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For the National Era. THE NEB&ASKA BOX?HO. 0. 'VIM. SLAVERY, ir PKRMITTKD, OO INTO NE BRASKA ' This question 1 should not deem worthy of tlUoussioo, if it had not lieen put forward, and, I regret to tee, with the aid of one of the ben atom of Mnspaobuaetb', to push ^'df*,,n <lu** tiiin of right, and to blunt the aemubillty with <vluah we ou*bt to nee principle and eomp.ot jfMlnte and tr,tin,.led on. Ah on argument for the bill. all ihat lute loon Mid on th;s point even if wo admit the false p.?mis*, amounts to thin, and no more : that there was jo guilt or harm in Arnold's treason, since tl.e country was not thereby enslaved! In answer to this question 1 hate observe, iu ihe first plae.o. that so deep and universal an interest would not Iks felt in the South, owning the organisation of Territories in the North, if they did not expect that tbo opening of them to tho influx of slavery would strength en " the slave power,'' enlarge the slave niai - ket, give a new impetus to the domestic wave trade, and enhauoo more or lctw the prico <. f slaves, and of course the value of slave propor ty throughout that oountry. The advocates ol the bill, and particularly the Southern, say that they do not espcot slavery to go into Ne braoka; that they do not seek to introduce it, but simply to assert the principle of the Com promise of 1850. Ttioy go for principle, not for profit! The effroutery of this pretence, eon sidering the high intelligence ol onr people, in one of the most striking circumstances of the case. It iudioates a confidence in the omnijo tence of' tho slave power/' and iu the efficacy -of impudent and tranbparent imposture, which confuses the sense and momentarily stupefies ?,he faculties, like the quaking of the earth on ier our feet If tho object was morely to gon erali*e the lluoiy of tho Compromiso uf 1850, why was there no attempt to apply it to the | VVashmgtou Territory ? That would have been comparatively easy, as no compact stood in the way. It would have been a repeal o! an ordinary law. That Territory was organ ised nearly three years after the Compromise of 1850, and tho Oregon anti slavery restric tion, extended over it in lf<48. remained un luestioned. Iu fact, tho new I orritory camc into being so silently that tho oountry wan scarcely aware of its existence until tho ap pointment of its Govornor waj announced Either it bad not been discovered, at that time, that the Compromise of 1850 had any euoh bearing as is now pretended, or it was thought that slave-breeders would stand little chanco of finding much of a market in tho remote north wast corner. Kit her faot is fatal to the pres ent pretence. They du expcct slavery to go into Nebraska, and there, if permitted, it will go as sorely as night will follow day. Cot the levee, and cof fles of slaves will turn into this fine Territory, just as certainly as the waters of the Mississip pi would turn upon the city of New Orleans. Missouri is a slave State; we all know inat, and by what promises and pledges she became so. She has now from 90,000 to 100 000 slaves Nebraska, to a vast extent, lies within the same parallels of latitude, and ooosists of wide and nearly level prairies, quite as well adapted to slave labor as Mu-aouri. Viewing the matter in the light of experience, how can any one doubt that slavery will flow immediately into the con tiguous Territory, if the levee is demolished1 Will not the inhabitants move westward with the movetrent of the fide ? And will not slaves as well as masters float on its currents ! 1 en yean ago, a Miseourian* informed me that he and scores of his neighbors bad removed to far distant Oregoo and Northern California with their ulavex, (hough, as is well known, it was very doubtful if they would be permitted ulti mately to hold ? hem there. It is stated that large numbers in Mio^ouri arc now awaiting the signal to rush into Nebraska. Doubtless the same, to a certain extent, is true of Keniuoky, Tennessee, North Caroliua, Virginia, and Mary laud Three-fifths of the territory of those Status lies in the same latitudes as Missouri and Ne braska. v?: all Maryland, Virginia, Kentucky, and a portion of North Carolina and Tonnes* e as laige as Connecticut. At this moment there are a million of slaves on Amerioaif suit situa ed in the same latitude as Nebraska, and in ferior to i both in extent and fertility. And yet out one of the m;wters of this million will carry or tend slaves to Nobraska! Farther, the States whioh ocoupy this sec tion of the South have bred mnM of the slaves which supply all the rest. It is too notorious, j that Slovory may be sustainod indefinitely in farming States, by the Im-vnen of breeding slaves for iho planting Statos There is an enormotif, but, it is said, a wiic and economical ex(>eoditure of human life oil Southern planta tiona This, together with the opening of new estates, creates a great and steady demand, which the farming States supply. "The vigm lioif ornp," for interstate slave trade and e* iwirtation, takes the place of oom aod swine. It is estimated that a slave, before he ie twenty ye?r* o'.d, can earn, even on a soil compara tively exhausted sufficient to pay his raising; and when he is fit Tor market, he can transport himself, and is saleaMe at his mastoids door The raising aod fattening of other animals is a dead <Xfmusc, lr>'Ui the first moment up to the delite-y in the market. The difforence betwsen the I "if Ml and the biutc animal, as a umre marketable commodity, is as striking ae any other di'tsreoeo lietweon them; and it * is rather surprising that this obvious reflection ha- not long ag > disabused every human flesh jobber of the wild notion of their identity IT** rssnlt is, that the price of a tiave ie elear profit! According to data furnished by the las chhsiis. tlie luinual amount of income received Sy the fanners of Maryland, Virginia, and Ken tne'y, from ihts biwwieM, is S12 OOt) 000 In th s calculation, I add nothing for the stimulus to multiplication, whi'h is (generally applied in the brteding States, and, it is said, with power ful ?ff^ct. I do not refer specifically to North and South Carolina, arid Georgia, because they lie, t*t the mo?t part, further south than Ne broska. but every erne who has examined aod oiiupared the censuses t>f tho United States, knows that all the original slave States are and have been from twenty to fifty years, slave breeding, exportn.g State*. Should Cuba and the valleys of the Am?