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(JKHH1T SMITH OS THK &SCIFB0C1TT TKiATY
Hon. H. Hamlin, U. S. Senate: Drak Sir : I learn, with surprise and regret, that yoil are not decidedly in favor of ihe " Reciprocity Treaty; " and that, possibly, you may oppose its adoption. Believing, as I do, that the people of Maine are to benefit more by the Treaty than an equal number of people in any other of the States, I had supposed, that the Sena tors of Maine would be especially favora ble to it. But I am informed, that it is, as an inhabitant of Maine, that you hesitate to support it. Perhaps, as I have never seen the Treaty, and have no prccise knowledge of its character, und am too much occupied with various urgent matters to learn more of it now, I ought not to make this communi cation. Nevertheless, my interest in the Treaty is ko deep, that I must express it, although at the risk of betraying great ig norance of its provisions. I am in favor of free trade between our country and the British North American Provinces. I am in favor of it for the gen eral reason, that all parts of the world should obey the laws of nature, and enjoy free trade wiih each other. I am in favor of it for the particular reason, also, that, these Provinces, being our neighbors, re strictions on their trade with us, are espe cially inconvenient and injurious. If we must be strangers to any portion of our fellow-men, let it not be to our neighbors. To multiply ties, and extend intercourse, and grow into homogeneousness, with our neighbors, is especially important. And nil this we shall not foil to do, if we have free trade with them. Wc may never be one in name with our British neighbors. But free trade with them and its resulting social connections, and ever-growing as similations, would make us one with them in reality. And if we arc one with them in reality, it is comparatively unimportant, whether wo shall ever become one with them in name. The free trade of Canada with the United States, will be the vir tual annexation of Canada to the United Stales. Many suppose, that it will lead to its literal annexation. I am more inclined to believe, that commercial annexation will, at least for the present age, supersede the desire for political annexation. And if, in the end, Canada shall become a part of this nation, the greater the likeness be tween her people and ours, the greater the prospect of harmony and prosperity, in such union. In this respect, therefore, as well as in others, the assimilating in fluences of free trade constitute an argu ment in favor of our establishing free trade with Canada. It is on these, its assimi lating influences, that I base my opinion, that free trade will supersede the present desire for annexation. When free trade, combined with other causes, shall have reached the effect, the world over, of ma king the man of one nation like the man of another, the tendency, in my judgment, will be not so much to the uniting as to the subdividing of nations. National pride and jealousy will then have abated; and then men will peacefully apportion them selves into smaller nations, for the sake of greater convenience. But it is said, that the Treaty under con sideration does not provide for free trade in all property. I am aware, that it docs not, and I add, that I am sorry it doefe not. The argument for free trade in all property I regard as unanswerable. Nev ertheless, I do not claim, that the argument for free trade in manufactures is as strong as the argument for free trade in natural productions. With some plausibility may Government say, that it must protect the labor of its subjects against the overwhelm ing competition of foreign labor; and with more plausibility it may say, that there are many foreign fabrics, which min ister to luxury, and immorality, and ruin ; and the importation of which should, there fore, be discouraged, if not, indeed, for bidden. But whatever may be said, in re gard to the "many inventions, which man hath sought out," nevertheless to the free exchange, among all nations, of what God hath made, no objections can be raised but what arc palpably at war with divine ordinations?but what, in a word, are pal pably atheistic. The first and highest duty, then, of a nation, in respect to the freedom of trade, is to admit into the list of free articles all natural pioductions. To perform this duty is to acknowledge and honor the Deity. To refuse to perform it, is glaringly to deny and dishonor Him. Moreover, to perform this duty, and to allow the free exchange of the products of God's hands, is to open the way for performing the other duty of al lowing the free exchange of the products of man's hands. Now, the plainest and most sacred of these two duties our Provincial neighbors stand ready to perform. They propose a free exchange with us of natural productions. We cannot refuse their prop osition and l>c innocent. To say, that wc will not consent to an exchange of natu ral productions, unless it be accompanied by an exchange of manufactures, is to prove ourselves to be most unreasonable ; as unreasonable as the man who should refuse to deal with his neighbor in wood and water, unless he is, also, permitted to deal with him in pins and penknives. It is, also, to prove ourselves to l>e most hyp ocritical ; for, in claiming, that these Prov inces should allow free trade with us in manufactured, wc must, if honest, claim, that they should allow it with Great Britain also. But are we ourselves willing to have free trado with Great Britain ? Wc are not. I am; but wc arc not. Arc we our selves willing to defray the cost of Govern ment by direct taxes? Wc arc not* / am; but we are not. We aro hypocrites then?palpable hypocrites?if we would lay up6n these Provinces the necessity of supporting their Governments by direct taxation, and yet shrink from supporting our own in the same way. Our complaints of the illil>erality of these Provinces are very blameworthy, not only in the light of what I have already said, but also in the light of the fart, that, more than seven years ago, they