, at Odd
Fellows' Hall. Owing lo the inclement weather,
and the bad condition of the road*, not more than
two hundred veterana were in attendance. 1 re
vious to their euteriug upon the business lor
which they convened, ibey proceeded, in a body,
to the White House, to pay iheir rerpects to the
President of the United Slates, who eloquently
and patriotically responded to the truly appropriate
address of the president of the convention, Judge
Joel B. Sutheiland. The East Room presented ?
scene in the highest degree interesting, and music
contributed its heart-stirring power to the occasion.
The sentiment of the Union Qf the States, " now
and forever" found an ardent, profound echo from
every tongue. The appearance of the members
ofthe convention wassuch as toeommand respect
?a patriot baud, a remnant of the gallant men
who, in the time of peril, rushed forth lo their
country's defence. Henor lo the brave !
The business of the evening session comprised
the passage of a aeries of resolutions; among
them one calling upon the present Congress to
supply the omissions of the lasl, with respect to
the old soldiers, and plac ) them on the same fool
ing with the veterau* of the Revolution, as to
pay and pensions.
The convention adjourned yesterday aliernoon,
1 to meet in this eity on the eighth of January, 1857.
The following are the resolutions aud pre
amble adopted by that body :
Another year has rolled over our heads since
our last assemblage in this city, and many ol those
who then participated with us in our deliberations
have since been numbered with the dead. We
mourn their loss and venerate their memory.
How many of us may live to see the next Anni
versary of this glorious day, God only knows. We
hope to be ready for our destiny whenever it may
come upon us. While we live, it is our duty to
serve our country whenever called on, and ,do
everything in our power to perpetuate our free
institutions lor our posterity, as pure and untar
nished as ihey were handed down to us by the
Father of his Countkt and his illustrious co
laborers in the cause of human liberty. It is our
special duty lo cherish in our hearts and follow
the fraternal precepts of Washington, contained
in his Farewell Address. ? In this immortal docu
ment he inculcates the indispensable necessity of
our "union" under one General Government, it
we hope to preserve our liberty.
"To the efficacy and permanency of your Union,
a Government for the whole is indispensable.
Respect for its authority, compliance wti/i its
laws, acq u lesence in its measures, are duties enjoined
by the fundamental majims of trne liberty. The
basis of our political system is the right of the
people to make aud to alter their constitutions ol
government. But the constitution which at the
time exists, till changed by an explicit and authentic
act ol the whole people, is sacredly obligatory upon
U. The very idea of power and right of the peo
ple lo established government, presuppose the doty
of every individual to obey the established govern
"All obstructions to the execution of the laws; all
combinations and associations, under whatever
plausible character, with the real desigu to directly
control, counteract, or awe the regular delibera
tion and action of the constituted authorities, are
destructive of this fundamental principle, and of
fatal tendency."
Therefore, be it?1st Resolved, That having
solemnly sworn, when we first entered intothe
service of our country, to support and sustain the
Constitution of the United States, in the hope and
expectation to enjoy the many blessings and ad
vantages it was designed to secure, we will
honestly perform the obligations it enjoins, aud
not shrink from the duties it imposes upon us.
2d. Resolved, That we have witnessed with
pleasure the efforts now making in Congress for
the final settlement and payment of our Revolu
tionary debt. We consider that our Government
is under the most solemn obligations to carry out
the promises of the Continental Congress, as con- I
tained in the resolutions of October 21, 1780;!
January 7, 1781 ; and March 8,1783; by allowing
to the officers ofthe Revolutionary army, the half
pay for life, to which they were entitled under
those resolutions, for the payment of which the
faith of the nation was pledged, and all those
Senators and Members who have taken an active
interest in behalf of the officers of the Revolution,
their widows and children, are entitled to tha
thanks and gratitude of the country.
3d. Resolved, That our grateful acknowledg
ments are due to the last Congress for its enact
ments in our behalf, although not carried to the
exteut of our hopes and expectations; and we
earnestly petition the present one to supply the
omissions of the former, by providing for the
declining yearsof the Soldiers of our Second War
of Independence, as was done for those of the
Revolutionary war.
4lh, Resolved, That all pensions for wounds or
J injuries received while in the line of duty in the
military Biid naval service of the United States,
instead of commencing at the completion of the
proof, aa is now prastised at the Pension Office,
ought, upon every priuciple of justice, to com
mence at and from the date of the disanlity, and in
case of the death of the invalid, any arrears of
peusion due him should be paid to his widow, and
in case of her death, to the surviving children.