>n and its tributaries lie opened to the American slave trade, tbero j will be a demand for " tho vigintial; product, quit* lieyond our present capacity to supply Jit all events, there will be room for the most satire <x*opetiti? n. Some who took neither backward nor tor ward, and some, who are wilfully blind, may deny that these vast schemes are lo be reabaed, or that tbey ore thought oC To such I will simply say, that aU the ingeenity, energy, ?o daeity. and corruption of 8 the slave power," are ooneewtrated a* this moment no these very projects. The President of the United States menacing with a sword in hie ri^ht hand, and seducing with hags of gold in his left, may do ,M?eh with d-georrate and needy Spaniards and porngoeee. Instead of " Give me your money, or I will toko yoor life," the robber's formula, ? The man was orljjtaafly frua th4 sams State as th# Frssidsat Will set tbs Riefcsiond nwqmrer mitigate a liule It* contempt of Yaeksss. hi rUm of th* soMs ?0<f VaMsMfs fp*e1ni?w whtob Ifn* Hum? $kirr aod Vrtmmst bavs fhraishsd7 t This word to B*t Ksgltoh. aad aevsr hsar.l ?f, or lbs tbiag te whWi H is tfVjUd, until IbslsMsr j.rt ?t Mttern r^P? hHe ft wss loveatsd tn V^inia, ^.ns for?X from tk* Latin r iwvntT A " rifistisl ero^, ttosrHoes, ??a?i? a rrofi wbieb mstsrw. or to rss|**f. it to sews* ati establinhod by the authority of this Govern ment, is, '? Take my mooey. and give me your j land, or I'll tako both your mod and your fife." I rhe world baa had no experience of thin method until our time; and it is impoiiaible to calcu ' late where it will end One thing, however, in pretty certain: if the Nebraska villuny suo oeeda, it will be nettled, at leant for fifty yeara, that the slave power ia not to be arreated, or ac leant essentially checked, iu ita caroor, by auy force, numerical or moral, within these Stutoe calling themselves free. It wan pre dieted, twenty yearn ago, that if it got Texan, it would not atop till it roaohed Brazil; and it ia now doubtful if it would atop there. With such flattering pronpecta of new mar kets, in addition to the vast and permanent one wo have already, alave-breeders, or thone inclined to become 00, might feel enoourtiged to establish nfctck farma in any State, if the lawn allowed it, but especially ou the frenh prairie* and in tho genial clime ol' Nebraska, where land may be had for a ahng, or lean, and corn, about the only indinpensable article for rear ing slaves, be produced in such quantitiea as tho world ban not yet soen. Again: Han not slavery existed in every State of the Union, however hard, rough, and frigid?and did it not coat many of them a "Toggle of more than ono generation to exter minate it? Even in Mam-achusettn, where it wa* abolished first, and by the easiest of all processes, a judicial decision under tho deola rution of her Bill of Rights, ''that all men are born froe and equal," it wan not altogether a quiet transaction. There ia a tradition that, an soon as the docinion wan made, and spread with the rapidity of lightning, some M&sna ehusottn slaveholders oolleoled their chattels, and inado for Rhode Inland and other contigu ous States; but the people turned out, pursued them, and rescued tbeir captivcs. But now, that people are reduoed to catching freemen, and putting chain6 upon them, instead of knock ing them off, in it nothing that this very privi lege of making overy free State a hunting ground, and every free Northern man a hunts man iur a Southern lord, is to be extended by thin bill to all the embryo States of Nebraska, and to all their future inhabitants ? Thcie ia no free State that would not doom it an enormoos and intolerable evil, and an cx eorable crime, to permit their lawn against sla very to bo repealed, and their fair domains of-cued to the influx of slavery and the agita tion and atrifo of a new abolition; and yet there is not ono of them that would not be sure, even ii her hands were tied for a time, of exterminating it at a much earlier day than Nebraska, or any now Territory or now State could. With the lamp of experience thus illu minating our path, can wo hesitate for a mo ment ? Physical geography, forsooth! Slavery pre vaila all over Ruseia and Tartary. "Asiatic scenery" indeed! A modern writer remarks that " Asia has always been the hot-bed*of sla very and tho plague.'' This was written twen ty years before Webater delivered his strange dicta. We have Mr. Douglas's authority for stating that slavery is already in Nebraska. Of course, it in there without law and against law ; and jet the impostors have the Catilinarian assur ance to pretend that it will not go there with law! Strike, but Hear. K7- We copy the following from the De fianu (0) Dtmocrat. The Democrat does not understand Mr. Chase, or it wonld not inti mate that he has any prejudices againat Mr. E Jgerton, or that his prejudices might prevent him from doing justioe to anybody. Mr. Chase tells the Truth in his letter, became it ia the Truth, and beoauee it ought to be told. MB. EDGEBTOB AUD JIEBKASXA. The following letter, from Senator Chase to Dr. Paul, of this place. has been handed us for publication. It will be eocn that testimony is twrne therein to tbe consistency of Mr. Edger ton's ooune upon the Nebraska bill, by one whom we may safely presume writee knowing ly, and whoee prejudices might, from their rel ative fonitiona, be unfavorable to Mr. Ldger kn. A "vindication from oenmire for the par ticular vote given, which hag been the subject of much sevoro remark in certain Free Soil pa per*, in here offered voluntarily : Washington, June 17, 1854. Mv Dear Sir: Your letter ofjthe 