abolish ed all differential duties between their mother country and ourselves; and placed themselves in the same commercial rela tions toward us both. By reason of this generous treatment of us, ami of our con tiguity to them, we enjoy the monopoly of supplying them with iron castings, agri cultural implements; and, in short, with uearly all coarse manufacture*. How val uable to us i8 this abolition of differential duties, is manifest from the fact, that our trade with those Provinces has doubled since 1846, the year of the abolitiou; aud that the exports are double the imports. The effect of this abolition on the trade of the Provinces with Great Britain, though not correspondency great, is still very greut. This trade has fallen oil' from one lburth to one-half. I referred to our inconsistency in urging the Provinces to adopt universal free trade with us, and thereby virtually urging them to adopt universal free trade with Great Britain, also. I proceed to in quire?what would be the eflfect upon our selves of the success of this inconsisten cy? In other words?what would be the effect upon ourselves of free trade between these Provinces and Great Britain, whilst the present restrictions upon the trade between ourselves and Great Britain are continued ? The effect would be a se rious diminution of our revenue, and a serious damage to our manufactures, aud a serious damage to our morals, also:?as in that case, goods to an immense amount would be'brought from Great Britain into these Provinces for the purpose of being smuggled into the United States. On the one hand, it is objected to the Treaty, that its list of productions is not full enough ; and, on the other, that it is too full. I admit, that it is not full enough. Consistency demands, that it should in clude all natural productions. And when I speak here of natural productions, I mean them, not only as they come from the earth, but, also, in that next stage of forms, which human labor gives to them, for the purpose of making them more portable?such as wood in the board, as well as in the log, and wheat ground, as well as ungrouml. Iron in the pig, as well as in the ore, should be included in the Treaty; and if it is not, it is, proba bly, because of the fear on the part of the Provinces of thereby letting in Scotch and other pigs, duty free. So, too, unre fined sugar, if not included in the Treaty, should have been. But, I trust, that they, whose natural productions are not included in it, will, nevertheless, not condemn the Treaty. I trust that they will, magnanimously, allow its justice in the main to outweigh its particular injus tice ; its justice to others to outweigh its in justice to themselves. At the same time," however, that they cannot but feel them selves to be wronged by the Treaty in this respect; they will be consoled by the reflection, that the adoption of it will be the adoption of the principle of the free exchange of natural productions; and, therefore, that the productions, in which they are especially interested, can not remain, for a long time, excepted from the scope of this principle. It is held, in some quarters, that wheat and flour should not be in the list of free articles. But why should they not be ? Because our flour aud wheat will, as is alleged,' sink in price under the free com petition of Canada wheat and flour. But, were this apprehended depreciation really to take place, nevertheless, free trade in the productions of Nature is an ordination of Nature, which cannot be in nocently violated. But would there be such depreciation ? I see not, that the Treaty is to be credited with such a bene ficent operation. Our country and Cana da do each grow a surplus of wheat; and, hence, in the case of each, the foreign market regulates the price. The surplus of each country goes to foreign markets; and whether the Canada surplus goes upon the St. Lawrence, or across our country, cannot affect the price of our wheat. The competition for that surplus and ours being in foreign markets exclusively, must be the same, whatever the route to them. 1 say, that the competition is there only. This is virtually, if not literally, true. For what if a little of the Canada surplus should come into our country for consump tion, it could only have the effect to dis place the like quantity of our surplus, and to liberate it for foreign markets. Were any proof needed, beyond what is afforded by the reason of the case, that foreign markets rule the price of the surplus pro duction, we might instance the fact, that, for eleven-twelfths of the year, wheat in bond in the city of New York bears as high a price, as wheat, that is not in bond. Indeed, it is sometimes higher, since the repeal of duties between the British North American Provinces, for now it can go I duty free from our ports to the lower of those Provinces. I said, that, whether the Canada surplus wheat shall find its way to foreign mar kets upon the St. Lawrence, or across our country, cannot affect the price of our wheat. Nevertheless, we are deeply in terested to have it take the latter route, and so add immensely to the business of our canals, and railroads, and storehouses, and shipping, both on our lakes and on the oceau. It may not add immensely to I it, just now. But it will soon. There is ! no assignable limit to the production of wheat in that best of all wheat countries, Canada West. It is true, that, if, in a year of famine in our land, there should be a free admission of Canada food into it, such free admis sion would reduce the price of American food. But what right-minded man would not have the price of it reduced, in such circumstances? With what light-minded I man would not this contingent benefit of the Treaty be an argument for the Treaty? It is said, though I do not believe truly, that Pennsylvania would not have coal come into the list of free articles. But, why should it not? Who believes, that the Maker of the coal did not make it free for every part of the world, that wants it? Who, then, can set up an honest argument against its free transmission ? Moreover, free trade in coal between us and the I British Provinces is obviously of great im portance, not to those Provinces only, but to our nation also: and much, there fore, as Pennsylvania may be disposed to go for herself, she should be still more disposed to go for the nation. She should be more patriotic and benevolent than sectional and selfish; and, I trust, that what she should be, she will be. Put, is Pennsylvania to be harmed by froe trade 1 in qoal ? She is not. All the British Provinces need her anthracite; nnd Can ada West would take from Erie immense I quantities of her bituminous coal. She, already, takeb much, notwithstanding the duty. Hut, I prefer to take a wider view, and to look at the effect of thin free trade hi coal upon larger portions of our coun try than a single State. The consumption, | in that part of our country east of the Alleghany ridge, of the bituminous coal of the British Province*), would, were it free of duty, be very large. I would nere remark, that this coal cannot properly be regurded as coming into competition with anthracite. It is highly bituminous. I have j heard, perhaps not correctly, that the vola tile parts in some of it are sixty per cent. To illustrate the dissimilarity between this and anthracite?whilst the one is wholly worthless for making gap, the other is so inferior to it for steamships, that the Cu nard line, notwithstanding it touches at Halifax, supplies itself with anthracite. We desire to supply the lower British Provinces with wheat, Hour, corn, rice, pork, and many kinds of merchandise. But, in order to do so, the charges of transportation must.be very small. How can they be made so ? I answer, by our consenting to receive from those Provin ces that great amount of tonnage, which they will be able to furnish us, providing we allow them to send us coal, as well as such other coarse commodities, as fish, plaster, and grindstones. Their cargo to us will, in that case, pay, or nearly pay, freight, both ways, inasmuch as their cargo to us will be full, and our return cargo to them light, and inasmuch as one of the laws, which govern the carrying of property, is that it is carried cheapest in that direction, in which there is the least to carry. In deed, in this case,-the return cargo would be so light, as, probably, to be 110 more than would be needed for ballast. 1 close under this head with the remaik, that if the Treaty should have the effect to cheapen wheat and coal, such ?fiect would be 110 argument against it. As we care more for the whole human brother hood than for a part of it; and as we are more concerned to have fuel and food ac cessible to the poor than to have them bring great prices to their owners, so the lower the prices of coal and wheat, the more we are to rejoice. 1 said, under the head before this, that the law of free trade in natural productions, cannot be inno cently violated. I add, that it cannot in any wide and just view of the case, be profitably violated. For every such view must include not the wheat-growers and the coal-owners only, but all other classes also ; and who is there, that, in the light of the wants and interests of the great whole, does not see cheap bread and cheap coal to be among the "greatest of human blessings? There are complaints from your State, that the Treaty includes lumber in the list of free articles. But, surely, this should not be complained of. Even if it is so, that the free competition of Provincial lumber would create loss anywhere, such loss would fall, rather on tHP comparative handful of persons, who own the lumber lands of Maine, than 011 the mass of her people. The trees of these owners might not advance as fast in price, as they had done. But the working of them into lumber would, probably, be as amply re munerated as ever. But, again, when a great beneficent national measure is pro posed, Maine should not, and Maine will not, shrivel herself up into a merely selfish view of that measure. Even if the Treaty were so liberal and so just, as to provide, that ships, built in the Provinces, may receive our registers, and have every right of ships built in our own country, Maine,* although our great ship-builder, and having, in such case, a new and powerful competitor, should, nevertheless, not object to the Treaty. Even if she may pessibly lose somewhat by the provisions of the Treaty, in regard to lumber ; and even if the Treaty had gone so far, as to bring her a new com petitor in ship-building, Maine neverthe less should remember that, on account of her geographical position, she is to be an especial gainer from its general provisions. The millions of new customers, that the Treaty gives her, are at her door; and, in this respect, she can serve them cheaper than the other States can. The proposed free trade, together with the freedom of the St. Lawrence, would add immensely to the business of the Montreal and Port land Hailroad?immensely to the business of a State, which is emphatically a State of navigators. I confess, that if it would not en danger the adoption of the Treaty, I should be glad to see a provision in it for the free exchange of registers. The poor objection, that it would afford us ships at a cheaper rate than we can build them, would be overruled by the consideration, that the American people are pre-eminently a commercial people, and that, in their eye, therefore, such an objection would constitute the most win ning argument in favor of the Treaty. The A merican people prefer cheap ships to dear ones, even though all the cheap ships were built iu foreign lands, and all the dear ones in their own land. They care more to have a ship navigated by Americans than to know where it originally came from. Their concern with its business is far greater than with its building. Surely, America will not long continue to hinder her navigators from getting their ships whero they can best get them. But I pass 011 to other matters. In mv judgment, we would be bound to approve and embrace this Treaty, even if it were silent in regard to the Fisheries and the