Newspaper Page Text
ft?- Mr Jamkh RluoTT i? aultioruod to r?o#?v?
aud receipt for aubH-rtptiuio. and advurtMeuieuL lor the Llaily aud the Weekly National Era, in Otuiiu uuli aud vioiniti ? WASHINGTON, D. C. WEDNESDAY, JUNE 2H, 1854. 00E POLITICAL SUKVRY. WI con1 meuced our Political Survey. J'" Ujiduy, by exhibiting ihe movement* among the \V bigs, Independent '"?J ,V" plo ol the tree State*, in relatnu to I ho Nu- , brack a Question, and the Slavery i?*uea in volved in it To-day, we priacnt the Administration in ite true character, aud shall lolloW this up In- l morrow, by directing attention to the uio?c uicnib of bbVt rul claries ol voters in tho liee , States, who aro either opeuly, or oovertly hum taming H Alter that, we nbull turn our view South- j wardly, and introduce our leaders to tho po- 1 iiucal movemeuta among the Slaveholders, who, j by a ndioulous misnomer, are called Whigs or Democrat*. THK ADM1H18TBATIOH ADD 118 SUPPORIEkS it id common to t-jk-ak ot the Purly that sustains the present Adiniuistratiou, as the Democratic huty. We shall he guilty ? l do bueh misnomer. Democracy is, government by the People, lor tlie benefit ol the People. Democracy in this country, if genuine, in ? p posed to government by classes, sections, fac tions, cliques, or executive power and patrou age. A Party which suatains euch u Democ racy, and sympathises with it in snch opjsisi tioo, is the Democratic Party. ( On the other band, a Party which sustains a faction, clique, B?otk)n, class, or an Erecutive Power, in oppi eitioo to the People, for tho sidco of an inter est, adverse ti> their interests, in etHentially ami groesly anti-Democratic, v. hutover its pteton ?iOUS. The bupporterd of tho prosent Administra tion constitute precisely such a Party. Its en tire policy, from the tiuio it commenoed the dispensation of patronage, down to tho pannage of tbe Bill for the repeal of the Missouri Coin promise, and the inceptiou of tho con*piracy to obtain Cuba, has been nteadily aimed at the establishment of its own power, by subju gating the will and interests of eighteen mil lions of the free people of the country, not in tetented in what is called t-lave property, to the will and interests id four hundrod thousand persons, with their dependents, interested in such property ; in other words, by subjecting the Pe.iple to tho government of a (Mass, ot which it is the active, untiring, unscrupulous agent. From its inauguration in March, 1853, till the meeting of Cougreeu in December, the only Domestic Question on which it acted was. Appointments to Ufliiia, and Distribution ol Pat ronage?and the etsential condition to the Im? ?tow men tot' office or patronage WM, unqualified adhofuw to Hint article in the Baltimore Plat form, which embodiw a pledge to consider the legislation of I860, especially tbe Fugitive Slave Act, as a finality, and to resist all agita tion of questions of Slavery, in Congress or out of it. This pledge was uot required by the People, Dor was it made for tbe benefit of the People, it was required by the Slavebolding Oligarchy, and made for its benefit. It was immoral and A uti-Democratic , but adheeion to it Wbs uniformly agisted upon by the Ad iniuifctrution, as a test ot fitness for office or the reception of patronage. For nine mouths tbe Administration employ ed itself upon this Question, acting upon this Anti-Democratic Principle; and yet, his sup porters claim to be thr Democratic Paity ! The aunual menage to Congress was so far devoid of any distinctive Democratic doctrine, that it received aim >st equal commendation fiom all Parties, except that Party which, in its re-affirmation of a Pro-Slavery creed, saw enough to vitiate its whole position and policy. Some abstract diwertatiou there was on Strict Construction Hud the relations of the Fedetal and State Power, made up of commonplace degmar, which uobody ever thinks of uttering, uuImxs for want of H>mothii.g else to say, or for tbe purp<-Mi of veiling some usurpation of power Since tbe tuaanage was delivered, Congrcts has be* n uim?iihi seveu months, with an over whelming Administration majority in both branohct Sur.dv, a Drmi-crutic President, with such a uiajorit v in the Federal L'|<ihlaturo and throughout the country, onght to have done something during these long months to prove his claim to the title. The immense commerce of the great West has been suflonng incalculable damage for many yeaie, for the want of tafe harbor* i?n the Lakes %nd miproffiaeniB in the large riv jn a oomi?? in wboh twelve . | U?e People are directlf, and all of thaw indi reotty, i?terf*l?d. An appropriation of one m two millions fnau a Treaenry with a surplus of flftj millions, wonld have lieen a wise, benefi oent popular measure But, no movement to waids such an act has been made ; this Drrrnt- \ erotic Administration was hostile to it. It w:is j very wife and entirely constitutional, without oonsulting the People's Representative**, tooflfcr twenty millions to Santa Anna for enough of Mexien to form two wlave States, and open the route of a Southern i ail way aerons the conti nent, from Chnrlenton to San Diego, lint very ! uuwiae aud entirely unconstitutional to appro priate ouu or two millions lor the protection of life and property among twelve millions of Poopltf. That is wise at.d constitutional which the Class Interest, of which the Administration ? the iigent demands ; that is just tho reverse, which the People demand and that Interest disapproves Another gr??at measure, in which all the People of all the States were deeply interested. the aooompliehmcnt ol which is necessary to perpetnate the union b ltwcen the free Htatcs of the P??ifio and the States of the Atlantic ?nd Mississippi wiw the Pacific Kailroad But an the Class Interest, which controls this Demouatu Administration, hail it# own views of this ?object, and jMrojwined to turu tbe enter prise chiefly to i<M own aggrandisement, tho iVs-iitf* was noii-c<?niii?itial id his mosNair" ^(Kf^nueg ?