1st lost only reached me within the last two or three days. I cannot hesitate to reply frankly to ' jour inquiries. I b^vtt noticed in several of the Ohio papers the strictures to which you refer, upon the course of Messrs. Rdgerton, Lindsley, and other Repmiontatives from onr State, in relation to tho Nebraska bill The iioint of censure ?eems to be, that on tbe 1.5th of May they voted for Mr. Richardson's motion to su?prnd tbe rules, in order to enable him to introduce a resolution to clone debate <>n the bill, and thus, indirectly, contribute to its paeaago. The grounds urged in justification of that vote are, 1st: That the majority had deter mined, in osm the minority should persist in availing themselves of Parliamentary rules to delay and defoat tbe Bill, to override the rules, and force the House at once to a vote; and. 2d, That assurances were given, on the part of the majority, that ample opportunity should he giien for dinotfrsion and amendment under the Hva minutes rule, after the olose of the debate at large, if the minority would allow Mr. Rioh at dam's resolution to he adopted The subsequent course of tbe majority plainly proves their readiness to override the rules, and it seems prohablo that seven or eight days' time for dmeassion was secured by the arrangement No opportunity, however, was afforded fir either discussion or amend ment under the five minotes rule. The major ity, by a proceeding as harsh as it was unpre cedented, forced tbe final vote, without regard to any a*surnnoe? to the contrary. In the light of all the facts, one may wish that tho rise of immediate subversion of the rules, of a forced olose of the debate, and of a precipitated final vote on tho bill, had been in curred on the 15tb; bnt it requires more wis dom than 1 poesess to warrant a confident averment that srch a course would have been unquestionably bast. I am satisfied that tho gentlemen named acted in good faith, and never, throughout the struggle, gave a vote designed to aid tbe re peal of the prohibition of 1810. Their action* especially when it is oonsidered that the whole ibfltisnoe of the Administration, whioh they bad largely contributed to place in power, was exerted in favor of tbe mevure, deserves the praise of independence as well as that of fidel ity to their respeotive constituencies. That I have not cononrred with them in po litical action is well known. Ardently devoted to Democratic principles, and firmly believing that the aggrnsMons of tbe riave power cannot lie successfully combated except by a real De moeraoy. based upon the fundamental ideas of Liberty, Equality, and Jostioe, I have not been able to perceive the consistency or propriety of ac quiescence in Anti-Democratic Baltimore Platforms, or of supporting candidates nomi nated upon then. But d (Terences in political sentiment or ao tion never should induce an act of injustice Confident that the charge of secret favor to tlic repeal of the Misnonri prohibition Is an act of injustice to those gentlemen, I discharge bnt a eimple duty when I declare that mob is my amviefcion. Whnlcoursf they will lake hereafter, F know not In my judgment, the repeal of the Mis MOuri Prohibitum is but an event in the Rroal struggle between the Aristocratic Slave Power and the real Democracy of the country It is indeed a moat significant event; for it an nounces tbe utter fuulitv ol all oompromii?H with Slavery. In ttie sight of the country, and the world, tbe Slave Power renew* the war with Freedom. We mutt now insist, not mere ly on tbe tftato before the war, but on complete '? indemnity for the past, and security for thfc future." Whether these gentlemen nee thin matter a* I do or not 1 have not inquired. I week ouly t<> do to them an I would wi?h, under like cir cumstances, that they hbould do to roe. by de fending thom against a censure which my knowledge of tbe facts trunupiriug at tbe time, oonvineeH me is unfounded. Faithfully your friond, S. P. Chase WASHINGTON, 1). C. THURSDAY, JULY 6, 1854. A wook or two since, the National Inttlli | ' genur commenced the difficult task of re-uui ting the Whig Party; and, from time to time, it publishes extracts from Southern oorresjiond onts and Southern papery professing nnabated devotion to the great Party of which "Clay and Webster" were one? "the champions," full of regret* for the liiaoortU engendered by tho Nebraska Bill, and evincing a disposition to aot onoe more with their brethron in the North, in " the good old ways," when oppodi tion to Exeoutive Power was the rallying cry. "RoHpocfcable" an wan tho authority, which undertook to pronounoe Ben ten on of death on the glorious Whig Party, we were not prepar ed, says the Inlelligcncer, to acquiesce in it. " We had yet to leam that the Whig party owed its origin to entire agroement of opinion as to the question of tho limitation or expan sion of Slavery, or that its existence was to de pond on a perfect accord, North and South, on an isolated point. We had thought that there were great principles of foreign and domestic ! policy, of which Clay and Webster had been the ohampions, which tho Whig party had as serted and contended for, and which had no relation to the disturbing question of Slave ry." Whatever weight may have belonged to those " prinoiplee" in former times, none attaches to them now. It would puzzle the Intelligencer to point out a singlo praotioal Question of for eign or domestic policy, on which the two old Parties disagree, or, if they really disagree, on which their measures are not substantially alike. Tako tho two Administrations?the prece ding and present?and in what important re speot do they differ ? Mr. Fillmore was cau tious not to oomrait tho Governmsut to active support of the causo of Republicanism in Europe; Mr. Pierce is no less cautious. Mr. Fillmore exhibited little statesmanship in re gard to the affairs of Central America; Mr. Pieroe has exhibited none at all. Mr. Fillmore secured the servioes of J. D. Andrews, to inves tigate and submit in systematic form the facte concerning the Fishery