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EDITED BY \VM. M. OVERTON. CH. MAURICE SMITH, AND BEVERLEY TUCKER. THURSDAY MORNING, JAN. 24, IWtt. SESSIONAL,. The Senate was not in session yesterday. In the House of Representatives a resolution was adopted, providing that the daily sessions shall be opened with prayer. One vote was takeu for Speaker, but, as heretofore, with no favorable result. An adjournment took place at two o'clock. A NEW DEMOCRATIC KOMINEK FOR SPEAKER. Mr. Richardson, yesterday, in the House of Representatives, gave notice of his uncondi tional withdrawal as a candidate for the Speakership; it having been intimated, he said, that this course would have a tendency to effect an organization, of which he was sin cerely desirous; and he took occasion tore mark that his friends had placed him iu that position, without any seeking whatsoever on his pari, and from which he was, from the be ginning, solicitous to retire. The House having adjourned at two o'clock, a Democratic caucus was immediately held. The greatest harmony, we learn from one who was present, characterized the proceed ings. After a full and free conference, the Hon. James L. Okr, of South Carolina (Mr. RtciiAimsox having withdrawn) was unani mously selected as their candidate, on the principles which governed them at their first caucus. We likewise learn that a resolution was offered, but rejected, pledging the caucus in favor of the plurality rule, iu the event that all of the prominent candidates for the Speaker ship shall retire from the contest. While the Democratic caucus was in session, the Know-nothing or "American'' members held one in a committee room at-the Capitol. We have heard nothing further of their pro ceedings than that they will insist upon an organization ou strictly national principles. Mr. Fuller, their candidate, according to his own declaration, is willing to withdraw from the field. Last night the " Republicans" held a caucus, but they had not adjourned when our paper was put to press, and therefore we can say nothing of the result of their proceedings. TWO PICTURES?MK. UA.VKS OF MAS SACHUSETTS ON THE IStk BAY OF JAM'AKY, ASD MR. BANKS ON THE IStli DAT OF JANUARY. On the first date above referred to, the Hon. Mr. Banka, of Massachusetts, who is a promi nent candidate for the Speakership of the House of Representatives, thus expressed him self: " I have to say, in this matter, that I accept the doctrine of the Declaration of Independ ence, thai all men are created equal. In re gard to the superiority of races, Jam impressed with the convict ion that it is to be determined only by capacity foi- endurance. So far as 1 have studied the subject, it seems to me to be the universal law, that the weaker is always ab sorbed and disoj>pears in the stronger race. Whether the biack race of this continent, or any other part of the world, is equal to the white race, con only be determined, by the ab sorption and disa\i>earance of one or the other; and I propoie to wait until the respective races can be properly subjected to this philosophical test bejore 1 give a decisive answer." To this extract from Mr. Banks's speech we lately devoted a column of commentary, because we were shocked at the opinions he expressed, and shocked that a man of his cul tivation and ability should feel it necessary to keep in abeyance his decision as to the com parative superiority of the white and black races. A few days after the delivery of the speech, from which the above is an extract, the subject treated by Mr. Banks was again brought on the tapis by Mr. Letcher, when the following debate occurred: " Mr. Giddings. I will then give the gentle man an answer whenever 1 can get the floor. " Mr. Letcher. Then I understand the gen tleman to 6ay that Mr. Banks cannot be elect ed : and knowing that be cannot receive a ma jority, yet, for the purpose of carrying out the very design which my friend from Georgia (Mr. Cobb) imputes to the other side?that it must be Banks aud an election, or disorgani zation without his election?be stands by it, and insists in forcing him upon this body. Now, sir, what is the reason of it? Is it be cause the gentleman from Ohio endorses the sentiment announced here the other day, of the social and political equality of the black and the white races? Is it because be desires to see the problem worked out by practical amalgamation? "Mr. Banks, (interrupting.) Do 1 under stand the gentlnuan from Virginia as saying that I hare made any such assertion f " Mr. Letcher. 1 said that tlte gentleman said that the problem of superiority was to be worked out by seeing which of the two races should absorb the other. u Mr. Banks. 1 have made no such declara tion?no such declaration as he has imputed to me. (Cries of " Head what he said V'J I have expressed no opinion upon either of the ques tions which thts gentleman has alluded to. I have not declared what will be the result. I declared that I should wait before I gave a decisive answer upon that question. 1 Bay that, according to my undemanding of the doctrine of the superiority of races, as then announced, the sentiments the gentleman has announced as having been declared by me are not to be drawn by any just interpretation of the language I used. I utterly disclaimed them, when imputed to me by the gentleman from North Carolina, the other day. I know perfectly well, and every man knows perfectly well, that there is an inequality in the capacity and condition of the races to which the gentle man has referred. I have never asserted their equality. " With regard ty (he sentiment imputed to me by the gen'lemmi from North Carolina, [Mr. Cluigman,] and at now declared by the gentle man from Virginia, [Mr. Letcher,] I have to say 1 never entertained, or even contemplated, any such result, or proposed any such idea a# that; and, so far as I was cnaMed to GATHER HIS IDEA FROM THE LANOUAGE USED BY HIM, AMALGAMATION IS AS INEFFA BLY REPUGNANT TO MY MIND AS IT CAN BE TO THE GENTLEMAN FROM VIRGINIA OR NORTH CAROLINA, OR ANY OTHER MEMBER OF THE HOUSE. "Mr. Letcbrr. Let me read the language employed by the gentleman in the discussion referred to; and let me preface it with this single remark: here are his remarks deliberate ly corrected by lrimself, prepared for publiea tion, and stamped with all the solemnity which can be given to them by the most careful and deliberate reflection. The gentleman said : '"I have to 8ay, in this matter, that I accept the doctrine of the Declaration of Indepen dence, that all men are created equal. Ia re gard to the superiority of races, I aui impressed with the conviction that it is to be determined only by capacity for endurance. So far as I have studied the subject, it seems to me to be the universal law, that the weaker iB always absorbed, and disappears in the stronger race.'" "Now, sir, if the negro is to disappear, or be absorbed, how is it to be done? "Mr. Banks. 