St. Lawrence; for it would, even then, be a just and impartial Treaty?a benefit to both parties?a blessed influence upon the world. But, providing, as it does, for our free enjoyment of both the Fisheries and the St. Lawrence, how eager should we be for its operation ! I do not say, that we should be eager to thank England for al lowing us this free enjoyment. She should long ago?she should always?have ac knowledged our right to it. It is true, that we would not go to war with her, for the sake of establishing this right. The right, however, is none the less clear. The right of our nation to navigate the St. Law rence to its mouth, grows out of the fact, that we dwell upon its bank. This doc trine, in the case of other rivers, England has herself repeatedly urged. Then, as to the Fisheries?they either belong to the whole world, or there is no God. Eng land should he ashamed of her heathenish selfishness, in withholding from the world this food, which the bounty of Heaven has provided so abundantly for the world. A true Christianity will yet bring on the day when one man shall look upon another as a brother?ay, and even as another eelf. It will be no grateful recollection to Eng lishmen, in that day, that Englishmen were, once, so selfish, mean, and wicked, as to refuse to let a hungry fellow-man catch fish by their side. But, notwithstanding our right to the Fisheries ami to the St. Lawrence is as clear as England's, I shall, nevertheless, rejoice in our permission to uso them. For two reasons, especially, I shall rejoice in it. First, England will never be disposed to recall the permission; for England, along with the rest of the world, i9 becoming more, and not less, enlightened and liberal. Second, use and time will turn this per mission into prescription; this privilege into right; this conditional grant into ab solute and unending enjoyment. I do not forget, that Vattel says, that title to sea fisheries cannot be gained by prescription; nor do I forget, that his reason for saying bo is, that such title cannot be lost by dis use. Of course, I am willing to waive all claim to the possibility of prescription, if it is conceded on the other hand, that I do not need prescription, because my title is |>erfect already. I will here remark, that it would be idle for England to ac knowledge the common right of all na tions to the fisheries of the sea, so long as she should deny to those nations that ac cess to the shore, which is essential to the enjoyment of the fisheries. The simple truth is, that our right to the fisheries in volves our right to the shore, to jiiat the extent, to which the latter right is needed to make the former right available. To deny us such right to the shore, is to deny our right to the fisheries. The value, to this nation, of its free par ticipation in the fisheries, would be great, and ever increasingly great. They already furnish a very considerable item in our food, notwithstanding the restrictions Upon our use of them. These restrictions removed, -and our consumption of fish would be indefinitely extended. I have heard it objected to the Treaty, that it requires our Government to abolish the bounty on codfish. I am glad, if it does abolish it, or in any way provide for its abolition. There is plausibility in the call for our- patience under duties on for eign manufactures, or, in other words, under bounties on our own manufactures. There is plausibility in it, because the promise is made to us, that, ere long, our manufactures will be well established, and self-sustaining; and that then we shall be relieved of paying bounties on them. But, it is not pretended, that the skill of Amer ican fishermen is ever to outgrow the need of a bounty. On the contrary, if there is need of a bounty now, there will be the same need of it, a hundred years hence. It comes to this, then, that the objector to such a provision of the Treaty would have us go on forever, paying bounty on cod fish (already several hundred thousand dollars a year)?and all this, not for the purpose of our getting, either now or ever, cheaper or better codfish, but solely for the purpose of having Americans, instead of foreigners, catch the codfish, that we eat. The objection, under consideration, is unreasonable. I add, that it reflects dis grace upon our country. It does so, be cause it implies, that, with the fisheries and all needed facilities therewith thrown wide open to us, we are, nevertheless, to be distanced in our fishing competition with our neighbors. I had supposed, that the boast of the Yankees is, that they can beat, the British, in every thing. Must fishing be excepted from the boast? I spoke of the St. Lawrence. Our free use of that noble river would be an inval uable benefit to us. Together with its lakes, it drains an extent of country, scarcely less than that drained by the Mis sissippi. Much of our craft upon those lakes is capable of ocean navigation; and during the five months in the year, in which it is locked up in ice, it would be upon the ocean, could it get there. Now, this addition to the service of this craft, wmild, of itself, render very important the opening of the St. Lawrence to u?. I am aware, that the reputation of the mouth of the St. Lawrence for safe navi gation is bad. But it is such, only be cause it is navigated, at improper seasons of the year. Let it be navigated in no other than the proper season; and let our canals and railroads be allowed to serve in its stead, the remainder of the year, and it will no longer have this bad rcpu> tat ion. Not only is the St. Lawrence the shortest route to England; but the fact, that it is the coldest route is, in regard to much important lading, an argument in its favor, instead of an objection to it. There is no assignable limit to the pro ductiveness in Indian corn of our West ern States and Territories. The time may not be distant, when, if the St. Lawrence is made free to us, tens of millions of bushels of this grain will go down this river annually for the European markets. And I would here inquire, why, if even this cold route