and Reciprocity Ques tions odtour Northern border, but boggled about a Treaty; Mr. Pieroo, under a hoavy pressure, with all the light furnished by his predecessors, at last assented to a Treaty, but it is doubtful whether he will have the nerve to push it through the Senate in the face of the unreasonable Southern opposition arrayed against it. Mr. Fillmore did not signalize his term by tho inauguration of a Railroad to the Paoific; the same reoord will be made of Mr. Pieroe. Nothing was done for River and Har bor Improvements under Mr. Fillmore; noth ing will be done under Mr: Pieroo. Mr. Fill more sanctioned the policy of giving away portions of the publio domain to Railroad Cor porations ; Mr. Pierce has done the same Mr. Fillmore reoommended a revision of tho Tariff, but his recommendation was not car ried out; Mr. Pierce recommended a revision and reduction, and his recommendation is not oarried out. While questions of foroign and domestic policy, unro.mooted with Slavery, have been practically managed by Mr. Pieroo as they were by Mr. Fillmore, the latter attached as much importanoe to ths Slavery Question as Mr. Pierce does, and his policy was identical is principle with that of the latter. Mr. Fill more devoted all his energies to the support of Southern demands, just as Mr. Pieroe does. Mr. Fillmore did all he oould to effect the legislation of 1850; Mr. Pierce has dono all he could to oarry out, as he says, the principle of that legislation. Mr Fillmore signalized him self by extreme seal for the enforcement of the Fugitive Slave Aot, calling out the naval and military power of tho Government to enforeo t, saddling the Treasury with extravagant outlaws required for its execution, and attempt ing to establish by judicial docision tho law 1 of Constructive Treason, no as to hang those who resistod; Mr. Pieroo has followed in his footsteps, only shrinking from the extrava gance of " constructive treason." One opened the territories acquired from Mexico to Sla very, as the other has iqtened to Slavery the Territory acquired from France. Finally, one cherished designs upon Cuba, which tho other openly avows. All we have to say, then, ia, if the two old parties once differed, as tho hitelligenrer rep resent*. the difference has long since dixappear cd, under tho common pressure to which they have both been subjected by the Slave Interest, in the oommon vassalage in which it has held both. It is a gToat convenience to have two eyes, two hands, and, to use a homely figuro, two strings to ono bow. For this reason, tho Slave Power regards with complacency the effort to restore the old National Whig Party. But, to the process by whioh this is to l>e accomplished. First, the Whigs of tho North aro to lie assured that the repeal of the Mis souri Comproiriiso, although supported by every Whig in tho Senate, bnt Mr. Bell, who simply opposed it because its tendency was to produoe a dangerous agitation of the Slavery question, was in fact adverse to the views of Southern Whigs generally. Says the Intelligencer? u Ono of the most sterling Whig papers of Virginia, the Win(Jtc*fer liepuhlimn, stated emphatically, but a few days ago, that it had Sreater reason to hfdievo every any that on the lel,ra*ka question the National Intelligencer rell vted the gennino sentiment of the Whig party of the Soath." The few other Southern Whig papers that njipoeed the Hill adopt a similar policy, and persist in the assertion that it was a measnro not oalled for by Southern Whigs, but really ' repugnant to their wishes. They hope by this course to disarm the indignation of their Northern friends, and keep open the way for reunion. Next, we observe in tome of the Northern pa jers lottery (rum Mi??ouri, annouuoing that the Whigs of that State do not look with any favor on the ropeul of the Compromise; in fact, that the Anti-Slavery sentiment prevails to a considerable extent among them. Kather apocryphal all this, when it is con sidured that their leading organ, the Republi can, wan a hot advooato of that act of bad faith, and has the hardihood to euoourage the infa mous proceedings of the Atchison Nulliflers, who have lately organised in the bordor counties of iWinsourj, for the purpose of currying Slavery into Kunsaa by force of arms?and when, too, it in reoolleoted that tho Whig politicians in that State joined hand iu hand with the Nullifies, in n coalition that e<>nt Geyer to the Senate, in Iho place of that old Roman, CoL Benton, are Northern Whigs to bo duped by such stuff, as these fictions aro made of? Next, the attempt to mako a man's views of the Nebraska Bill, a test of Whiggery, is denounc ed. The idea that Northern Whigs opposed tho Bill, because of any Bupposod advantages to acorue to the South, is scouted?and it is indignantly denied that, becauso Northern Whigs voted against the Bill, they are thero fore to be regarded as Abolitionists. Suoh a notion, the Frankfort (Ky.) Commonwealth considers ridiculous. What! a hundred Abo litionists in the House of Representatives? B-sides, after all, more .Northern Democrats absolutely voted against the measure, they Hay, than Northern Whigs?and are all the North ern Democrats Abolitionists ? The Baltimore American goes so Tar as to say, that the fact that not one Northern Whig in either branch of Congro<* supported the Bill, is really oredit ablo to tho Northern #big Party?for it provos that that Party ia moro faithful than tho Democratic Party to the public sentiment ?