5th. Resolved, That the subsequent marriage of
a widow who was entitled to a pension or bounty
land in virtue of any law of the United States,
should not preveut her from receiving such pen
sion or land, provided she be otherwise entitled to
the same; nor should the law render it necessary
that she be a widow at the time of her application.
6th. Resolved, That the Bounty Land act of
March 3, 1855, ought to be amended, so as to em
brace the children of any person who if living
would be entitled to Bounty L#and under said aci,
as well as his "minor children,'' and that those
soldiers of the war of 1812, who enlisted for five
years or during the war, and served until dis
charged in consequence of disability, or by reason
ofthe expiration of their term, ought to receive a
grai.t of 160 acres of land ia addition to what they
have already received
7th. Resolved, That all the provisions heretofore
made for us, or which may hereafter be made,
ought to be extended to our fellow citizens who
were confined in foreign prisons during any por
tion of the war of 18l2-'lo.
8th. Resolved, That inasmuch ss many of ihe
records of the War Office, at Washington, have
been destroyed, it is unjust to refuse credible
parol prooof, and require the production of record
evidence of service to entitle meritorious applicants
to the benefit of the laud and pension laws.
9th. Rtsolvea, That it ia due to the memory of
James Madison, President ofthe United Stai?N? at
the tune of the declaration of war against Great
Britain, and who fearlessly recommended that
important measure,to have an appropriate statute
erected to him in this oity.
10th. Resolved, That we will wear crape on the
left arm for thirty daya, in token of respect for the
memories of our companions in arms who have
died since our last Convention.
Chesapeake and Ohio Canal.?At a meeting
of bondholders (on Tuesday, at th? National
Hotel,) representing about nine hundred thou
sand dollars of the stock, measures were taken
with a view to procure ike release of the State
of Maryland from the control of the work, and to
have it placed uuder the superintendence of trus
tee* ; the leading object being to make the canal
yield a sufficient revenue to satisfy the claims of
the bondholders, who receive no dividend* on
their invertments. The canal cost between four
teen and Afteen millions of dollars. It is supposed
thai, under proper management, the work can be
made to yield a handsome surplus revenue.
The Democrats of this city celebrated the
anniverssry of the bsttle of New OHeans, on
Tuesday night, at the Washington Assembly
Rooms. Seversl prominent members of the party
addressed the meeting The Hon. Amos Kendall
presided. "
Evening Receptions.?The first public even
ing reception at the Executive Mansion will tske
plsce to morrow, snd will doubless, as heretofore,
attract many guests. The time devoted to this
purpose will be from eight to ten o'clock.
The Sleighing continues to be good ; and it is
needless to say extensively enjoyed. Pennsyl
vsnis avenue is the grand scene of displsy and
pleasure in that respcct
Wednesday. January O, IHfttt.
The Senate wit not in session to day.
House of Representatives.
Mr. SMITH of Tennessee, made a personal
explanation, to show the fallacy ol the charge that
the Democratic party aii(JL the President ot ihe
United States are responsible for the non-orgaiu
zation of the House.
Mr. WHITNEY replied to the remarksof Mr.
Eustis of Louisiana, delivered on Monday, saying
that the American parly was not against indivi
duals, but against the measures and principles
of the church of Rome, the head of which declares
that liberty of conscience is an absurd and odious
maxim.and the ravings of delirium.
Mr. KNIGHT said he had observed that the
democrats, in caucus, recently, had adopted a
resolution to vote against all motions to adjourn
until a Speaker should be elected. In order to
cut short a continued day and night session, he
therefore offered a resolution?that the Houin
will immediately proceed to vole, viva voce, for a
Speaker until nn election should be effected ; or,
until three additional balloting* shall be made,
when, on th* third, the person having the highest
number of votes, provided it be a majority ol a
quorum, shall be deolaied Speaker ol the thirty
fourth Congress.
Mr. BARKSDALE moved that the resolution
lie upon the table The question was decided in
the affirmative?yeas 113, nays 102.
Mr. CAMPBELL, of Ohio, called attention to
a letter which recently appeared in the Ashtabula
Sentinel, written by Mr. Giddings ; the inference
from which, Mr. Campbell said, was fairly dedu
cible, and which had gone before the country,
that he had staid here, keeping the House voting
for live days, asking simply that he should receive
the vote of his friends, for the speakership, up to
a point which would gratify him personally, in
order that he might retire with honor from the
contest. If the gentleman (Mr. Giddings) intend
ed to make that charge against him, either direct
ly or indirectly, he would say so.