* floft,,y lhfl biU iolrod,'rt^,(, tBto the Hktua* m reletion to it was summarily postponed till the uext session by Administra tion votes, so as to preclude a speech from tho moot distinguished and determined oppo nent of the Southern route. Another act of this Democratic Adminis tration wait, the vetoing of a bill granting cer tain portions of the public lands to all the States, to be applied by them severally to the establishment af asylums fir the Indigent In sane?a measure of equal interest to the Peo ple of all sections, but disapproved of by the Prcsidcut, because he was unwilling to dis pJoano tho ruling Oligarchy, which frowns upon any disposition of 4tlu> public domain, intended specially for the good of the Peoplo, I he uext movement of this Democratic Ad- ' ministration wtu<, uh attempt through one of its instruments in the House to raise the tax on nowBpuperH and letters, so as to oblige the People of the free States make up the vast de ficit in the revonuos of the Post Office Depart ment, occasioned by the excess of expenditures among Slaveholders over receipts, the extrava gant appropriations made to mail steamship Companies, and the carriage through the mails free ofvost of documents, pamphlets, and let ters, sent by members of Congress. This mean attempt to increase the burden of the Many for tha benefit of the Few, fortunately failed to command tho assent even of the Administra tion majority. Hut, the crowning act of this Democratic Ad ministration?the act which has given it and its supporters an immortality of infamy?is the refteal of the Missouri Compromise, with a view, as it is now clearly demonstrated, to in troduce Slavery in Kansas, and to establish a Principle in virtue of which Slavery Propa gundihin may go forth conquering and to con quor,?a measure uncalled for by tho Pooplo, repugnant to their seiine ot Right and to their best interests, sprung upon them by surprise, forced through Congress in glaring opposition to their will, by the votes of mon pretending to represent them, while betraying them ; acting all the while under the dictation of an Admin istration professing roverenoe for Democracy, and practicing implicit obedionoo to tho Slavo holding Oligarchy! Wo ask every sober minded, disinterested Democrat in the country, is such an Adminis tration, Democratic ' Are its supporters, Dom- ' ooratic ' There is the reoord.?is it not true? And does not every act there record ed provo that it is the agent of the Class In terest of Slavery, working for its aggrandize ment, not only to the neglect, but in utter vio lation, of the rights and interests of the People'! I'o call such an Administration Demouratic, is to lie to (iod and mAn. To call im supporters tho Democratic Party, is to uttor a libel on all genuine Democracy. Call them Administra tion men, Pierce men, Servilos, Slavery Propa gandists, Coveuant Breakers, anything you please, so that you define thoir true position ; but, lor the sake of all that is decent and of good report in Republican institutions, do not ?lisgrao? the name, Democracy, by styling them Democratic?the Democratic Party.' Having exposed the true character of this Administration and its supporters, we shall be the belter prepared to understand and oharao teriza the politioal movements of those olasses of politicians in the free States who are labor ing to give it aid and countenance, and at the same time, to escape the odium of its policy. We shall pursue the subject to-morrow A WOBD IH EARNEST. The eleotions in some of the Kastern and Western States are now near at hand, but we arc still very much in the dark as to the course te be pursued by the Whigs and Anti Nebras ka Democrats in relation (hereto. It is well understood that no pains or coet will be spared by the Administration in the support of its Congressional candidates. All appliances of party and Government will bo put in opera tion ; every office-holder will be made to under stand that ho holds his place only on oondition of tendering active and unscrupulous election i eering service. Under these oircumstances, ; nothing short ol a complete fusion of all the i elements of opposition into a determined and vigorous party, based on the longabandoned principles of the Declaration of Independence, can insure a majority of Anti Slavory members in the House of Representatives. Shall this fasion take place 1 Shall V('higs. Democrat*, and Frce-Soilors?powerless while separated? unite, and sweep tho free States olean of serviles and slave catchers, and make the new House of Repiemntativcs an effectual barrier against the monMtrous propagandist!! of Slavery ? Shall the certainty of this most de sirable result he sacrificed to an im-ane attach ment to party names and prejudices? Are there none among the leading Whigs of the North who are capalde of rising to the altitude of the occasion, and declaring, that if Freedom fails in this death grapple with Slavery, the fault shall not Im at the doors of themsclvea and their friends who are ready to meet Free Sailers and Anti Nebraska Democrats on a common platform of constitutional and legal opposition to Slavery, and, forgetting the things that are behind, bury old fouds and personal antipathies, ojd party names and watchwords, and rally about thorn a party of Froednra, having for its speoifio objects the repeal of tho execrable Fugitive Slave Law and the Nebras ka Bill,and the limitation aud denationalisation of Slavery ' The men who should do tliia be cause they ran do it?are well known. The responsibility rests upon them. They must answer for it to (iod and their oountry. But, why waste words ? Tho hour has struck?tho favorable moments for tuocessful action are rapidly passing. If anything is to be done to save the eountry from the perdition to whioh it is tending, now is the timo for it. ?