should not prove cold enough to preserve shelled corn, corn might not be taken in the ear, were the heavy lading of lead and copper and cop per ore combined with it? Perhaps, how ever, corn in the car is loo bulky to be transported far, in any circumstances. What interest is to be damaged by the adoption and operation of this Treaty? Do our manufacturers say, that it will not help them? But will it harm them ? That is the more pertinent question. If it will not harm them, then, surely, they should not complain of it. They should rather rejoice in the benefit it will yield to other interests. But it will help our manufac turers also. Its immediate influence upon their interests will be good. Its pros pective better. Among the natural productions of the British North American Provinces, are not a few, that our manufacturers need, and will more and more ne<w Lumber, for instance. Our forests, which, by the way, it is very desirable to preserve to a con siderable extent, arc rapidly disappearing. What an iuvaluable advantage to our manufacturers, if they shall be allowed to dr?vw freely on the immense forests of these Provinces! The more plentiful is lumber, the less will be the cost of building their manufactories, and of building the dwell ings of their laborers. Besides, there are many manufactures, into which lumber enters more or less largely ; and not a few into which scarcely anything but lumber does enter. There is another way, in which the Treaty will help our manufacturers. The proceeds of the sales in our country of the natural productions of these Provinces will be chiefly expended in our country: and such expenditures will be quite as much to the benefit of our manufacturers, as of our merchants. I spoke of the prospective beneficial in fluence of th?) Treaty upon our manufac tures. I referred not only to the vast ter ritory, and to the rapidly increasing pop ulation of the British North American Provinces. There was a still more im portant reference, in my mind. It is an adage, that revolutions do not go back ward. The exchange between this coun try and the British North American Prov inces in natural productions, once made free, will remain free. And not only will the revolution never go backward, but it will go forward. Free exchange in natu ral productions will, as I have already in timated, beget free exchange in manufac tures and merchandise. A trade half free will soon ripen into a trade all free. Half an acquaintance with our Provincial neigh bors will be impatient for the other half. I will close my too long letter. For several years, our British neighbors have been tendering us free trade in the pro ductions of nature. But we have requited their great liberality with great illiberality. Professing to be the most progressive of all nations, we have, in this instance, clung, with the most obstinate conservatism, to a miserable old order of things. I wonder, that the patience of our British neighbors has not long ago been exhausted. Let us tax this patience no longer. Let us rise into an attitude worthy of the enlightened age, in which we live. Let us say to the British Provinces, that we are ready for free trade with them, and with Great Brit ain too, and with the whole world too;? and not only in the productions of nature, but in the productions of art also. Let the high arid honorable position of commer cial America be, that she shrinks not from competition with any nation, but courts the competition of every nation. Very respectfully, yours, , GERRIT SMITH. Washington, July Ylth, 1854. ft P. CHASE. F. BALL C1IASE k BALL, Attorney* and Counsellor* ^ Law, Cincinnati, Ohio, practice in the State Court* of Ohio, in the Circuit and District Court! of the United Statea in Ohio, and in the Supreme Court of the United States at Washington. Jan. & GKORlie W. JULIAN, Attorney and Counsellor at Law, Centreville, Indiana, WILL attend to the securing and collecting of claims, and all other businers intrusted to his care, in the counties of Wayne, Randolph, Henry, Union, and Fayette, and in the Supreme and Federal Court! at Indianapolis. Dec. 22. BIRD it, WILSON, Manufacturers of gold pens, of every description, respectfully rail the attention of the public and Pen Dealers to their recently patented ' ANGULAR NIB " Gold Pens. These pens are pro nounced by competenHudges to be superior to any other bow extant. For sale at the manufactory, northeast corner of Market and Third street#, Phila delphia. -Jan. 21. /. C. KOBOIAft, Mechanical Engineer and feliilUr >1 Patents, Wathlngten, I>. I\, WILL rnnke Examination* at the Patent Office, prepare Drawings and Specifications, and pros ecute Applications for Patents, both in the United State* ana foreign countries. Applications for patents which have been rrjrctr4 at the Patent Offioe. he will, whon required, argue before the Commissioner of Patents, or before the Appellate Court; in which line of practice he has been successful in procuring a great number of very valuable patents. He will prepare new specifications and claims for the re issue of patents previously granted on imper fect descriptions and claims. Applications for txtnnrions ef patents, either at the Pa??*nt Office, or before Congress, be will also vigor ously prosecute. Also, superintend the taking ef testimony to he used in conflicting applications before the Patent Of fice or to be read in court. In all ones of litigation on the subject of patent* he will prepare the rase* for the legal profession, ex plain the scientific and mechanical principles involv ed. and tbe application of the law thereto. lie will also give opinion* and advice as to tbe valne and validity of paten's, and may be consulted in cases of infringements of pnt?nt?, and all other mat ters pertaining to the patent law* and practice in the United States and Europe. Also, prep ire caveat*. Assignments, end all other papers requ.red for securing or transferring patent property. Having been ten years in the constant practice of his profession in this city, and having free access to the models and records in the Patent Office, as well as to its library, and the " Congressional Library," he flatters himself that he can in all cases give per feet satisfaction to those who may place business in hi* hands. March IV?eow Office on F street, opposite the Patent Office. ROOK AOEltTS WANTED, TO oirculate in every county in the Unipn some most raptd nr/ling, popular, and beautifully il lustrated subscription books. A small cash capital j required. Apply to HENRY HOWE, 111 Main street, ! Cincinnati, Ohio. Feb. IA. j !