1 call the attention of the gen tleman from Virginia to my language, and he will see that that question is a matter which I have not uudertaken to determine. "Mr. Letcher. ]f the gentleman has not un dertaken to determine it, why does he under take to speak of the probable absorption of the one or the other? "Mr. Banks. I have not spoken of a probable absorption of any race. "Mr. Letcher. Besides, the geutleman has given this matter study. "Mr. Banks. The gentleman from Yirgiuia misrepresents my language. 1 did jiot assert 1 had given it study. There are words of limi tation in my remark. "Mr. Letcher. I will read it to the House, and let them decide. ["Read, read!"] Just listen to these words: 4 "So far as I have studied [laughter] the sub ject, it seems to me to be the universal law that the weaker is always absorbed and disappears in the stronger race. Whether the blaclc race of this continent, or any other part of the world, is equal to the while race, can only be deter mined by the absorption and disappearance of one or the other; and I propose to wait" [for what?] "until the respective races cau be prop erly subjected to this philosophical test before I give a decisive answer."' [Ilere the hammer fell.] It does not require a very close comparison of Mr. Banks's remarks, made on the 12th of January, with Mr. Banks's remarks made on the 18th of January, to show that he has en tangled himself in glaring and iuextricable in consistencies. First, he tells us that he cannot decide the question of the superiority, or equality even, of the black and white races. But when taken to task for so saying, by Mr. Letcher, he denies having said so, and complains of misrepresen tation. Scarcely have these complaints escaped his lips, before, much, no doubt to the chagrin of abolitiondom, he declares that he knows, and that every body knows, "there is inequal ity in the capacity and condition of the races." Again : the honorable member from Massa chusetts complains of the interpretation placed upon the word "absorption." He contends that he did not use it in the sense of amalgamation, and that amalgamation is ineffably repugnant ?io his mind. In what sense Mr. Banks used the word absorption, he does not satisfactorily explain?indeed, he does not explain at all. We must conclude that as the honorable gen tleman did not use the word absorption as synonymous with amalgamation, he did not understand the signification of the word, ab sorption, as applied to races. It may be well, however, to let the matter rest, since Mr. Banks has, at a late hour it is true, seen fit to explain away, we may say re tract, his most objectionable remarks. REMEDIES FOR THE EVILS OF CON GRESSIOXAL DISORGANIZATION. Every conceivable mode of effecting an or ganization of the House has been tried, bat without any satisfactory result. Parties are as far apart now as they were when Congress first met. Some sanguine persons begin to detect in the rule, lately adopted, for silent voting, symptoms of an organization. These opinions may turn out to be well founded, bat, for our selves, we have but little faith in them. The time has passed by in the House for effecting any result by such means. Had the House commenced with, and steadily and uninterrupt edly pursued, silent voting, and made a strin gent rule against all debate or personal expla nations, we think it likely that a Speaker would have been chosen ere this. But tiring of the monotonous calling of the roll and pant ing for excitement, the members plunged into fierce partisan discussions. They thus in flamed political resentments, widened the breach between parties, and effectually extin guished all hopes of uDiting the scattered con. servative elements in the House, without which union, an election is impossible. It is in vain to speak here of the importance ?nay, the necessity of an organization. It is needless to speak of the embarrassments under which the Government labors, and of the suf ferings to which individuals are subjected, in consequence of the failure to elect a Speaker. These things are known, certainly to every body in this community. The last remedy proposed for the unfortu nate condition of things existing in the House came from Mr. Faulkner, of Virginia. The resolutions of Mr. Faulkner, (we omit the pre amble) are as follows: Resolved, That each member of this House will, on Monday next, if a Speaker shall not before that day be elected, prepare and depo?it with the Clerk a sealed paper, endorsed with his name and containing the resignation of his seat as a member of the Thirty-Fourth Con gress; which sealed letter of resignation, when delivered by every member of this House, or by such number as will in good faith carry into effect the object of this resolution, shall, by order of the House, be opened by the Clerk, and publicly read from his table, and shall from that time operate to vacate bis seat as a member of this House; and it shall be the duty of the Clerk forthwith to transmit to the Governors of the several States the letters of resignation of the members now representing said States. Resolved, That when the House adjourns on [ Monday next, it will, (with the consent of the Senate,) if a Speaker shall not before that day be elected, adjourn to meet on the first