>uce far all, l?t it he well understood, that the I'roe Democracy ask nothing but the privilege of swelling with thoir ono hundred and si*?y thousand votes the ranks of the Party of Free dom, and of bringing to tbC support of that party, ' by whomsoever led, untiring zeal and unthgging labor. Whigs and Democrats, who love liberty, j the matter rests with yo,i. > 0.1 hold in yoor hands the destiny of the country You can establish its lihertios on a sure foundation, or leave to the future a darker Jegaey of ovil than one generation bas ever yet bequeathed to an other The qucstuw is lietween jLils>rty and Slavery. Cbouso for yoyrsslyes and jsmterity, q w. !<>?<!???? I'tte do bate in the Senate to-day was some what personal Massachusetts suffered noth ing io the hands ol her eloquent Senator, n<?r did he wuffur by (he assaults of his ferocious adversaries. In the House, the bill providing additional mail service between the Atlantic and the Pa oilit) wan defeated, and the closing speech on the ten millions appropriation bill was made by Mr. Houston. LITKHAUY NUTICE8 DoCUMICNTAt V JIlSTOKV ok TUK Revolution. By H. W. (iibbun, M. D., Coin in bin, S C. A voliuuo of three hundred pages, contain ing letters and paperH relating to the oonteNt for liberty during the last three yeats of the Revolutionary War, uhieHy in South (,'arolina. The correspondence in mainly carried ou by Greens, Marion, Sumter, and Kutledge, but a good many interesting letters that passed between the American arid British officers are presented. In thin, an in all works of the olasn, there in a great deal of (thai)', but there is enough wheat to pay for the trouble of wilting it out. It is a real pleasure, too, to go to the sources of His tory and nee how much of our compiled infor mation is corrcet. Writers of different parties on the war against Mexico would prepare narratives very diffcroutly colored, and sug gesting quite oppot-itc opinions, although they would draw their materials from the same sources. He who would not take opinions on trust, or at aecoud hand, will always bo glad to avail himself of a faithful and full docu mentary history. That before us is, of course, merely frag mentary ; but it contains some of the finest Hjiocimeiis of lotter-writing, from Gen. Groeno, that wo have ever seen from any pen. Personal Naiikativr of Kxplorations and In ciprnts. By John Russell Bartlott. Iu 2 vols. New York 1). A|>i>l?ton A Co. For .stile by R Farnbaiu, Washington, 1>. C. Mr. Bartlott was appointed by Gen. Taylor, in June, 1850, United States Commissioner, to run the boundary line, in conjunction with the Mexican Commissioner, between this coun try and Mexico. In that year, and in 1851, 1852, and 1853, ho travelled extensively through Trxas, New Mexico, California, Sono ra, and Chihuahua: and these two large hand somely printed volumes, embellished with maps and illustrations, contain a Narrative of his explorations during that time, and of the in cidents of his journeyings; and much valu ablo information concerning the regions he traversed?the soil, climate, mineral resources, animal and vegetable products, and various tribes of savages. It is written without exag geration, generally in a simple, easy style, and, bating some excess of detail, is very interest ing. NEW BOOKS. Our attention has been so exclusively occu pied with filter than literary matters, for some time past, that we have not been able to no fcioe, in order, several new books which have b?eo laid on our table. At present, we oan only speak of two or three recent publications of Tioknor & Co. "Poems and Parodies," is the title of a collection of the pootical writings of Phebe Carey, who needs no introduction to the readers of the Era. There is true poetry in this vol ume?pure, womanly, and sweetly musical ut teranoes of the heart as well as tho intellect Somewhat less imaginative and fanciful than her sister Alice, the writer is truer to nature and the aotual experience.* of life. There is an intense reality of feeling in some of her lyrics, which is almost painful, and which sin gularly contrasts with what we know of her sunny-hearted and happy girlhood. Her Par odies have a great deal of characteristic clear noes and wit; but, with tho exception of "Martha Hopkins''?a j?rfect gem of a bal lad?are fcarcely worthy of the place thoy occupy in connection with tho serious beauty of the original poems. WKNSi.Er,' a story without a moral, is, we think, the most successful attempt which has yet been made to portray the peculiar trials of New England society of the past generation. Tho old-school Clergyman and his man Jasper are evidently pictures from life, and are drawn with skill, truthfulness, and genial humor. It seems to us the most readable book of the kind which has appeared since Hawthorne's Blith dalo Romance. The authorship is unac knowledged, but rumor ascribes it to Kdmund Wuincy, Esq., of Boston. " Atiierton, and other T41.Es/' by Mary Russel Mittord is an original work by the author ol " Our Village,'' and everyway equal to those oharining rural pictures of merry Kng land. Indeed, we are inclined to rank Atiier ton, as a work of art, higher than any previous prod notion of the writer. It