>OR? HOWH PLANINO MACHINE. MY Rotary Planing Machine has just been decided not to infringe the Woodworth Machine, by the Supreme Court of the United States, and I am now prepared to sell rights to use in all parts of the United I States This Machine gives universal satisfaction It obtained a Medal both in New York and Boston, | over the Woodworth Machine, after a trial of three weeks. N. G. NOKCROSS. ? WA F'h 14. 1854 CALVEHLEY * HOLM ft, MANUFACTURERS and Importers ?f Britannia Ware, Tea and Communion Sets. Tee Pitchers Ac., No- 109 Race or Sassafras street, above Third, opposite the White Swan. Philadelpnia. Dec: 1?Am Dr. Hiathnnlfl Thurston'* (Jffice, ROOM No. 20. in Hiluian'i Temperance Honse, on Davis street. No*. 80 and 82, San Francisco, California May 8. NED ONE HUNDRED WAYS TO MAKE MONEY, consisting of new discoveries, valuable informa tion, and 100 Receipts, by which persons have clear ed from three to ten dolUrs a day the past year, and no one can fail to make money. It is suitable for ev- j ery station in life, whether for travelling or a perma nent locality, and something every mecnanic, trader, and druggist, should have. Upon the receipt of one dollar, post paid, the above will be forwarded. Ad- | dress M EDWARD DOW, March IS. Boston. Massachusetts IMPORTANT TO YOtfNO YEN. I OFFER for sale upwards of thirty different Re oeipts, many of which have been sold the ]>a#t year for five dollars apeice, and the whole comprising so many different ways to make money. IiTthe sale of one of the articles alone, I have known yonng men the past year to tnake from five to twelve dollars per day; and in the manufacture and sale of any one of the articles, no young man of energy and ability can fail to make money. Address E.BOWMAN, Boston, Mas*, enclosing one dollar, and the whole numbe: * Receipts will be forwarded by mail. No letter taken irilM hv from th? office unless prepaid. March 1 1 ???- We are ugaui publishing advertisements 0f Ajer ? Cherry Pectoral. Thin medicine is taking a voiy strong hold upon th?g<,od opinion of the people. Ii is regarded generally u a most excellent remedy ul"?0??ry Complaint*, Coughs, and Cold*. Having found it an excellent medicine, we cheer fully endorse it ?MistUluny, IXjruit. wkw mnntf<f?mu0Y? hook. t .-uurm euK Hiol lh*?ecu.d Quarter of ? Century! Something Vrry Fine ! Lady'sRook Is pub -a. Hsnetf, and contains, as usual it irr*mi.r ....... thin* clnrt)!?,<r' for1Lll'JiM' Dot ?"'V for *how, but use Irortd ^ 10 ttD> oth" l-'riodical in The <ioZy'7(?aurT N SU**-Braid Pattern.. Z'?Lk.Tn.'p^S'?<&?wuj Ceto fMl^il ^~Che,tMt Bsaket. for the iirjS' rJ!??-lZxi?2???. ""dk-hl" Gal laftr?dWM,n? Kn^r**inK. MwA o?/^ t/u Dove ? S-K "KELT'S H*c\pelt ? OonZ^fon ^ * In?K,ua,>le a"d SeSonable IT^ Thi. ^ ^Mryi~I(,# Cr^"'? and Pudding ??" This No. will be sent on receipt of 25 cents A tkrms. Unecopy, one year ... ?? Two do. dq. *;? Five copies, one year, and an extra copy to th? P?raon sending the club - PT t0 th? ln kjght copies, one year. do. do ,!?* * Eleven copies, on. y^r do. do.' S JJ Jriuzine0^ bJtTfc * .??k and Arlhur " Hoino na^azine will both be sent one year for $;150. June l?-3t No. 113 Chwtaut^LjPhll. nvilnF OK "E"?VA HALL. T 1HM ^ at their ,n'eting held May ment?' adoI't?d the following plan of Endow 1. The payment of $20 shall endow a nin?u c?k?i arship, which will entitle the subscriber to the tuition of on- studont during four ye-.rs 2 The payment of $25 shall endow a single schol oft r" entitle tbo subscriber to th.tuUon of one student during the entire course, or six year? oUmlnK lbu preparatory studies The payment of $5H shall endow a family s?hol arsbip, which shall entitle thesubscriber to the tuition nato orToT/; ?-r.- 0, an-y fanii,y h(> may de*ig nato, or to tbe tuition amounting to twelve v??rc ^4 any students he may select. g ? yW* oi JE2SI&^ h Aa!n^lpt,0n8' u0n Mhe abovo conditions, shall not be binding on subscribers, nor shall tho Colleir.' h? retiredI to fulfil Its part of the contract unU .gsnm from $.10,000 to $00,000 shall have been subscribed tif>r L book(' 8l>all be closed, the subscrip tions J>?conie due and bear intorest, and tho subscri t0 the PriVil#get 0f Mh0,: . ) tho Privil?g?8 above enumera ted, according to their respective subscriptions which subscriptions shall be transferable, as other property Provided always, That notice bo given of their trans fer, and these certificates shall be dolivered to the The . k!? KP?n the Wm"nt ?f fheir subscriptions The subscribers wil not be required to pay their subscriptions until thoee months notice ahail have been given in the public papers 0 By ordor of the Board of Trustees of Geneva Hall done this ath day of May, 1854. J. R. W. SLOANE, PitsuUnt oj liwirtl of Trust**. Jun. oq J" ?? JOHNSTON, 1 Secretary of the Board. ^nrt BEEBE'S NEVV VORK HATS OPRING Fashion for 1854, with other new and beautiful style* A full assortment in store at LANE S Fashionable Hat. Cap if r i q and Furnishing Establinhment, M*Poh 8- renn. av., near 4J street. I WPORTAST TO THE BUND D ATt00^' at No 140 Main ,troet- Bof ' rh.n i^.i' ork' rMtore? ?'gbt to the Blind with j vapors, externally spplied This new ^cci|a%1Ei? "Yr""' " *' 0,106 rcmarkable and suecess'ul. Several forms cf blindness are removed by this treatment, that heretofore have been incura March 27 mo, ho: vou akk onnnfl gray: ARE VOU? ly ELL. THAT IS A MISFORTUNE, r.nd not a ionabl/^f' V 10 reiU*in whon il '? onlai-h vour^ "rirh^" opportunity offers to restore n?h, *??brosial locks." in all their pristine to th? / ?n three minutes, without injury ' " "r '/'". by applying John A. Junes'In/ proved National Hair l)yr, is but little short of crime 1 hercfore, don t delay. Api lied and for sale by the original inventor of Liquid llair Dye in this country r<v,R,- JOHN A. JONES, UV7' z.i Kast Baltimore st.. bet Front and nieh. **? mt a" tbe re"P?ctable Drumrisls th. lu ?Very cily aDd *""> throughout ? WW. Apri| 13 KOR SALF, A ?2,KDJt0ClL Far71, 0f ,n" ?r?, With dwelling, 11 orchard, spring, Ao? *u seeded in crass onrraiu ne*r to Blftomington, Indiana, tho scut of Indiana TemTea/v?f a7' F*lnal<,1Coll''?08' and otherschools W w!