Monday in May next. A motion to lay these resolutions on the table was carried by a vote of yeas 111, nays 85. We do not propose discussing at length this proposition for the relief of the House?this remedy for the evils which have thus far proved incurable. While it commandsthe acquiescence of the Democratic party, and while we would be glad to see this or any other remedy applied, that offers any prospect of relief, we must say that we look upon tile plan proposed in these resolutions as altogether impracticable. There is not the slightest possibility of its success. The Black Republicans will cling to their seats in Congress, like grim death. They have no idea of sacrificing them and running the risk of being defeated in a new election. It is not a contingency to be contemplated, that all the members of the present House will disinterestedly and patriotically agree to resign. If all were to do so but a baker's doz en, that dozen would still beentitled totheirseats. Nothing but voluntary resignation or expulsion by the House, can deprive a member of his seat. One other mode or remedy has recently been proposed, from which more, in the shape ol results, seems to be expected. It is the follow ing plan which was proposed by Mr. Rust, of Arkansas: "Whereas, one hundred and eighteen ineffec tual efforts to elect a Speaker, in which the votes have been divided among Mr. Hanks, Mr. Richardson, Mr. Fuller, and Mr. Pennington, must have made it manifest to those gentle men and this Congress that neither of them is the choice of a majority of the members ol this llousfi for its presiding officer, and that a longer persistence on the part of their respective friends in urging their names for this office will only delay the organization of this House, and thereby prevent immediate legislation when the common interest of ibe whole country require it: Therefore, # Resolved, That it is the sense of this House that Messrs. Bank?, Richardson, Fuller, and Pennington, by withdrawing their names, anu forbidding their use as candidates for the Speakership, would remove certain and insur mountable obstacles to its organization, and that the publfc interests would be greatly pro moted by their doing so." Indications of a disposition to retire from the field, were exhibited by one or two of the candidates afterthe presentation of these resolu tions, but the adjournment of the House inter rupted the course that affairs Beemed to be taking. The above was written before we received from the Capitol our report of the proceedings of the House. From that report (to which we refer our readers) we learn that the Democratic candidate for the Speakership?the gallant Colonel Richardson?gave notice of his.fixed intention to retire from the candidacy to-day. Colonel Richardson has more than once manifested his anxiety to retire from the posi tion which the Democratic party assigned him, but his party would not consent that he should do so. From the vote taken on Mr. Rust's resolution?a tie, it is not unlikely that an entire change will be made to-day in the programme. We may have an entirely new set of candidates, and for aught that we know the House may now be on the eve of an orga nization. However, we shall undertake to prophecy nothing. All calculations as to or ganization have thus far failed, all expectations have thus far been disappointed. As the ma gicians say?" We shall see what we shall see." ____ " Voluntary Enslavement.?It is stated in the Richmond Dispatch, that so numerous have become the applications of free colored persons to the Virginia Legislature to be al lowed to voluntarily enslave themselves, that the Senate have passed a general act on the subject." This is a pointed and significant commen tary on the abolition fanaticism that prevails | at the North and that prevails in the American Congress. While these fanatics are shedding crocodile tears over the imagined miseries of Southern slaves, the Southern slaves are so well provided for, so contented,-and bo happy, and the free negroes are so discontented with their condition, that these latter seem to be making a general movement to get what the Abolitionists love to call the "damnable shackles of slavery' fixed upon them. I It would seem to every reasonable man that under such circumstances anti-slavery agita tion might well cease. If the Southern slaves are satisfied with their condition, and if the free negroes of the South voluntarily seek the same condition, why should the sickly senti mentalists and the crack-brained fanatics of the Northern States wring their hands, tear their hair, and shed their tears in such copious abundance over them? ? Who for sympathy may ask That cannot tell of pain?'' The sympathies, the Bufferings, the agonies, the tears of these self-torturing philanthropists are thrown away. Surely they have enough of real distress and misery around them to engage their sympathies and employ thfir charities, without throwing them away on the slaves of the South, whose condition is better than it would be in Africa, or than it would be if they were liberated and sent to the so-called free States to suffer and starve. STOLEN CHILD. In oar issue of today will be found an adver tisement, over the signature of General Eaton, to which we wish to invite ihe attention not only of the city police, but of our readers gen erally. Upon personal enquiry and a thorough investigation of the case, we are irresistably led to the conclusion that this little child has been snatched from the arms of her mother and from the comforts of what was to her a happy home, by the ruthless hand of some abo lition emissary. The frequent and almost daily recurrence of such outrages as this, does more to widen the breach between the North and the South than all the ranting of all the fanatics north of Ma son's and Dixon's line. The "pocket nerve" of the South, though not so sensitive as that of the North, is yet too sensitive to bear the annual loss of some hundred or two of thou sands of dollars in the shape of stolen servants, and it will not be borne much longer. ADOITIONAL INKOKMATIOJI RK