is a faultless bit of roawioe, the inters* of which never (lag* for a moment I'he book is elegantly printed. and is mads doubly valuable by a fine engra ving of the author?a beautiful, kindly face whioh Time has only touched lightly and lev ioK'y??ory ideal of a true English gentlo woman J. (j W. Important Measures. ? The Baltimore American enumerates the following important measures now occupying the attention of the people and Congress of the pountrj: The treaty between Mexico and the |Jnited States, by whioh wo are to pay ten millions the Reci procity and Fishery treaty hetwoen Great Brit ain and tho United Statos ; the annexation of the Sandwich Islands; a treaty tmtwoen the United States and Japan: tho organization of the Territories of Nebraska and Kansas, the acquisition of Cuba, either by purchase orcon qnest, the reorganization of tho navy, and the establishment of an apprenticeship system for the increase of seamen ; a modification of the tariff, and thp building uf tho Pacific railroad; the withdrawal of the African rqnadron, and the adoption of means for the protection of tho morohant marine on our ooast. Tho Tariff will not lie modified, (as it ought to be,) and tho Pacific Railroad is laid over till next session. RjP* The Louisville Jonrnal states, upon the authority of a gentleman, who arrived thore from Lexington, that the hair of tyeigart, found guilty of uiurder in the first degree, which was formerly black, has turned white sipoe hjs eopviotion Taverns Destroyed.?There ?u a mub at Ripley, Ohio, on Saturday night, caused by the inmates of a tavern throwing rotten egg* into a 1 oiuperwict meeting The Temperance men rallied, and destroyed all the bar fixtures and liquor in the house. They then visited all the liquor shops iu the town, and those that did not agree to give up tho business were assault ed. No lives were loet. New Hampshire.?in tho House of Repre sentatives, yesterday furenoon woe spent in de bating the anti-Nobranka resolutions. A eoui mittco of five was appointed to iuqoire into charges against tho coalition, < f attempting to bribs members, ami drugging their liquor. Murder by an Inkehnal, Machine.?On Monday evening a bo* was sent to the Ma-ine Hospital, on the corner of Lougworth and Western Kow, Cincinnati, and deposited in the room of the steward, Mr. S. H. Allison At about ten o'clock, the steward and his wife, being alone in the room, opened the bo*, when it exploded, mangling the bodies of both horribly. Mrs. Allison hud both arms torn off and her skull fractured. Mr. Allison was dreadfully mangled. The furniture, windows, and ceiling of the room, were shattered to I atoms. The indioations are, that the box contained a bomb-shell about si* iuches in diameter. Thero is no olue to the perpetrator of this aw ful outrage. Our Navy.?The Buffalo Democracy says: " Hero is a table, from a recent pamphlet, by tin American officer, showing tho extent of the first live navies in the world: Veni'els of war. No. of guns:' Kngland - - 667 18,330 France - - 328 7,1-14 Russia - - 190 5,896 Holland - - 102 2,219 United States ? - <>0 ljo28" This is a tcant showing, to be sure; but then, in the matter of expense, we doubt not we can make a larger oomparative exhibit! The Gadsden Treaty.?The New York National Democrat thus sustains the demand of the Democratic President: <l If Congress shall consent to give Santa Anna ten millions of dollais for a miserable strip of territory which would soon fall into our hands, it will give just ten millions less than the President wa* willing to give him, and which amount was inserted in the first treaty. But what is ten millions, when Santa Anna is in need, und our Troasury so full ' What would havo been twenty miliums even, when tho President deemed it should bo given to Santa Anna? The Senate have saved the country a small sum by their action. Now let us promptly puy up the amount demanded. It is not much lor the country to pay for their whistle?not much for the Democracy to give, when their 1 favorite' demands it! " ?7" Mr. James Crutcher, one of the jurors in the Ward case, has published a card explan atory of his assenting to tho verdict He im pugns the motive* of the larger portion of the jury, and alleges that deception was praotiood upon him, and that he was entrapped into an ?saent. It wan a vile verdict, and its odium will live forever. FROM A PIOHEEB Minnesota, June 10, 1854. To tke Editor of the National Era : Having come to Minnesota for the purpose ol making a olaim and a home, and being poor, as a majority are who go to a new oountry, and having had several years' experience In Western life, allow me to tell our servants in Congress our wants: 1st We want three or five years'pre-emption, to pay for our lands. With one year's pre emption we are obliged to pay for our lands before we can produce anything to spare, as it is woll known that for the first year and a half we must he on expense. 1 think most of tho settlers would be satisfied with a bill to that effect, instead of one granting lands free of ooet. Certainly the land business should pay its own expenses. Under the present system, we are obliged to go to speculators, and get them to enter our lands for us, and allow them from 25 to 90 per cent, on their money. This enormous interest accumulates eo rapidly, that one half the set tlers are obliged to sell their lands to pay lor them Government should give us this time which we have to purchase so dearly of specu lators ; and it would lose nothing in the end by the operation. Let us have Mason's Land Bill, granting five years' time or preemption, or something like it, before the close of the present Congress. 