/h7'?. a \ m,lM We"1 of lhto- a K??d Mill abundant water, good timber, numerous ns now Thi. ? 'T.' "L"' an<1 Raw" L mmn n ! . T ?l?>?r sell or let on shares, to TnL ^ T^ nt to erect a good mill-a rare o,*n. HwTL- iW'r Address at Bloommpton, Indiana. M. M CAMPBELL June 12. THfc I'KOPLK'K PATKVT OrFII E. THIS well known establishment ia still carried on under the personal superintendence of the under signed, by whom ait the necessary drawing, docu ments, and specifications, for Patents, Caveats, D? signs, Foreign Patents, Ac? are prepared with the utmost fidelity and despatch, on very modi-rat* terms. IVmin* wi-hirsg for advice relative to Patent* or Inv?nlion* tuay ut ail times consult the undersigned ?in hunt rkmrgt, either ]*ersonally at his office, or hy letter. To thoae living at a distance, be would state, that all the needful steps ncoessary to secure a Pat ent, can be arranged by letter, just M well a* if the party were present, ant the expense of a journey be thu* saved When partiee wish to l>e informed as to the probability of being enabled to obtain Patents, it will be necessary for them to forward by mail a rough outline sketch and description of the invention No tee or charge is made for such examinations. Private consultation* heid dally with Inventors,* from V A M . to ? P M. Ail consultation* and busi n?? strictly private and confidential Models from a distance may be sent by express or otherwise. ? ? For further information, apply to, or address, post paid, ALFRKI) K BKACH, Editor and Proprietor of the People * Journal. Solicitor of American and Foreign Potent*, Prop!ft PiU&nt O/firr, 8A Nnninu tl . jVcw Yurk THE PBOPLB S JOURNAL, a record of Soienee, Mechanics. Invention, and Agriculture. Published Monthly. Every number contains H2 pages, beauti fully printed, oo fine paper, and profusoly illustrated with splendid engravings, forming at the end of every year two tine volume*, comprising nearly 400 pages, with about six hundred elegant engravings Terms only nm Aollur u v?'r, sent by mail. Specimen Copies I2j eeuts. Address as above May 8. NEW LADIES' FASHION HOOK. B^RANK LESLIE'S Gm?t* of Paris, Lon don, and New York Fnshions. Published on the first of every month, containing all the Newest Fash ions in every department of Ladies' and Children's Costume, Jewelry, Ornaments, Furniture, Ac. The site is large quarto, being twice the six* of the Paris Fashion Books, is printed on superb paper of the finest manufacture, aud profusely illustrated with over On* Humirml En graving $; in addition to which, each part will contain a splendid Co/ornti Plato, alone worth more tftan the price charged for the whole part. Arrangements have beea completed in Paris, whereby the Newest Fashions will appear in this work before the Paris Fashion Books are receiv j ed by the steamer. No. 1 was issued on January 1st, 1854. It is by far the best Fashion Book issued in this country We eordially recommend it.? N. F Dmiy Tim?*. Takes the highest rank among all journals ot its class.?TV. y. Trtbnm. This is a superb work ? Boston Tmnnrnut. It is the best record of the fash ions now published.?Siindrry Tin**, PhdaH+lyhui It contains all the newest mshktts, and a colored plate of great beatify.? Horn- Juurhnl. One copy, one yesr, $.1; two do . $5. four do., $9. j One copy of the flasctte. and one copy of Harper s, Putnam s, or Graham's Magar.ines, one year, $5. Office No. John street, and all Booksellers in the United States and Canadas March 34 R. D. MI'WKT, M. !?., W. H. M, ? SUROKONS and Physicians, No. 70 West Seventh street, (near V ine street,) Cincinnati J an. 38. H (JljJA.VS HAIR UVK. The best article ever used, as hundreds tastity In thin city and surrounding country. R*k1 !. OIL MAN H LIQUID 11 AlH DTI chang ?I the hair to a brilliant jet Mark or glossy fir own, which ia yr>mant m?doe* not stain or in any way In jure the skin. Mo article ever yet invented which will 00 lb pa re with it. We would advise all who have gray hairs to bny It, lor It nevnr fail*.? Hotton Fo*t Z. D. OILMAN Chemist, Washington city, Invent or and Sole Proprietor. For sal* by Druggistj, llair-Dressers, and Dealers in Fancy Articles, throughout the Unitad 8taUs. KKWIKi MAt-HINK *OR HAJUK CHKAP. WK have deposited with us, for sale, one of Avery's superior Hewing Machines, and ara authorised to dis]MMO of the same as a great bargain. This ma chine is considered one of the best now in use We annex herewith tho recommendation of some of the principal wholesale merchant tailors in New York city. New York, July 30, 1863. We, the undersigned, do hereby certify that we have examined the " Avrrp Sent 11 g Machine, and cheerfully recommend it for its simplicity, durability, and especially for the peculiar stitch mode by it. '1 he stitch is original, and in appearance is Ilka the most porfect and handsome " Lack-stitching " We hava thoroughly tested the strength of the sewing, and are satisfied that the stitch of this machine makes a stronger and firmer seavi than ran. br ma/tr fry j'land. We take pleasure in recommending this Machina to our friends, and to tailors, seamstresses, and families generally, throughout the country: Bough ton A Knapn, Wholesale Dealers In Men's and Boy's Clothing, IV Courtlandt st. Loekwood A DuBois, Merchant Tailors, 558 Broad **1?. A. Gould A Co., Wholesale Dealers in Clothing, 221 Washington st. J. P. Hull, Merchant Tailor. 