KPKCTINCiTIIK INDIAN D1FF1CIL. TIBS. The Commissioner of the General Land Of fice has received the following letter from Sur veyor General Tilton, of Washington Territory, which is dated Olympia, November 2, 1855, and which states that the surveying business, both in the field and in the office, is greatly impeded by the present general Indian war. All men of health and spirit in the Territory are bearing arms against the savages. Three clerks in the surveyor general's office, (Messrs. G. R. Bright, Ed. Gibson, and J. Lodge) have laid aside their quills, shouldered their mus kets, and taken the field ; and the surveyor general himself, in addition to his duties as surveyor general, has been performing duty as adjutant general to the volunteer forces of the Territory, and during the temporary absenc? of Acting Governor Mason (now in Oregon consulting with the governor of Oregon) has been governor pro (em. of Washington Terri tory. The war is stated to be very general, and includes all the aborigines inhabiting the country on each side of the Cascade moun tains, with the exception of a few tribes on the Sound, Upper Columbia, and on the shores of the Pacific. At least six thousand Indians (fighting men) have taken the field, and have driven the settlers from their claims into the block houses or villages. Olympia is being fortified with stockades, garnished with bastions, and the like, on which some pmall ship-cannon are to be mounted. It is also stated that no surveys are progress ing east of Puget Bound, or the Columbia river; that but one party is at work near Shoal water bay, on the Pucific ocean, and that all the tribes who inhabit the shores of Puget sound are vacillating, and will join the strongest party as soon as they discover which party that is. 4K&~More than one hundred thousand of the pauper population of London were reguled on Christmas day with roast beef and potatoes, plum-pudding, porter, &c. It seems that, whilst in twenty-six metropolitan parishes there has been an increase of more than ten thousand recipients of poor relief since last Christmas, in six parishes only there lias been a decrease, amounting, on the whole, to seven hundred persons. The Lord Mayor stated on the day after Christmas day that not a single charge of drunkenness had been brought .before him as having occurred oil Christmas day. MANNA SUGAR. The following interesting letter was handed over to the Commissioner of Patents by Dr Bernbiiel. It is from Mr, Aaron Daniels, who resides in Provo city, Utah Territory, and is dated August 11,1855. We copy as follows: " According to agreement, I send you a small cake of the sugar made from the sirup or honey found on cotton-toood trees, and, as you requested, will give you a few' particulars concerning the manner in which I discovered it. As I passed along to and from my cornfield, (which is situated about one mile from town,) I discovered a white substance on the cotton wood trees, which, upon examination, I found to be a sweet substance, somewhat resembling the honey dew in the States, but in far greater abundance, and possessing other properties? some of the cakes being as thick as a knile blade or window-glass. I thought, from the quantity there was on the trees, that sugar might be made cf it, and signified the same to a number of my neighbors, who all ridiculed the idea; so I thought I would try and see what I could do with it. I took home two bushels, and washed ihe twigs, and then strained and boiled down the water, which made one and a quarter pound of sugar. Since that time most of the town has been at work. Some families has ixade as high as one hundred pounds of sugar. It makes excellent molas ses, and as good vinegar as I ever saw. I averaged about eighteen pounds per day with two three-gallon kettles." Although the quantity of sugar made from this sirup is small, yet we are assured that it is still profitable, from the fact that sugar in that region of country is worth forty cents a pound. LATKST FKOfti KtUIOPE. The Cunard steamship Africa arrived at New York yesterday with four days later ad vices from Europe. The feeling in England continues to be war like; in France :t is becoming so, while Rus sia continues incessant preparations for another campaign. Rumors merely, of peace continue to pre vail, but not oe such foundations as to lead to the probability of an early consummation of that hope. The news from the Crimea is briefly expres sed?"the French blew up the docks at Sebas topol on the Iwenty-ninth of December," and the Russians have increased their fortifications over the Inkermann and masked new batteries on the left of the Tchernaya. Rumors of attacks and preparations of de fence are numerous. The council of war at Constantinople was directing all its energies to the defence of Erzeroum and Tribizonde. Breadstuff^ have advanced, and cotton is un changed in price, but with a declining tendency. Good News for the Poor. A Cincinnati correspondent of the Boston Traveller writes that hogs which, at the com mencement of the season, sold at $7 perewt., have declined to $5 15, at which price sales have been made. Flour is plenty at $7 per bbl. The Boston Chronicle Bays : Provisions are going down. " The good time coming'' is, in some respccts, about at hand. Flour is receding in price, even at this time of the year, and the prices at which many standard groceries have been held are no longer tenable. In the article of pork, the price has rapidly declined within a week ; at Brighton market last week the owner of a large iot of good hogs could not get an offer of 7 cents, though a week or two before they sold rapidly at 8jt and 9 cents. We trust thin decline in the price of the main supports of life will continue until a good meal of victuals will be within the reasonable reach of each and all. Governors of the SI ate* and Territories. We give below some interesting statistics in relation to the Governors of the Slates. Those marked with a (#) are Democrats : eOVERNORS or the states and territories?1S50. States. Governors. Termex-Sala Hire*. rirs. Alabamn* John A Winston.D?c. I897.9tt.fi00 Arkansas* Elias N Conway. Nov. lt>56 1,80 > California J. JS Johnson....Deo. 1857 10.000 Connecticut. ..Wm.T.W mor... May, 1856 1 100 Delawnre Peter F. Clansey.Jan. 1857. 