* 'to "fiction?that it has more principle, and less hypocrisy, than its antagonist. Meantime, the American, Mobile (Ala) Ad vertiser, Virginia Free Press, Selma Reporter, Montgomery (Ala.) Journal, North Alabamian, and Richmond (Va.) Mail, discountenance tho project of a Southern Whig Convention. Their policy is, to conciliate, to speak softly to and about their Northern brotbren, to avoid what-1 ever may add fuel to tho flro already raging at tho North, and wait patiently until the "National Whigs," as they style them, have grown cool, and begin to think of throwing water on tho flames. > A single quotation from an oditorial in tho Baltimore American of July 3d, will show clearly tho deep concern of Southern Whigs at the state of things in the North, the real reason why they deprecate so much the disso lution of the Whig Party, and the grounds on which they build their hopes of ultimate re union. Aiter sevoral remarks in apology fbr the ex citement among Northern Whigs, tho Ameri can, which, by tho way, favored the repeal of the Missouri Compromise, proceeds: " It has, however, been urged, and with some truth, that the Northern Whigs have not been content with a mere opposition to the Miaouri Compromise, bat that they have colleagued with abolitionists, and the cry for the repeal of the Fugitive Slave Law has been mingled with their demand for the ropeal of the Missouri Compromise. We have no disposition to deny nny met in the ease, and muat admit the force of this objection. But ita force is moro appa rent than real, and it will rest very much with the Whtgs of the South whether the threatened compact of the Northern Whtgs wilh the Free Soil and Abolition factions shall become a real and tangible danger to the South, or spend itself in Ike mere ebullitions which anger and disap pointment have created. Io a paroxysm of un wise anger, the Northern Whigs have almost offered themselves as the willing allies of Abo litionism ; but thero is still room for oonfidenoe ? hat tho men who rallied around Clay and Wolmter, who stood firmest and foremost in defence of the compromise measures, will not, by any ordinary oau?, be driven into the per manent support of meamros threatening the perpetuity of the Union or dishonorable to the South. Indeed, we think the revulsion that will bring the Northern Whig party back to its na 11omal fealty has already commenced. Their pre* ia rapidly opening its eyes to the fact, that the elamor raised for the restoration of the Missouri Compromise ia but the blind under which abolitionism seeks to advance its schemes of agitation, aud to convulse and perhaps ulti mately destroy the Union. And the fruit of this oonvietion is already becoming apparent The New York Express has indignantly rebuked Senator Sumner s recent traitorous disavowal of of his old i gat ions to obey and respect the Constt tut ton?the Hoston Courier has denounced the disunion spirit that is corrupting Masuic.hu setts?the Sew York Commercial has exposed and hrld up to common contempt the Massachusetts Whip addres*?the New York Courier with forcible sarcasm has showti that the threat to dis solve the Union, come from what quarter it may, is but an unworthy political subterfuge?ami the Detroit Advertiser has resulted thr attempted interference of the New York Tribune, by which it sought to bring altout a coalition between the Whigs and Free Sotlers of Michigan. These are all evidenoes?and time and res^aroh would doubtless abnndantly multiply them?that the storm which threatened to commit the Whigs of the North to tho support of Abolitionism is already spending itseil and that an interval of reflection?such as the anticipated adjournment <>f '-Ongruss will allow?and the absence of all causes of irritation upon the part of the South, will be productive of the best effects in calming tat ion produced by the Nebraska ijuestion. We plaoe, however, oar objections to tho dissolution of tho Whig part; at this time on higher ground than concerns the mero perpe tuity of tho party itself. Its dissolution will form a most powerful stimulus to the formation of a Sort hern secttonal party There is, we honestly believe, a vast body of National Con servatism still represented by the Whig party in the North. Tho member* of that party have oppoaed tho repeal of the Missouri Com promise, hut it doea not follow that they are opposed to tho South on other issuea which far more vitally affect it, nor that they will join ma crusade against its institutions, if not pro voked thereto. The Sonth will oommit a mic t hiovous and a hurtful error, by clawing all the oppononts of the Nebraska bill as A tui tion ists, and by each a course must multiply enemies whore it hiA the power to make friends. There is now no immediate oooasion for any declaration of their position upon tho part of the Southern Whig.. By waiting they will commit themselves to no oourw that may hereafter be a oause of re eot, nor in the least dogree embarrass their ture aotinn. But a precipitate ootUM now unjust to the Whigs of the South, liecausa it will not meet with their unanimous sanction and irritating to the Whige of tho North be oause it will seom to be a hasty pre-judgment of their motives and intentions, may involve in it evils of a magnitude that cannot be considered without apprehension." We have put some significant passages ?u Now, let UN call the attention of Northern Whip* to what they mifcht otherwise overlook The reunion which their Southern friends are seeking, in no oharitahle and oonoiliatory a ?pirit, is to bo effootod, if at all, on one vital condition?Abholutc Acquimcknck in the Legislation or 1850, anp i* that or 1854. This in the policy of every one ol the liberal presses we have referred to?a policy formally announced by the Intelligencer two weeks ago, in au editorial which we then made the sub ject of oomment. On no other condition can there I* a reunion. What will bo their deci sion! That remains to be seen. But we tell ' them, if they defer decided action till their leaders generally have time ?o calcnlate, they will fiiut a majority of those leaders accepting the condition. We shall recur to the subject. C0HGKKSS. In the Senate, to-day, Mr. Touoey roceived a lecture on " Popular Sovereignty," from whioh we hopo he may derive profitable instruction. Mr. Gillette ably sustained the just and patriotic attitude of Connecticut. Mr. Williams and Mr. Badger were beard in relation to the President's veto. In the Houfie, the General Appropriation Bill alone was considered. THE FOUkTH OF JULY. The aoventy-oighth anniversary of Ameii can Independence is fast approaohing?uow but three days off?and we