2d. We want one hundred poet offices ee tahlished immediately. The mail route from Dubuque to St. Paul, via Kloador, Deoorah, Chatfield, and Orouooo,' should be established now, so that the close of navigation will not close the mails. The ooun try is fast settling on this route, and already largo settlements are thirty nuUs from this post office 3d. We want the public land sales abolished. Government gains little or nothiug by putting tho lands up at auption, while it is a great ii - convenient)* and nuisance to actual settlors. Wo are obliged to attend for days and weeks at the plaoe of sale, and if by ehanco we have found a ohotea spot, we are liable bo lose it by the overbidding of some speculator who has a larger purse than we. Please tell onr servants in Congress these things, anil seo if they cannot do something for us. Yours, P. F. Thurber. Prom th? Salem (Ohio) Homextsftd Journal KANSAS AMD SLAVERY. Sinee the Plan lor Freedom, a part of which we published a few weeks ago, has Immmi set in motion iu Massachusetts and New York, the South have endeavored to organise a similar company, and, as they choose to term it, " bent the Abolitionists, at their own game," Their prime object is, to first settle Kansas with slaveholders, and, when that Territory is well secured, and Slavery firmly rooted in its soil, they will then, if need he, turn thoir attention to Nebraska. The slaveholders are on tho alert, and, although they have, by the basest and most dishonorable treachory, secured the privilege of taking their human chattels to these Territories, they will not oonsider their viotory complete until involuntary servitude becomes a " fixed faot" in the Constitution of Nebraska and Kansas, hut more especially the latter. ') nd when this purpoae is onoe aobievod, tfoen, doubtless, other aggrexsions on free soil will be oon tern plated by the Slave Power. Tho Ordi nance of 1787, by which Ohio and the North west were fortvei doclarod free from the loath ing curso, will he the next to reoeive the at tacks of the enemy. Forever, with the South, means only as long as tkry please Several meetings, for the purpose of organ ising companies of slaveholders to qottlp Kan sas, have already been held in MiMonri. The Hon. John G. Palfrey is writing a his tory of New Kngland. Fur the National Era MAY. BY C. M MORRltt. 'Tin a glorious month for tbe Poet and bird, And I doubt me if ever a sweeter were beard Tban that which Hings high on the oldobeatnutbough, That ho lovingly droops round uiy window-Hill now! Ob' leave tbe dull hearth, for why will ye linger, With pale aching brow, or swift-plying ttugor ' Throw the work quite away, leave tbe pen ? tardy motion*; All the dreauiy new books will make good sleeping potions! I should know it is May, without any cipher Of Calendar months, by our joyous old lifer, Who Hi rolls through tbe village, as if the rude fife, That clings to his lips, were tbe solace of life 1 I should know the glad month on thin glowing day, By the urchins, half oraay with marbles and play; Aud even the Sun seems to wear a new splendor, Or pen-wouried eyes are becomiug more tender ! But sometimes old Winter, to make the folks fret. Steps in upon May, just for one pirouette; A snow drift or hail-storm, or something of scurry, To let us all know he's not off in a hurry ! Kudu Winter! all ice-bound and stern as thou art, There's something about thee that dings to my heart i With thy warm-curtained rooun and thy bright so cial faces, Whore one oan sit down without studying graces ' There's the table bo filled with food for the inind. That the food for the body is half left, behind, Till some Kpicure-spirit sweeps off in a freak, Some silvery verse, or some sour oritique ! Then the new books, I love them whenever they come, Without any brown mark from a finger or thumb. That shows how some pale, snuffy student before llath purloined all their treasure to add to his store! But May is a sad month, whenover we find What long sunny Mays we are leaving behind; And many a slab in the churchyard will say, Our brightest, our dearest, we buried in May ! Oh ! May is the season for roaming or rest, Through tbe wild wood, whichever may please you the best; With the blue sky above, and the moss for a throne. You may fancy wild Nature's sweet kingdom your own! Yes ! seated for hours in some dreamy nook, With a silly now song, or a wondrous old book? The song is one's own, and oollected with care. But it puts you to sleep in spite of the air! But the twilight's brood shadows are deepening round; I am far from the homed lead, and tread fairy ground ; I think f see elves, bat it may be but spidors, Some hravc pigmy knight with a train of out-riders! There's the " star in tho sunset," how gloaming and (till, Like a rich biasing gem on the brow of the hill; In tbe language of stars, [ suppose it must say, I'm shining so brightly in honor of May ' And there's the May moon?oh ' pale, pearly shell! Your topic is old?how old I can t tell; But alter the great Master poet, 'twere vain To trespass on any peculiar domain ' But one word I must say, as we part at the gate, And it shall not be long, for U is growing late : Though perfume and rose* are coming with June, I shall never forget thy soft guidance, May moon ! [roPYBlOIIT 8KCITHKD BY THI AHTHOE.