1333 Florida* Jaa. E. Broome.. .Ocl. 1&57. 1500 Georgia# M V. Johnson.... Nov. 1857. 3,000 Illinois* Joel A. Maile*on.Jan. 1S'7. 1.500 Indiana* Jos. A. Wright.. .Jan. lb">7. 1.390 Iowa Jas W. Grime*..Dec. 1656. 1.000 Kentucky C.S. Morehead... Aug. 1857. 2.000 Louisiana* R.C.Wlcklift...Jan. 1858. 0.000 Maine* Samuel Wells .. .Jan. 1857. 1.500 Maryland*... .T Wstkin* Lifron.'an. 16(58. 3.000 Ma??a<-hu*eits.Hrnrjr J.Gnrdner.Jan. 1857. 3.500 Michigan K. S. Hinpman .. .Jan. 1857. 1 500 Mississippi*... John J. M'Res... Jan. 1S5*?. 3 000 Missouri*....-Sterling Price. ..Dec. 1850. 2.000 N. Hampshire.. Ralph Melcalf?? .June 1850. 1 000 New Jersey*.. R<>dmnn M. Price Jan. 1857. 1.800 New York ... .Myron H. Clark..J*n. lt>57. 4 000 N Carolina*.. .Thomas Rragg.. .Jan. 1857. 2.000 Ohio Salmon P. Chase .Jan. 1858. 1800 Pennsylvania..Jame>> Pollock.. .Jan. 1857. 3,000 Rhode Island.. Wm. II. Hoppin.May, 1858. 1.000 S Carolina*.. .J. H. Adam* Dec. lf>58. 3 500 Tennessee* ... Andrew Johnson .Oct. 1857. 2,000 Texan* K M. IVlike Dec. 1856. 2,000 Vermont. Stephen Royce. .Oct. 1856. 750 Virginia* Henry A. Wme.. Jan. 1860. 5,000 Wisconsin*.. ?. Wm. A. Barstow.Dec. 1857. 1,250 territories. Oregon William L.Ctirry. f Term "1 3 000 Mmiir-otH Willi* A.Gorinan expires | V N>w Mexico.. .D. Mernweiher . I iah Urigham Young.. Washington.. ..Isaac J. Steven*. N*:t>ra?ka Mark W Izard.. Kansa* Wilson Shannon. It will be seen that seventeen of the thirty one States have Democratic governors. i^uThe U. S. mail steamship Atlantic, for Liverpool, took out 70 passengers, but no specie. expires ) V.5D0 with a | 2.500 change ^ 2.500 of Ad 12,500 minis- | 2.500 tration. ( 2 500 Number of deaths iA this city last week, 324, including nine from violent causes. B^uThe Cleaveland 1'laindealer mentions the sudden death of Wm. Blake, from injuries received while experimenting with his newly invented fire-proof paint. BFQ, . We find in the American Ballad Litera ture the following account of Yankee Doodle? the tune by which Lord Percy marched to Lex ington on the morning of the memorable 19th j of April. It ia curious and worth reading: Yuukte Doodle. The tune of Yankee Doodle is said to have been composed by a Dr. Shackbury, attached to the British army, in 1775, when the troop# of the northern colonic s marched into Albany, preparatory to (he attack on the French posts of Niagara and Frontenac. The habiliments of these recruits presented a strange contrast to the orderly uppointinents of the Euglish soldiery, and the music to which they marched was as unliquated und outre as their uniforms. Shackbury, who possessed some musical know ledge, composed u tune for the new-comers, which he told them was one of the most cele brated of those in use by the army. To the great amusement of the British, the provincials accepted the gift, and "Yankee Doodle" be came very popular among them. The tune was not original with Shackbury, us it has been traced back to the time of Charles I., in England. In the reign of his son we find it in an accompaniment to a little 6ong on a famous lady of easy virtue of that date, which has beeu perpetuated as a nursery rhyme: Lucy Locket lost her pocket, Kitty Fisher I'ound it; Nothing in it, nothing in it, But the binding round it. A little Inter we have the first appearance of that redoubtable personage Yankee Doodle. He seems even at that early stage of his career to have shown his characteristic trait of making the most of himself: Yankee Doodle came to town, Upon a Kentish pony; He Muck a feather in his hat, .And called him Maccaroni. It is not impossible, however, that Yankee Doodle may be from Holland. A song in use among the laborers, who in the time of harvest migrate from Germany to the low countries, where they receive lor their work as much but termilk as they can drink and a tenth of the grain secured by their exertions, has this bur den : Yanker didel, do-del down, 1 )idel, dudel tauter. Yanker vivt-r, voovervown, ' Botermilk und Tunlher. That is, buttermilk and a tenth. This song our informant has heard repeated by a native of that country, who had often lis tened to it at harvest time in his youth. The precise date when father and I went to camp cannot, we fear, be fixed with accuracy; but as the tune was sung at Bunker Hill, may be assumed to have beeu iu 1775. The following incident is in keeping with the idea that Yankee Doodle is an old tune. When Kossuth was in Charlestown, and was going up the hill where the battle of Bunker Hill was fought, the band struck up "Yankee Doodle." This led him to remark, that this tune was familiar to Hungarians; for it was substantially the Csardas of the Hungarian popular dances, and was an ancient tune. The Hungarians, however, have no words set to the tuue. From Yankee Doodle the transition is easy to the origin of Jonathan. The authors have no article on this. They reprint in full, how ever, that curious, rare, .capital old production j of Peter Folger's, entitled '"A looking-glass lor the times, or the former spirit of New Eng land revived iu this generation.'' Peter Folger was the maternal ancestor of Benjamin Frank lin; an able and godly Englishman, Prince calls him ; one of the lovers of liberty of those times, of which there were many; and he shows this in his remarkable Looking Glass. The authors printed from Mr. Bancroft's MS. copy. A short time ago we read it in the first printed edition; and the possessor was more choice of it than he would be of diamonds. In it occurs the word Jonathan. We cite a few stanzas to show, the character of this piece, aifll the connection in which this word is used: Yea, Home there are, as I have heard, have lately found out trick*. To put the cause of all the war upoa the heretics. Or rather on come officers, < that now begin to t-lack The execution of those law* whos-e consequence is black. I do affirm to you, if that be really in your mind. You must go turn another