have as yet heard of but few preparations for its oelebration, either iu Richmond or iti vicinity. It was ouao remarked by Mr. Jefferson, that bo long as the Fourth?tho birthday of our independence? was duly observed and celebrated by the Amer ican people, our liberty and free institutions would be seoure. But when we come to forgot that day, with its glorious associations, and pass it by with indifference, it is an evidonoe that we have degenerated from the spirit of our forefathers, and are unworthy of the rich heritago they bequeathed us. Richmond (Ko.) Enquirer. The charge of degoneraoy in the public sen timent of Virginia, implied in the remarks ol the Enquirer, was distinctly proved by an edi torial in that paper just a few days before. Admitting what Abolitionists have always said, that the forefathers of Virginia were strongly Anti-Slavery, tolerating Slavery, as a wrong, not to be defended, but Bimply on the plea of necessity, it went on to show that since then there has l>een a radioal change of opinion. What the forefathers" considered " a wrong," their descendants have come to believo a price less good. As the result of the inquiry to whioh they have been driven, there is "a prevalent conviction among the People of the South, that thore is nothing in their system of Slavery for which they cannot find abundant warrant in Scripture, in reason, in the philosophy of hu man society, and in the spirit of a genuine philanthropy." Now, if this be a true representation, theso " philosophical'' slaveholders must repudiate tho declaration of Mr. Jefferson, "that all men are creatod equal, with oertain unalienable rights, among which are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness." What wonder, then, that they ehould feel careless about celebrating a day, on which this memorable declaration, so utterly at war with their new croed of Slavery, was made, as tho ground and defence of the Na tion's independence ? The same paper, by way of calling attention to the memorable things of the Fourth, repub lishes Mr. Jefferson's Letter, dated Montioelta Juno 24th, 1825, in response to an invitation to atter.d a celebration of tho Fourth of July, in Washington, romarking? "The letter was groatly admired at the time?was copied by every paper in the Union, and by many of the liberal journals in Kng land. The sentiment we have italicised has l>een qnoted very often?as often, perhaps, as any o? the most admired sayings of Shake peare." We publish Irom the Enquirer, retaining itB italics The reader will be amused to see the pains the editor has taken to stigmatize, through Mr. Jefferson, the very system, which a few days before ho so oomplaoently glori tied: Mohticcllo, June 24, 1826. Rbrpcctkd Sir: The kind invitation I re ceived from you, on the part of the oituens of the city of Washington, to be present with them at their coletoetion of the fiftieth anni vornary of American Independence, a* one of tho surviving signer* of an instrument pregnant with our own, and the fate of the world, is moat flattering to my no If, and heightened by the honorable accompaniment propored for the comfort of such n journey. It adds sensibly to the Buffering* of Miskness, to be deprived by it of a personal participation in the rejoicing* of that day. But aoquiescence in a duty, under circumstaooes not plaoed among those wo are permitted to oontrol. 1 should, indeed, with peculiar delight, have met and exchanged there congratulations personally with the small band, tho remnant ol that host of worthies, who joined with us on that day, in the bold and doubtful eleetion wo were to make for our country, between submission or the sword ; and to have < njoyed with them the consolatory fact, that our fellow citizens, after half a century of experieneo And prosperity, oontinue to approve the ehoioe we made. May it be to the world, what I believe it will be, (to some parts sooner, to others later, but finally to all,) the signal ol arousing men to burst tho chains tinder wbioh monkish ignorance and superstition had per suaded them to bind themselves, and to aasume tho blessings and eeourity of self-government. That form whioh we have substituted restores the free right to the unbounded exercise of rea son and freedom of opinion. All eyes are open ed, or opening, to tbo rights of man. The gen eral spread ot the light of oonsoienoe has al ready laid o|>on to every view the palpable truth, that the mass of mankind has not been born with toddles on ikeir backs, nor a favored few booted and spurred, ready to ride them legit imately, by the grace of Ood. These are grounds of bopo for others. For ourselves, let the an nual return of this day forever refresh our rec ollections of those rights, and an undiminished devotion to them. ( will a>k permission here to express the pleasnre with which I should have met ray an cient neighbors of the city of Washington and ite vicinities, with whom I passed so many years of a pleasing social intercourse ; an inter course which so mooh relieved the anxieties of the public cares, and left impressions ao deeply engraved in my affections, as never to be for gotten. With ray regret that ill health for bids me the gratification of an ?oeeptano^ be pleated to receive for yourself, and those for whom you writo, the iMOrtMt of my highest respect and friendly attachments. Tirtis. Jcffusow. THK WATXK W0KK8 The House of Representative* yesterday, in Committeo, agreod, by a vote of 70 to 61, to reoommend the appropriation of half a million of dollar* to oontinue thin undertaking, provi ded the oitiea of Washington and Georgetown pay one-fifth of the whole expense, and provi ded the work shall he done in two yearn, at a ooHt not exoeeding two million three hundred thoutiand dollar*. And it is declared, also, that the sole trad exclusive urn of the water t*hall he for the Government oMtahlibhmeuts, to the extent they may require, the aurplua to be allowed to the people of the cities, upon such terms as Congress may prescribe, and to be conducted by means of pipes and appliances provided