Mr. GIDDINGS exculpated Mr. Campbkll
from any imputation or conclusion of that char
acter. In that letter he had only endeavored to
do his colleague strict and impartial justice, and
to represent truly the condition of affairs.
Mr. CAMPBELL wished to know whether any
friend of his hud ever heard him express, directly
or indirectly, any desire to receive a vote to
gratify him, in order that he might retire with
honor. If there was such a one, let him rise and
state the fact.
There being no response, the gentleman passed
to other articles in several newspapers, defending
certain attacks which had been made on his po
litical position.
Several other gentlemen made personal expla
The House then resumed voting for a Speaker,
with the following result:
Mr. Banks 97
Richardson 72
Fuller 33
Peuuington 7
Orr 2
Williams I
H. Bennett I
Porter 1
Whole number of voles 214
Necessary to a choice 108
The one hundredth vote was as follows:
Mr. Banks 90
Richardson 68
Fuller 32
Pennington 5
Orr 2
Williams 1
H. Bennett 1
Porter 1
Whole number of votes 1 0
Necessary to a choice 101
The next vote was as follows:
Mr. Bank? &8
Richardson 6-r>
Fuller 26
Pennington 5
Orr 2
William* 1
H. Bennett 1
Porter 1
Cullen I
Whole number of votes given 192
Necessary to a choice 97
A motion was made at fifteen minutes past five
that the House adjourn, but it was decided in the
By seven o'clock two additional votes had been
taken ; the last with the following result:
Mr. Banks 92
Richardson 6(3
Fuller 27
Penniugton 6
Scattering.. 5
Whole number of votes 195
Necessary to a choice 99
[The House was in session at 9 o'clock, when
we last heard from the Capitol. |
The vote received just previous to oar going
to press was as follows: Banks 92, Richardson
67, Fuller 29, Pennington C; scattering 4.
Whole number of votes 199 ; necessary to a
choice 100.
STEWART'S Gallery, Pennsylvania ave
nue, over Gait's Jewelry Store.
Pictures in best quality of cases from 50 cents
and upwards.
We ihvite-tbe public to call and judge for then
selves. March 17?dlmo
Ladies alpine hoots.?Just re
ceived ft superior lot of Ladies' Black and
Brown Alpine Boots, together wuh a large and
general assortment of Ladies, Gents, Misses,
Tk>y*, Youths, and Children'* Boots and Shoes
for sale by GEO. BURNS.
340 Pennsylvania avenue,
Adjoining Patterson's Drug Store.
Ucr 1 iNows.) *
Land warrant and banking
House of 1. M. Clarke &C Co?We are al
ways paying above New York nruirket prices for
warrants sent us by mail, and return Mgbt drafts
the same day they are received.
Address J. M. CLARKE Sc CO.,
Washington City, D. C.
Sept 20?1 iu
REW ARD.?Lost on Saturday even
IJvl/ ing, between 5th street and the Theatre,
or at the latter place, a small memorandum book,
containing $140 in $5's and JlO's of the Patriotic
Bank chiefly,one Corporation $5, inclusive. There
were also aome loose papers in the book of no
possible use to any but the owner. If the same
haa fallen into honest handa, I will give Fifty Dol
lars reward for the return thereof; if in the hand*
of a thief, it is boped he will return the l>ook and
papers. W. HOWE,
372 Penn. avenue, corner 6th street.
Dec 11?3t
interesting anecdotes and remarkable con
versations of the Einperor during the live and a
halfyearaof his captivity, collected from the me
morials of Las Casas, O Mem, Montholon, An
tommarrgi, ami others. By John S. C. Abbot;
with illustrations.
English Grammar. The English Language in
its elements and forms, with a history ol'iis origin
and development, designed for use in colleges
and schools. Revised and enlsrged. By Wilham
C. Fowler, late Professor of Rhetoric in Amherst
Ciesar'aCommeniarits; literally translated notes,
with a very elaborate index.
A Child's History of the United Ststes. By John
Bonner. In 2 volumes.
An Outline of the General Principles of Gram
mar, lo which quotations have '>een added By
Rev. J. G. Grmton, Professor of the English Lan
guage and Literature in the New York Academy.
Just received and for sale at the Bookstore oi
Corner of Elevenih street and Pennsylvania
avenue. Dec 6
coali coals
rHE undersigned la preps red to deliver
White and Red Ash COAL of the beat qua
lity, at SC 50 per ton (2240 lbs.)
3d street, 3d door south ol Pa. avenue
July 24?tf.

xml | txt