leaf, before that peace you find. All these and many evils more are ea*y for to do : Bui lo repent and to reform, we have no strength unto. Let us then seek for help from God, and turn to bun that smite ; Let lio take heed that at no tun* We sin against our light. Lei's bear our teMimony plain: against mii in hi^h or low, And see that we no cowards be, to hide the light we know. When Jonathan is called to court, shall we as ?tanders by, Be still and have no word to speak, but suffer him to die ? If that vou say you cannot help, things will be as they are j I lell )ou true, 'lis plain and clear, those worus may come from fear. This is the only place, in nine columns of this Looking Glass, in which Jonathan occurs. What can this stand for but for Yankee land? This is the earliest allusion?Peter dates from Nantucket, April 23, 1676?we have met with the word Jonathan used in this sense. These extracts froin the Cyclopcedit will in dicate, better than anything we can write, the varied contents of this valuable publication. The biographical accounts of authors are often full and interesting; and embody a vast amount of curious matter. We hope this work will re ccive the patronage which it richly merits. It is beautifully printed, and is full of spirited illustrations. Suit Against s Newspaper for Libel. On the 15th instant, an action was com menced in Philadelphia against the Public Lcdyrr of that city, by one John Donnelly, a manufacturer of friction matches, for lil>el. It was alleged on the patt of the plaintiff that his business, on account of the publication of the alleged libel, had gradually dwindled away, and that he was utterly ruined inconsequence. The article complained of was headed "Wife Wbippers," and, after a few general remarks on the subject, went on to state that Donnelly had " laid such violent hands on his wife as to force her to flee" to the police for protection, and that he had been arrested on her complaint and locked up. It was said that the plaintiffs house was surrounded for several dayB after by a mob of women and children crying "Look at the wild beast?the wife-whipper?" The law in the State of Pennsylvania in such mat ters is, that the g< eater the truth is, the greater the libel. After a hearirgof the testimony on both sides, the cane was submitted to the jury, who yesterday brought in a verdict for the plaintiff of one dollar and coals. Harp for the Birds.?The Woonsocket (R. I.) Patriot says that the late cold weather has been very destructive to the birds. Great numbers of quails, partridges, and other birds have been found dead in the woods. Many of the poor things were probably starved to death. The Smiths, the Blown and the Jonit soxs.?According to the directory for 1856, just issued by McElroy, there are the small number of six hundred and thirty-three Smiths in Philadelphia, who have a "local habitation and a name,'" five hundred and fifteen Browns, and four hundred and seventy-eight Johnsons or Johnstons. The John Smiths reach the num ber of 139, and the James's 77. From the New York Observer, Jan. 17. Cfttuallllti for a Year. It ia not surprising that in these days of travel, and of peril by land and by sea, the chapter of accidents and casualities for the past year should be long and sad. We have gathered from reliable sources the facts and figures which are appended, although it is highly probable that the number of deaths by fatality of travel is somewhat greater than is here represented. Duriug the year 1855, the number of railroad accidents in various parts of the country, result ing in losses of life or limb, was 142, by which 110persons were killed, and 539 badly wounded. More than 60 employees of the railroad com panies are included in this numberjof the killed, of which 20 were engineers, and 0 conductors. The steamboat accidents have not been so numerous, amounting to 27, but resulting in 170 deaths, an increase of CO over those caused by rail. The loss of property occasioned by destruc tive fires has been enormous, amounting to more than $13,000,000. This is the estimated loss of about 200 extensive conflagrations ; the figures do not embrace the vast amount of property destroyed by almost innumerable smaller iirest Disastrous as these results seem to be, they are happily far less in magnitude than those of the former year, 1854. During that year the railroad accidents numbered 51 more, while the number of the killed was 70, and of the wounded 50 greater than in the last year. The steamboat accidents of 1854 were 48, diminished in 1855 to 27 ; the killed were 587; diminished to 176; the wounded 225, diminished to 107. The number of fires in 1854 was 223, which decreased by 30 in 1855; and the loss of property amounted to $20,000,000, which was reduced to $13,000,000 during the last year. The British Navv.?A compilation made from the official Navy list, just published, shows a number amounting to 456 ships and vessels of every denomination comprising the British fleet. Of this force 301 ships and vessels are in commission and employed in various ways, as 131 gun line-of-battle ships dxnvn to the 1 gun, mortar, or gumboht, and the steam yacht mounting no armament at all. Ten years ago we only had 233 vessels as a grand total of all class in commission, and nearly all those were sailing vessels ; now the character of the ser vice is so thoroughly changed that nearly all are steamers, and such few sailing vessels as are yet doing duty are being set aside as fa6t as their terms of commission expires. ThuS this week we have that noble three-decker, the Nep tune, 120, Captain Mutton, laid up in ordinary, to make room for the more modern steam bul wark the Marlborough 131 ; and so the work of change will progress, until a sailing man-of war will become as great a novelty in the Bri tish fleet at sea as was the steamer at the time of the " venture" of the little Comet. It is estimated that we may count upou having this summer, available for the purpose of war, 40 or more line-ot-battle ships and heavy frigates of the right class, upwards of 20 corvettes and heavily armed sloops, and