and kopt in repair by the corpora tions of the cities, respectively. A morning paper spoaka of the bill, as thus amended, as being " so clogged with conditions as to render it inoperative." So we regard it. KF" HanBon Gassaway, an elderly man, once known as a hardware merchant in this city, but of unsound mind of late years, was found dead, at his solitary home, on Wednes day morning, having on the preceding day made noupof jamoatown weeds, and eaten it. HP*" Bartholomew Siieahan,who furnish ed milk from Locust Hill farm, to families in this city, died on Tuesday night, in oonso quence of boing overcome by the heat while on duty during the day. The weather has been more intensely hot in the Northern cities than with us, during the last fow days. At Concord, Boston, New York, and elsewhere, the thermometer Bfttod at 100 on the 4th and 5th. KF"" There was a riot near tho Schuylkill Water Works, Philadelphia, yesterday j and Michael Roe, keeper of a beer bouse was killed CONGRESS. THIRTT-THIRD CONGRESS?FIRST SESSION. Senate, Thursday, July 6, 1854. Mr. Gillette presented the resolutions of tho Legislature of Connecticut upon the subject of slavery, the repeal of tho Missouri restriction, demanding the reneal of bo much of the Ne braska act an declares that restriction roid and oensuring the Hon. Isaac Toncey lor voting for said Nebraska bill, against tho express in structions of the Legislature of Connecticut. Mr. Touoey Baid these resolutions were passed by the coalescing majority of the present Leg islature of Connecticut, composed of the Abo lition and Whig parties, with whom he had never had any political association, but to whom he had always been opposed. He bo longed to the party of strict constructionists of the Constitution, and the maintenance of tho rigbta of the States. To his devotion to these principles be owed his seat in the Senate. He reviewed the action of the Legislature of Con nection at this session, with respect to the Fugitive Slave Law and other matters pertain ?ng to Slavery, and said that a vote of oensure coming from tho majority of a Legislature thus constituted was the highest compliment it could pay him. He had disobeyed the instruc tions of the Legislature, because they were in conflict with the Constitution of the United States, which he had sworn to support. Mr. Gillette responded, and said that the present unhappy difference between the State of Connecticut and ono of her Representatives w" ?*?? the fruits of the paoifio, tran qutilizing measure, oalled the Nebraska bill which committed the great breach of tho na' tional faith by the repeal of tho Missouri re striction. His colleague, in defending and supporting a bilj avowedly to reoogniee the principle of pop ular sovereignty, openlyMeclared he would dis obey the almost unanimous instructions of the sovereignty of hif State. A more audacious repudiation of popular sovereignty he never heard of, than that displayed by his colleague on that oooasion. Connecticut, in passing the law referred to by his 04>1 league respecting the Fugitive Slave Law, had done nothing more than what was clearly her right and duty to do, to protaet her own freo citisona from the kidnapper and slavc huntcr. Sho had the samo right to secure to her people freedom, that South Carolina had c doom a portion of her people to slavery That law he had submitted to several lawyera, no one of whom had said it contravened any act of Congress. He rejoioed that Connecticut had acted as she had done, in washing her hands from all support or countenance of slavery. She asked that the interpolations placed in the Constitu tion by slaveholders, for their own selfish end*, should be blotted out, and that it should be restored to its otiginal purity. She asked to be absolved from all support of slavery: she desired to shake off the v*mpyre. He oould not believe that the Constitution could justify such an act as the Fugitive Slave Law, which at one blow struck down the ka heat corpus, the trial by jury, and placed the Crsonal freedom and security of a freeman bo w the value of twenty dollars. It was an aot conceived in ain, brought forth in iniquity snd baptised in blood. He would not insult the oountry by asking whether auch a Gorgon of wrong wis constitutional or not. He would not stop to ask whether any citizen was bound to engage in tho degrading occupation of a slave hunter. For one, he denied tho obliga tion upon him to do auy act of the kind He knew that Connecticut had been libelled by a tory renegade as tho blue law State, but none of his descendants or any one else, should ever fasten upon her the ntiguia of beinc the black law State. Mr. Tuoccy said the spceoli of hia colleague gave an illustration that he (Mr. T 1 waa ri^ht in occupying the position he did. The resolutions were then orderod to be printed. The hill to ostablish a line of telegragh from the Mississippi river to San Franoisco waa further amended, and thon postponed till Mon day. The vetoed Indigent Insane Land bill waa agaiu taken up. Mr. Williams defended tho veto of the Pres ident, said a few words on the Homestead, and defended hia course on the Nebraska bill. Mr. Badger followed, defending his speeoh on this bill from some comments made upon it hy Mr. Cass. He showed that the latter gen tleman denied tbe right of Ooogresa to appro priate lands for tbe poor inaane of ihe oountry and yet, in 1847, voted a half a million to sen<i provisiona to tho Buffering poor in Ireland and Scotland. There was no diatinotion in the Constitution, as to voting away money or lands. How* of Representatives, July 6, 1854. Mr. Thurston offered the following resolu tion, 4o which objection was made, and whioh was therefore not received: Resolved, I bat there ho ten thousand copies of Exploration# and Incidents in lexaa, New Mexico, California, ke.t conneotod with the Mexican Boundary Commission, by John R. Bartlett, late United States (Commissioner, pub lished for the uae of the House of Representa tives. | The House proceeded to consider, as the 6 rat | business In order, the