|* For the National Bra THE LEGAL TENURE OP SLAVERY. LXTTKB XT!. SLAVERY ILLKGAL BY THE 8TATE CONSTI TUTIONS FORMED FROM 177? TO 178V, AND AFTERWARDS. To the Frieruh of American Liberty : I have shown that Slavery cannot l>o legal ised in any uf the State* that are founded upon the Deolaratiou of Independence, unless or un til they have formally repealed and repudiated that Declaration, which none of them have yet done. I shall now show that, in addition to all this, the State Constitutions of the several States, including tho present slave States, or many of them, are incompatible with Slavery, insomuch that they would have abolished any previously established legal Slavery, if it had existed among them. I will liegin with Massachusetts, where a judicial decision has determined that the State Constitution prohibits Slavery, and then com pare with the Constitution of Massachusetts, those of some of the slave States. " In Massachusetts, it was judioially decided, soon after the Revolution, that Slavery was virtually abolished by the Constitution, and that the issue of a female slavo, though l>orii prior to the Constitution, was born free." ? Kent'i Commentary, p. 252. In giving the opinion of the Court in the case of the Commonwealth vs Thomas Aves, in 1833, Chief Justice Shaw said: <4 How, or by what act particularly, Slavery was abolished in Massachusetts whether by the adoption of the opinion in Somerset's case, as a declaration or modification of the Com mon Law, or by the Declaration of Independ ence, or by the (Constitution of 1780, is not now very easy to determine; and it is rather a matter of curiosity than utility, it being agreed on all b tnds that, if not abolished he/ore, it was by the Declaration of Rights." * * ? * '? Without pursuing this inquiry further, it is sufficient for the pur|iosesof the case before us, that by Ike ConMitutum adopted in 178(1, Sla very was abolished ip Massachusetts on the ground that it is uontrary to natural right and tb? plain principles uf justioe. The terms of tbe first article of tb* (ieclaration of Rights art plain and explicit. ' All. men are born free and equal, and have certain natural, essential, and unalienable rights, which are tbe right of enjoying and defending their lives and liberties, that of acquiring and possessing and protect ing property.' It would lie difficult to select words more precisely adapted to the abolition of Slavery."?Pickering* Reports, pp. 2QM-IQ It will be observed here, that while Judge Shaw agrees with Chancellor Kent, that the Const it ul ion of Massachusetts abolished Slavery in that State, "if not abolished before," (de olaring that this is " agreed on all hands,") he adds, that either one of three other things which ho mentions, vix: 1st, the decision of Lord Mansfield in Somersett's case : 2d, the authority of common laws ; or, 3d, tho Decla ration of Independence, would have been mifli cient for the same purpose This sustains ful ly the course of argument I have already pur sued. And it will be noticed, furthor, that each of these three grounds of deciding tho illegality of Slavery (either of which, by itself, would be amply suffioiont) are as valid in all of the Statea as they are in Massaohusetts AH the ,Stater> w^rs equally affected by the decision of Somersett's case, equally under the authority of common law, and equally under tho operation of the Declaration of Independ enoe. If either one or all of these rendered Slavery illegal in Massachusetts, they rendered it illegal in Virginia, in the Carolinas, and in (tcorgia Let us next see whether the same observa tion may not be extended to the fourth ground of abolition, mentioned by Judge Shaw, and | ' agreed on all hands," viz: tho State Consti tutions. How did those of the slave States com paro with that of Massachusetts ? Delaware.?" All men have, by nature, tho ! rithta of worshipping and serving their Crea tor according to the diotates of their 00,1 " sciences, of enjoying and defending lift and liberty of acquiring aud protecting reputation and property^1 "The people shall be secure in their persons, bounce, papers, and posses sions trow all treasonable searches and seiz ures." " No attainder shall work corruption of blood, nor, except during the life of the of fender, forfeiture of estate " * Maryland.?" All government, 01 right, ori ginates from the people, is founded in 00m ? pact only, and instituted solely for the good ol the whole." ''The inhabitanth of Mary land are eutitled to the common law of Eno LAND." " Entitled,'' consequently, to protection from Slavery. "The right, in the people, to participate in the legislature, is the best security of liberty and the foundation of all free government." " Every man has a right to petition the Legis lature," &c. " That monopolies are odious, contrary to the spirit of a freo Government, and might not to be suffered.'* This Constitution wus framed in August, 1776, and re-enacts the Declaration of lode pcndence, proclaimed a few weeks previous. Noktii Carolina ?" Declaration of Right* 11 That all political power is vested m and de rived from the people only." " That no man or set of men arc entitled to exolusivo or sepa rate emoluments or privileges from the commu nity, but in consideration of public services." w That fruodom of the press is one of the groat bulwarks of Utterly, and therefore ought never to be restrained." 