upwards of 170 gun and mortar boats and batteries. The Baltic alone, it is inferred, will have a fleet of nearly 250 pennants over steam, and it is rumored that Sir Edmund Lyons will be the grand Commander-in-Chief. It will strike the reader probably as curious that whereas at the close of hostilities in 1816, there were 3,776 Lieutenants on the Navy list, we have now, when in the midst of another war, but a total of 1,976; of this number 1,778 are represented as on the active li*t.? London Times. Ravages of "Wolves In Itfwt-Two Per sona Devoured. Owing to the extreme cold weather, for some time past, the wolves in Pottawattamie county, Iowa, have become dangerous neighbors. Poultry-yards and sheep-folds have been robbed to a frightful extent, and in several instances the hungry beasts have not been inclined to spare the human species. The Keokuk Post of the 11th ult. says: About three weeks ago, a man was return ing from a prayer meeting, accompanied by his two daughters, one sixteen and the other twenty-three years of age. They were all rid ing the same horse, when suddenly a pack of timber volves assailed them, and being unable to escape by flight, they attempted to defend themselves. But the ferocious brutes attacked the horso, rendering him unmanageable. The oldest daughter was partly thrown and partly dragged to the ground and instantly devoured. This enabled the father and the other daughter to escape. Several neighbors were soon mus tered, but upon repairing to the spot nothing was found but oue shoe, and a very few rem nants of the unfortunate girl's clothing. A boy of about thirteen years old left his father's house to get water at a spring which wrs about half a mile distant, since which time nothing has been seen of him. The pail was found near the spring; also some marks of blood, and a lock or two of hair. Several per sons have been chased by these savage monsters. ?a5""In the Rhode Island Legislature a com* mittee reported that the whole value of the property of the State upon which the tax of this year is to be levied is $111,000,000. Ad ding one-third to the farming lands, which for taxation are not included in this amount, the real value of the property of the State is above (115,000,000. This is an increase from the valuation of 1849, when the last estimate was made, of $43,840,655. The tax to be levied is five cents upon $100, which will produce the turn of $55,000, nn increase of more than $35,000 over last year. ? How to do cp Shirt Bosoms.?Take two ounces of fine white gum arabic powder?put it in a pitcher, and pour on a pint or more of boiling water, according to the degree of strength jou desire?and then having covered it, let it stand all night?in the morning, pour it carefully from the dregs into a clean bottle, cork it and keep it for use. A tablespoonful of gum water stirred in a pint of starch, made in the usual manner, will give to lawn, either white or printed, a look of newness, when nothing else can restore them after they have been washed. ' Ick ox Jamks IIiver.?We learn from the Petersburg Express that the steamer Augusta is securely imbedded in ice five inches thick, at her Port Walthall wharf. This is certainly a state of things unusual for this latitude. ftaJT The whole number of births in Mnssa chusetts for the year 1854, was 31,997; mar riages, 13,683; deaths, 21,514. Among the births, the number of "plurality cases'' was 600 ?312 males and 288 females. Important from ilnjrtl. From Cant. Darnahy, of the schooner Ellen, which left Port au Prince on the 1st of Janu ary, the Philadelphia Exchange has received advices fully confirmatory of the previous ac counts of the defeat of the Ilaytiens, with the loss of between 200 and 300 soldiers, with many of his best officers; besides all his muni tions of war, provisions, and the Emperor's military chest, containing all the funds intended for the prosecution of the war. F austin First had marched 30,000 men against the Eastern side of the Island, and his defeat is represented as most complete. Captain Darnahy states that Faustin had escaped from the battle field, but his place of refuge was unknown, and General Santander had offered a j-eward of 10,000 doubloons for his head. So great was the feel ing against him, that it was the general opinion of the inhabitants of Port au Prince that if his sable majesty escaped falling into the hands of the Spaniards, he would be shot by his own people. Important to Postmasters.?Our atten tion lius been called to the fact that some post masters are in the habit of sending bade to the mailing office, letters reaching them for de livery, because they were not prepaid by stamps but by money. ?'J his is wrong, and arises from a misapprehension of the law. In no case, indeed, should a letter, after it has reached the office of delivery, be returned for postage, much less should it be returned, because the postage was not paid by stamps. It is the general duty of postmasters to see that letters are prepaid by stamps, but when (having been prepaid in cash, either through ignorance of the-law, or inadvertance, or want of stamps on the part of the mailing postmaster) they reach their destination, it is the duty of the postmas ter to deliver them the same as though prepaid by stamps. It will necessarily happen, in the introduction of the stamp prepayment system, that supplies of stamps will fail to reach all of the small and remote offices at the proper time, and it would be doing violence'to the citizens of those localities to return, and thus delay their correspondence, because of a circumstance so unavoidable. Entertaining this view of the subject, the department has instructed post masters, not having stamps, to forward letters as heretofore wheu prepaid by money. If an unpaid letter, from any cause, gets into the mail and reaches its destination, it should be de livered on paymeut of postage at prepaid rate.? Union. A Monster Criminal.?The English papers record the arrest of a man named Evans, on a charge of having poisoned his wife, his brother, his friend, and thirteen other persons. His wife, before