amendments reported y esterday by the Committee of the Whole, to the Civil aud Diplomatic A ppropri&tiou bill. The amendment* were read, and those to whioh objections were not made were adopted en mime. Thow to whioh objection* were of fered were reserved to be voted upon sepa rately. r The amendment appropriating money for tho construction of several custom-houses was agreed to?yeas 72, nays 70. An amendmeut appropriating Si20,000 to the ereotion of a custom house at Richmond Va, was agreed to?yeas 84, nays 54. An amendment appropriating $.530,000 for the purchase of the grounds andedifices leased for the Assay Office in the city of New York was agreed to without a division. j I BY HOUSE'S FKIinilia TELEGRAPH | TELEGRAPHIC C9RRESP0NDKN0K i FOR DAILY NATIONAL KRA. Destructive Fire ? Estimated Loss (Me I Million Dollars!! I ^ I ii 11. a Delphi a, Jdlt 6.?The most destruc tive lire whioh has visited our city for years, occurred hero last night, destroying a vast amount of property, including dwelling houses, stores, and two of our most popular plaoes of amusement. I ho National theatre, Chinoso Museum, and thirty or forty stores and dwelling-houses, ex tending from Kighth to Ninth street, and from Chestnut to George, have been burnt to the ground. 1 he whole low is estimated at about one million dollars. The Cirard House was on fire several times, and narrowly escaped destruction. The Susquehanna Railroad Occident. Baltimore, July 6?Madison Jefl'em is still living, and hopes are entertained of his ultimate recovery. Several of those reported as ratally injured, are in a fair way to reoovor. V oung Sollman is hotter. His limbs will be saved. j C/turch Blown Up. Boston, July 6.?The Catholic Churoh at IJorchester has been blown up by some scoun drel with gunpowder. SECOND DESPATCH. rhe fire originated in the National theatre, from tho discharge of guns during tho perform ance last evening. The walls of the buildinc loll, but no lives were lost. <|Many of tho finest stores were destroyed with their entire stock of goods. Several v?rv heavy losers. The loss is now estimated at $1,500,000 insurance about $700,000. I Ohio River. , Wheeling, July 6' ?Four feet of water in the ohannel at this point. At Pittsburgh, three teet ton mohes. The Markets. u Jui.y 6.?-The America's news ? Ms had a depressing effect on the flour market. Wheat?white $1 60 a $1.70. Corn?white | 75 cents, yellow 76 cents. Oats 58 a 60 cents. f iiruD *>HILAD,cr',,Hr*, Flour is held at $8 50. heat^?d 81 80> whit? ?2. Corn 79 a 81 oents. The stock market is firm, with an up ward tendency in priccs. In New York, under tho foreign advices, cc?tton is held higher. Flour has declined. kave been received for dismantling the U. S. ship Pennsylvania, in oonsequonoe ot UNi rotten and damaged condition of her spar* and tigging ?Portsmouth (Va.) Transcript This, the largest and most expensive ship oi the American navy, was built in Philadelphia | and launched in 1836 or 1837, when she w^ taken to Norfolk, whore she has lain, a mere roceiving hulk, ever sinco, and where sbo will no doubt finally rot and sink. We havo, to be sure, enjoyed much bragging of her great capacity and possihlo efficiency; but private enterprises arc better managed. Incendiary Publication?Many of our contemporaries of the slaveholding States have recontly spread tho Declaration of Independ ence before their readers. Of what are tho postmasters dreaming, that they tolerate such an abuse? Missouri?At the Democratic Primary Meetings in St. Louis County, Col. Thomas H. nton was nominated for ro-eleotion to Con I * fote- having rooeived 4,280 votes fr ranyis P. Bla.r jr., was seleotel ?s 0110 of tho candidalos for tho House of ken nweotatiVAR. ' TH1 EUROPEAN Mf-WS Wo append a few later items by the Am?noa TIim vines of Madeira are almost universally oorrred with blight. A oonnpiracy to assassinate Napoloon ban boen discovered in the sonih of Franoe, aod 150 arrests have been made On the 16th tbe Turks made a sortie from Silbtria, and a desperate band-to-band oontee< onsned, ending in the complete discomfiture of tbe UofMira. (veil. Gostcbielder's log whs ebot off, and two other general* killed. The carnage among; the Russians wai dreadful. They retired fight ing aqross tbe Danube, pursuing tbeir ad van cage. The Turks crossed an arm of tbe river, and Mixing tbe lata of Hoppa, blew up the aiego work* thereon. Tbe Turks then erected tern porary batteries on the Bulgarian hank of the river, before tbe north face of the fortress. Tbe Russian battalions eaxt and wont of Si lietria immediately retreated in good order across I ho rivor, destroying their bridges. The Rumriane at theJatoet dates were in tbf> vicinity of KalaraMch, waiting roinforormontii and orders. The victory whs gainod entirely by the Turks. Tbe whole plan of operations from Bulgaria must now be altered. Tbo Russian accounts from Bucharest admit that the operations against Silintria are sun ponded, but say that the siege was not finally rained. The Russians have evacuated Monguerel* und Srmiboa, and f>,000 Turks occupied Jutu kas. Admirals Dnndas and Hamelin have issued a circular, announoing tho oloee of the block ado of the mouths of the Danube. Most of the fleet was emitting off NevaatopoL Six or oigbt Hhi|>s at Varna were assistng td oonvey troops. Spam.?-Advices from Madrid to the 15tb of Jure slate that Generals Orlando and Mossin<t were arrested on the oharge of harboring Gen O'Donn'-ll. Messina escaped, and Orlando was sent to Gallioia. Aurtrta ?Deepaicbos from Vieona stato that, a ounvontion has bean concluded at Constanti nople, between Austria and the I'orte, relative to the Danubian Principalities?the oonditions being, that if Rum4a voluntarily retires, tbe Austrian troops will enter tbe rfinoipalitiee, and form a defence botwoon Russia and Tur key. If Russia refusea to retire, Austria will take such steps as appear necessary to insure her doing so. UrriAdvioea from Muasingba, dated Juno 14, state that tbo insurrection is totally extmot, and Turkic troops were marching to Thessaly.