41 That all men have a natural and unalienable right to worship Almighty God according to the dictates of their own consciencos." " That a frequent re currence to fundamental principles is absolute ly necessary to preserve "the blessings ok liberty." " That perpetuities and monopolits arc contrary to the genius of a free State, aud OUGHT NOT TO BE ALLOWED Plainly implying that North Carolina is to be regarded a 11 free State." The Constitution contains no establishment or recognition ot Slavery, and confers no authority on the Legis lature to establish it. On the contrary, it ex plicitly doclaros (Art. 44) "That the Declara tion ot' Rights is hereby declared to bo a part of the Constitution of this State, and ought never to be violated, on any pretence whatever." How, then, can there be any legal validity in thoee remarkably rigid statutes of North Car olina, by which not only " monopolies" and " perpetuities " are guarded, but rights of con scieuoe violated, slaves forbidden to read the Bible, and all colored men, bond or free, for bidden to preach the Gospel ? Viruinia.?" All men are by nature equally freo and independent, and have oortain inhe rent rights"?"namely, the enjoyment of life and liberty, with the means of acquiring and possessing properly, and pursuing and obtain ing happiness and safely." So much for the Constitutions of four of the original Stutes, still retaining Slavery. In three of them, the terms employed are quite as full and emphatic against Slavory as iu the Consti tution of Massachusetts. In the other, they are scarcely lens so. Let us now look at the Constitution of one of the newer slave States. Tennessee ?" Declaration of Rights."? u That all power is inherent IN THK PEO PLK, and all frek Governments arc founded on their authority, and instituted for their peace, safety, and happiness; for tho advance ment of these ends they have, AT A LL TIM ES, an inalienable and indefeasible right to alter, reform, or ABOLISH, tho Government they live under, in such manner as they may think right of "THE PEOPLE "of Kentucky includes, of course, the rights of the " people of color ' bond and tree! Rather " incendi ary." But read further: "All mln hare n natural and indefeasible! right to worship Almighty God according to the dictates of their own consciences." "That tho PEOPLE shall be secure in their PER SONS, houses, papers, and possessions, from unreasonable searches and seizures." ''That perpetuities and monopolies are coutrary to the genius of a fric Slate, and ought not to be al lowed&c., &o. .If Slavery can be legalized under Constitu tions like these, the utility of Constitutions, as a means of restricting the despotism of legisla tion and securing freedom, might as well he abandoned first ai last. Constitutional Gov ernmonte, in such a case, bconnio a farce. I do not say that all the Constitutions ol slave States aompare with these. But I do say that Slavery cannot legally exist under such State Constitutions Some of the States have ohanged their Constitutions since 1789. But I challenge the proof that, a( that period, there was a single State whuse Constitution author ized the Legislature to establish Slavery. William Goodei.l. * Thin Constitution of Delaware was adopted in 1791, uftrr the. adoption of the Federal Constitution, and after the judicial decision in MawacbusetU. de flaring Slavery inconsistent with a Constitution oJ precise^ the same character |BY HOUSITC PRINTING TELEGRAPH I TELEGRAPHIC (MHiRKSPONHRNM FOR DA'1 v NATIONAL KKA. fVoffi .Yeiv York?The Weather?Foreign News at hand?Sailing of the jfrubiu. New York, Junk 28.?The dignities on the New York and Erie railroad have at length been settled, and the freight and passenger trains are running as usual. It is estimated that the loss to the company by the "engineers' strike" will exceed $100 000. It ia not known whether the Hon Gilbert Dean will aooept of the Supreme Court Judge ship The weather is Axo??Miv*ly warm. At noon the thermometer stood at W5 The Cunard steamer, with three days later intelligence from Europe, is full due. Soveral new cases of cholera are reported. The royal mail steamship Arabia sailed at noon to-day for Liverpool. She took out 180 (tassengcra, and $287,00U in specie. Among her passengers was Mons. Roger, bearer of dis patches. Railroad .Accident. Buffalo, June 2K?A serious accident oc curred on the Groat Western K nil road, in oon sequence of the whole train of cars being thrown off the track. The bsuimotive wan completely destroyed; 0110 man was killed, and several persons injured. The Weather To-day. The thermometer at New York, at noon to day, stood at W5 ; in Philadelphia, M5; in Bal timore, 93; in Washington, HI. JVVo> York Market. New York, June 2H.?Business of all kinds is dull to-day. Flour heavy; sales of 5,000 barrels State brands at $7 25 ; Southern, $8 50 to $?. Wheat?sales of 4,000 bushels; com mon red at $1.50 to $t .?0 ; Genesee at $2.36 Corn?Rales of 30.0(H) bushels mixed at TH cents; yellow, 81 to 82 cents, (tots, fiO cents Cotton dull and drooping. The stock market shoves slight upward tendency Baltimore Market. Baltimore, June 28.?The oppressive heat of the weather has checked all kinds of busi ness. yionr?Howard Street is held at $8 44 , ^Jity Mills, $8. No sales. Wheat?no sales, red is nominally held at $1.70 a $1 75,; white, #1.75 a #1 80. Corn?sales of 24 000 bushels, white and yellow, 80 a 83 cents, oud mixed at 78 owita. Oat*?tale* of 2,000 but>belr, 58 a 60 cent*. Philadelphia Market. Philadelphia, Junk 28.?Business exceed ingly dull to-day. Flour, $8 50. We have no change to notice in our grain quotations?mar ket heavy. From iht South. Nkw Ohlicans, Junk 28. ? In the way of business, there in but little doing to-day. The weather is exceedingly hot. Ohio River. Wheeling, June 28 ?Four feet of water in the channel of the river at thm (.unit At Pittsburgh, stationary. Weather intensely hot. C0NUKESS. I'HIKTV THIRD IJONllRKKH?KIHHT SESSION. The House bill to change the annual meet ing of Congioss to the first Monday in Novem ber was rejooted iu tho Senate?yeas 15, nays 33 iu the Houst*, yesterday, Mr. Richardson de nounced in severe term* tho author- and pub lishers of a despatch from this eity, accusing hiui of fraudulently retaining (he "Clayton amendment" in the Kansas-Nebraska bill. Tho debate on the Ten