553 Broadway. Dickson A Pettus, Merchant Tailors, 523 Broadway. Apply at the publication office of the National Era, 7th street, opposite Odd Fallows' Hall. March 2. ATTENTION ! SOLDIERS who served in the various wan, and sailors, or their widows or heirs, to whom ar rears of pay, extra pay, bounty land, pensions, Ac., may be due, may find it to their advantage to havi their claims investigated. Address A. M. GANG EWER, Attorney and Agent, Washington, D? C. Bounty-land warrants bought and sold FOR the spring trade. SHIRTS in every variety of style and quality. Gen tlemen in want of a good-fitting shirt can be suit ed in style, quality, and price, at STEVENS'S March 7. Sales Room, Brown s Hotel. F. MATTINGLY, AT. Cap, and Misses' Flat Manufacturer, No. 7 Washington Place, 7th street, between D and E, Waahington, P. C. Jan. 2. BOOTS AND SHOES, For Ladies, Gentlemen, and Children. EEDMONSTON, west Bide of 7th street, (nearly ? opposite Odd Fellows' Hall,) manufactures to order, and keeps constantly on hand and tor sale, av ory article in his line, of superior quality and at the lowest prioen. The public are thanked for their past very liberal patronage, and are assured that no pains shall be ."pared to merit a continuance of their favors. ^Jan. 13. WE ARE NOW OPENING, AT our splendidly-lighted sales rooms, on Seventh street, 3 doors north of Pennsylvania avenue, a choice stock of rich Fancy Dross Goods, embracing all the novelties or the season; also, Spring Styles Mantelletw, Black Lace Shawls and Scarfs, Wnite Crape Shawls, Cashmere Scarfs and Shawls, Frsnch Ki 1 and Bilk Gloves, Hosiery and Embroideries, with a choice lot of Linen and Staple Gooda in great abundance?all of which will be aold at fair, low pricea. We invite purchasers to call and examine ouratock. 0^- Obaerve that all articles are warrant*! to prove aa repres*tted. MAXWELL, SEARS, A COLLEY, April 10 7th street, 3 doors above Pa. av. FOR THE SPRING TRADE. BEEBE'S NEW YORK HATS for the spring of 1854. The second supply of the above elegant Hats tbis day received at STEVENS S March 7. Sales Room, Browns HoUl. D CAMPBELL SADDLER, Harneas, and Trunk Maker, Pennsyl vania avenue, a few doors east of the National Ilotol, City of Washington. Jan. 2?im RAZORS! RAZORS!! RAZORS!!! IF you want a fine, smooth shave, call at Park kr s, who can now furnish you with one of the celebra ted Chinese Rssors, and fivo others of the beat pat terns, of Wade A Butcher's make. Also, ten new patterns of the celebrated Tally Ho Razor*. One gross of W ad* A Butcher s Razors, for barbers, double concave ground. l'ARKLR S Perfumery and Fancy Store. Msy 2. under National Hotel. NEW GOODS. PARKER, at his Perfumery and Fancy Store, un der the National lloXel. Pa avenus, is just open ing a new and complete .-tuck of Goods, consisting, in part, of? v OLOVE8. Ladies and Gcnt'i Paria Kid Gloves, all siaea and col PERFUMERY. Extracts.froai the houses of Lubin and Prevost, Paris, and Harrison, Philadelphia; I Genuine German Cologne. Pomatum, I?oeuf Mutow , i Cold Cream, Macassar Oil. W. I. Bay Hum ; I Low s Brown Windsor Soap, Cleaver s Honey Soap, Lubin s Hose and Musk Soa|?; Taylor a Transparent Balls, Ac., Ac. BRUSHES. English. French, and Amorican Hair Brushes, in one hundred different jiattern*; 1, 2, S, 4, and 5 row Tooth Brushes, London made. for our sales expressly; Nail and Cloth Brushes, Ac., Ac., Ac. COMBS. Tuck Combs, latest Paris styles ; Shell, Buffalo. English cold-prossed Horn and India Rubber Dressing Combs; John Fen's premium Ivory fine teeth Combs, and ? Pocket Combs. FOR SHAVING. Guerlain s. Roussel's. and Harrison sShaving Cream , Military Cakes, and all other Shaving Soaps; Cadger a bair Shaving Brushes, very superior. PARKERS PREMIUM RAZOR STROP. WasmikuTOM, Marrh 12. 1H49. We, the undersigned, having fairly tested Parker's Metallic Rasor Strop Powder, to which the Maryland Institute has awarded a premium, take great pleasure in certifying that it will koep the Rasor in fine, smooth (having order, without the use of hone. J. M/?cr?K*aon Brrriki, U. 8. Senator. W. W. Skaton, Mayor of Waahington W. S. Archkr. House of Representative*. Rev. T. M. Pkahr, Washington City. Thomas J. Rrs*, U. State* Senator. Hirnm Walbridge. Es<i, New York city. RAZORS. Wade A Butcher'*, of our own importation; Tally-Iio, from 25 cents to $1.25 each. Rators imported to order, and all warranted. Jan. 2?d M. SNYDER, BANKER and Exchange Broker, National Hotel Building, Pennsylvania avonue, Waahington city. D. C. J?B fl REMOVAL! HENRY JANNEY'S Boot and Shoe Store and Maqufactory. for the last ten years located on Htb street, near the General Post Office. was removed to Pennsylvania Avenue, between Rrown?Hotel and "th street, where the proprietor has spared no pain* or oxpansc in fitting up an establishment commensal rale with the great increase in the business or the ^ The subscriber tenders bis moat cordial and grata ful acknowleilgrnvnts to his friends and P*?ro?? their long-continued favors, and will be pleasad to meet them in his new house. , ? A , 1 have a very well-assorted stock of Bent* and 1 Shoe*, of French, New York, Eastern, and my own make, embracing every stylo and variety, to which I invite tho attention of member* of Cnwflrsw, and eiti 10ns generally. HKNRY JANM-N Ponn av., north side, between Browi.s llotal Jan 2 and 7th *t., third door from the lattar. . From, tk* Urutfd StnM Arg?*. To tho*c person* who may visit Washington. and are in want of a boot that cannot be excelled, either in quality or workmanship, we would eall their atten tion to the card of Henry Janney, to be found under the head of Washington " A handsome and neat ly.made boot is not at all times a source of pleasure to tho wearer, but often ona of extreme torture; this 1* caused by tho bungling manner in which the boot is fitted to the foot. Mr. Janney has devotad mach of his time in studying the construction of the human foot, in order to ascertain how a boot should be cat and fitted, that will be perfectly easy to all part* of tho foot. In this he has *ucceeded, *0 that it mattars not what mav bo the *hape of. or the numbrr of corns on the foot, his hoot is perfectly easy Thus ha ha? combined beauty with comfort.