marriage, was a ward in Chancery, and entitled to a large fortune. Her guardian res olutely opposed'the match, and the Master in Chancery also withheld bis conseut for some time. Botlj" finally yielded to the entreaties of the young lady, and yet it is believed that she was subsequently murdered by her infamous husband. ^ He was a finished gambler, and a master-spirit of the turf, and his friend, Mr. John P. Cook, gave him his fullest confidence, and yet suffered the same awful fate. In the case of his brother, Mr. Walter Palmer, insur ances on his life were effected to the extent of ?2;},450, and then he also, as is believed, was poisoned. Nay, it is stated that the names of no fewer than sixteen persons are mentioned as having suffered death by poison through the agency of the prisoner. State Treasurer.?HenryS. Magraw.dem., was on Monday chosen State Treasurer by the I ennsylvania Legislature. He received 70 votes, to 42 for Eli Slifer, the present k. n. in cumbent. At Santa Fe, by the last advices, water was seventy cents a gallon in consequence of a severe drought. U?>Sil A AS IT Is, MY COUNT tiU rowski. R MEMOIRS, Speeches, and Writings, of Robert Rantoul, jr., edited by Luther Hamilton. SACRED POEMS AND HYMNS for public and private devotion, by James Montgomery THE PLANTERS NORTHERN 1JR1DE a Novel, by Caroline Lee Hcntz, with illustration* ipom original design*, in 2 vols. THE CHURCH, in a series of Discourses, by oylvester Judd, Pastor of Christ Church Maine HISTORY OF OLIVER CROMWELL ano l?e English Commwiiwealth, from the execution of Charles I. to the death of Cromwell, by M G Guizot, translated by A. R. Scoble, in 2 vols. MisTORY OF THE FRENCH PROTEST AN1 Refugees, from the Revocation of the Edict ot Nantes to our own days, by M. Charles Weiss, 1 rolessor ol History in the Lycee Bonaparte, in 2 vols. ' VOICES OK THE NIGHT, by Rev. John Gum ming, D. D. I VOICES OF THE DAY, by Rev. John Gum ming, D. D. 4 i Just published and received at the bookstore #f . ,r ? R. FARNHAM, Al)r Corner of 11th st. and Penn.av APOCALYPTC SKETCHES.?Lectures on the Book of Revelation, by the Rw John Cumming, D. D.; 75 ceuts. Benedictions, or the Blessed Life, by tb<> K?-v. J. Cumming, D. D.; 75 cents. School Books and School Requisites at the low est price, for sale at the bookstore of GRAY Sc BALLANTYNE, On 7th street, near Odd Fellows' Hall PI A X (is, PIANOS!?We have now In store the largest and most reliable stoc k of 1'iano* ever offered in this city, from the justly re nowned manufactories of Hallet, Davis & Co Boston; Bacon & Raven, New York; and Knabe! c ,C?-? Baltimore ; ranging in prices from $?f25 to $500. In addition to those in store, we have on exhi bition at the Metropolitan Mechanics' Fair, at the ^niiihMHiiau Institute, four superb Pianos made expressly to our order for this Exhibition, any of which we will dispose of on reasonable terms. AUo on hand, Guitars, Violins, Flutes, Accord eons, Melodeons, Banjos. Strings. Music, 6ic Remember, at. the Piano, Music, Stationery Perfumery, and Fancy Goods Store of JOHN F. ELLIS, ?'W?> Penn avemie. near 10th street CI HEAI COMPLAINTS having been J made of the irregularity of the running of the boats between Washington and Alexandria, for the accommodation of the public, the undersigned J,a* u*,erm'De?' to run the steamer GEORGE 1 AGE as follows, vix.: From Washington, 6i, 8, 9J. and 11* a. m.; 1, 3, and 4 j, p. m. From Alexandria, 7*, bj, 10*. a. n>.; 121,2,4, and 5J. p. ro. ' ' ' ' Omnibuses connecting with the boat will leave the corner of Seventh street and Pennsylvania avenue at 6, 7|, 0J, Rnd n, a. m.. 12J) 8|, ;nd 4i p. m. Nov 7?tf. GEORGE PAGE. 4 VAI.UAIIL.E FARM IN VIKCIMA, J\ (I <MM> Acres) for Male.? Having leaned for a term of years, ''The Fauquier While Sulphur Spring*" to persons whose high reputation war rants the bebefthey will l>e kept in the best style, ihtt undersigned now offers for sale the valuable farm which Mirrounda the Spring*. It contain* upwards of 450 acres of low grouiHa ?remarkable lor extraordinary crops of corn, ind capable of being made the best possible inca jwi. As part of this I ind yielded 100 bushels ola *'.iy!e acre, in IB '3. the twelfth year of successive ilti? vation, without manure; and in 1ST>4, bad ** wti the season, produced 70 bushels?the Farm la easily susceptible of division, and ia certainly one of the l>esl in Virginia. Terms: One-third on the 1st of December nexl, and the balance in one and two yeara thereafter, with interest from date of delivciy. Forfurther particulars inquire of the subscribe! by letters addressed to " Wnrrentoii Springs, Vir ginia," or to Washington, D. C. May 1?If THOMAS GREEN. INTERESTING NEWH?We have Juat received a large assortment of HOOTS and SHOES for ladle*', miaaea', and children'# wear, w.iich we offer very low, Ladiea' Gaiter* from 91 to S3. Mi*?ea' Bool* ot every kind, in proportion. Of Children'* Shoea.we have every color and atyle, from 25 cent* up. The inquiry generally ia, Where can we find a good a**ortim*nt of ahoea for children ? We can nnawer all auch queriata to their aatiafaction if '.hey give ua a call. We would alao atate that we are prepared to manufacture every atyle of boot or ahoea uatially worn by gentlemen, ladiea. miaaea, or children. Alao on hand, every deacriphon of boota and ahoea, which will be aold very low. Call and examine lor youraelvea before pnr chaaing elaewhere, aa we are determined to aell. S. C. MILLS & CO., Mar 1?3t No. 480 Seventh at. I EXCELSIOR; HELPH TO PRtHJREHS J in Religion, Science, and Literature. A new monthly magazine, edited by the Rev. Jamea Hamilton, D. L>., of London, l'rice $1 50 per annum. Although nominally a young Men'a Magasine it will be a main effort of the conductora to pro vide for young men that heajlhfal atimulii* and theaida to improvement*, whfc.h many of them are now ao anxious to aecure. The editor ha* aecured the anai*iance of many able and excelled contributor*, and every effort will be made to render the work worthy the pat ronage and aupport of the chriatian public. Agenta for the Diatrict, GRAY & BALLANTYNE, Seventh atreet.