Million Appropria tion continued until eight o'clock in the even ing, when the Committee rose, and the House adjourned. Senate, Wednesday, June 28, 1854. A few petitions wore presented. Mr. Pettit spoke for over half an hour, in personal explanation. He said that on Monday ho had made some remarks on the extraordi nary avowal made by tho Senator from Massa ohusetts, that he recognised no obligation to olwiy the Constitution which he had sworn to support. In the report of those remarks, as published in the Globe of Tuesday morning, there appeared in his remarks u statement that Mr. Suinnor had said : "I said, I recognise no obligation iu the Con stitution to bind me to help to reduce a man to slavery." Theso remarks, which the rc|*?rt as publish ed in the Globe attributed to Mr. Sumuer, he (Mr. P ) declared were never made in the Sen ate, and, if they had been made, were false, and would have been so branded at the time. Mr. Sumner. I call the Senator to order. The remarks in the report, attributed to me, were uttered by mo, as reported. ? Mr. Petcit. 1 will prove, in the very teeth of his statement, that it is false. [Cries of " Order, order.'*] Mr. Pettit then proceeded to Bhow that the remarks oiuld not have been made, because Mr. Suinnor had not the fl-mr to- make theiu ; that if uttered in his scat, they ought not to have been reported, for lie bad not heard them, and oould not have replied to tbem. He contended that Mr. S, after the adjournment ot the Senate, visited the reporter f >r the Globe, and interpolated these remarks, which he had never uttered. Ho had seen tho remarks in the proof shoots of his own speech, and had strieken them out, because they appeared there iu falsification of the record. Vet tho publish er of the Globe bad minted upon putting them in. He read a letter from Mr. Suttou, of tho Globe, to the effect that the remarks complain od of were not originally reportod as publish ed ; but Mr. Sumner had revised them, and put them in their present shape. He further con sidered the remarks of Mr. Sumner, and con demned them in strong and denunciatory lan S^r. Sumner said that he would ropeat, that the remarks as published were uttered substan tially as reported. He had made the remarks in his seat, and did not expect it would havo reached the reporter's ear. Upon revising his own remarks, he was informed that there wero some sentences of his which ap|>eared in the , report of tho speech of the Senator frcui Indi ana. They were shown to him. He told the reporter that they had not been heard exactly as they were spoken ; ho repeated them to the reporter as be had uctually uttered them, and the reporter wrote them down. Ho kuew nothing further of thn matter. As to all else said by the Senator from Indiana he had nothing whatever to say. Tho matter then dropped On motion by Mr. Stuart, the Senate took up the bill granting land to the Territory of Minnonota to aid in the construction of a rail road iu that Territory. And the same wuh read a third time, and passod. The Senate resumed tho consideration of the motion to refer to the Committee on the Judi ; oiary the memorial from Boston, praying the repeal of the Fugitive Slave Law. Mr. D X'>n addres-ed thn Senate at length, against the repeal i f the Fugitive Slave Law, in defunoe of that law, and in declaring his total disconnection with tho Whig party of the North, which was becoming abolitionized. Mr. Mallory and Mr. Clay followed, de nouncing, in ntrong terms, the language impu ted to Mr. Sumner, of denying any obligation upon him to cxeoutc the Constitution ia return ing a fugitive to slavery. Mr. Sumuer commenced at a little after two, in a most fervent and eloquent manner, a pow erful reply to the ahum; thrown upon him, and in defence of his position in opposition to tho Fugitive Slave Law. He placed himself on the broad ground taken by (General Jaokson, that eaoh public officer who takes an oath to sup ; port tho ('(institution of the United States. I swears to support it as he understands it, and i not as others understand it. No Senator dimented from thin doctrine He oould not bo expeoted to understand the Con stitution as the Senator from Smith Carolina, who understood it an including a whole host of bloodhounds, pawing to get InoM their hinder parts. He il still speaking. Hitu.v of Representatives, June 28, 1851. The S|>eakor laid liefort* the House a com munication from the War Department, tians nutting, in response to a resolution of the House of 2?>th June, a copy of Fuller s Rej>ort of the Survey of tho Ohio River. Laid on tho table, and ordered to lie printed. Tho Speaker announced the busine#! I>efnre tho House to be the bill to provide a weekly mail service lietween the Atlantic ports and San Francisco Mr. Sknlton, by consent, introduced a bill for the better protection oi life and pro|>orty on the ooast of tho United States, which was referred to the Committee on Commerce, and ordered to he printed. Messrs. tCohh, Haven, MoDougal, MoMul len, Olds, Chamberlain, and Mace, debated Iho motion to reoonstdor the vote ordoring tho California mail bill tu be vead a third time. |This motion was made lor tho purpot-e of amending the hill, and the debate utok in it* scope, to some extent, the amendments pro posed, whioh, however, were not important | The vote wm reconsidered, and the amend ments adopted Upon the question, ' Shall the bill be read a third time'*" The yeas and nays being called for, Mr. Bridges moved to lay the bill on the table; upou which motion the yeas and nay* were ordered, and the result was?yeas 84, nays 70 Mr. MoDougal moved to reconsider the v??to Mr. Letcher moved to lay that motiou on the table