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TERMS.?Subscriptions foi one year, ijf'2 50 in advance, or $3 00 if paid at the end of three months. For six months, !$1 50 in advance. Advertisements inserted at the usual rates. All letters relating to the pecuniary interests of the Pa per to be addressed, postage paid, to the Publisher, J AMES C. DUNN. All letters relative to Ihc Editorial department 1o he di directed, postage paid, to the Editor of the Native American. Those subscribers for a year, who do not eive nptice oi their wish to have the paper discontinued at the end of their year, will be presumed as desiring its continuance until countermanded, and it will accordingly be contin ued at the option of the publisher. home. if there b? oq earth a spot Where life's tomoestuous waves rage no , Or if there be a charm. * joy. Without satiety or alloy? Or if there be a feeling fraught Semite,oug ? NeV,n,i?V "iU' 'f'J'K . ()r if there be a word of bliss Oi peace, of bve, of happ?n?*?? Or if there be a refuge lair, A <>afe retreat from toil and cw'? "Where the heart may a dwelling find, A store of many joys combined, Wheie every feeling, ?v?^ lon?' ?Upct harmonizes with its own* Whence its vain wishes ne'er can rove, Oh. it is Home !?a home of love . THE PAST AND NEW YEAR. DV CHIEF JUSTICE MELLEX, OF MAINE. The close of the year, whose last kuell is heard ,. .i nhilU and gloom of winter, when al amid the chil 8 departed friends and Wpsibbsb. ring the lapse ^ y^uT-how many of their EEs&mss?* ever has been til0Ugh thousands are thus .f human life. But though ^ ^ ^ su|olary educated i iUion8 have been spending the discipline, ) in health and abundance. year m peace J > gia(jdned with sunshine, aiid'their course^hasb^eif through fields of beau ty and beside - the .tillthu9 t0 I8 ,U8k rind trace the course we have been look baik been delightful or smooth pursuing. If it ^ t should melt in tender aUd C^e we look to the fountian of all our lSta*WHKB #S:iSH=|s Egsssssas a-^srjssr^ & jf* hv: u ? trminiiilized and all around him peace ful and If he has been careful to regulate his conduct, on lifes journey, by the!pnmciph* of iustice and the commands of duty?if "? his ? I intercourse his passions have been pre Tved in due subjection u, the gentle influences of a benevolent heart, displaying itself in aits of mercy like the good Samaritan. "Sure the last end NighTdews* fal* "not morrgen^l^o^the^ground! Norweary, worn-out winds expire so soft. The new year to which we are just to be in riSS'iSS KiSKESttftW mi and ite failure Co perform them ,? ma,,, instances?its smiles and its tears?its flatteries and its frowns?its gaieties and hopes its g Su.l decline-decay and dissolution; but we have abundant reason too for indulging the be lief that we may enjoy thousands of blessings, f we are disposed to cherish proper feelings? to be kind and courteous and obliging, and evt on our euard to avoid unnecessarily wounding s ?;?ii?Te d'"t.rsrr^'p?a ?r triinly, as by habitually consulting ?he ease an comlort of others, ?ith whom lie ,, in he ha bit of associating: and this is true | y also A man who is dissatisfied with himself and those around him, and laboring nnder the darkening influence of disturbed or morose feel ings may travel from Dan to Beersheba and say it is all barren;'?lo him it will appear so and the effect would be the same if his journey lay amidst the most delightful scenes of rural beau ty The seasons of the year all give their an nual lessons for instruction: It is our wisdom to regard them carefully. Spring summons us all ohpprful activity, with assurances that our la borwHInotbe in'vain. Summer performs what Spring bad promised, and shews us the advant age of listening to early instruction and wisely improving it. Ten thousand songsters arc fill ing the branches with their animating strains of music and gratitude, and leaching us to enjoy, as they do, the countless blessings and bounties of nature; their music is never failing?nor do we see it ending in discords. Let us oil, as we journey onward together through the year, learn to tune our hearts as they do their voiees. and pass the Heeling period in harmony, and in that cheerfulness which the excellent Addison has honored with the name of a continual expres sion of gratitude to Heaven. In Germany the study and practice of music are general among the people. Besides other advantages resulting from making music a port of common education, it is not romantic or Utopian to observe that il teaches how easily music?pure and surpassing music?may be made on the same instrument, which under an ignorant or purposed touch will send forth discords in prodigious varieties. He who has become acquainted with the instrument, though not a master of it well knows how to avoid those combinations of sound which are painful to the car, and often tend to disturb fee lings and passions. What tones are sweeter than those produced by the gentle breeze cf heaven i i passing over the strings of the iEolian Harp? The reason is, those strings are so attuned as that their vibrations, will not respond except in notes of harmorn: but only disorder the strings, by in creasing the tension cf some and decreasing that of others, and the sweetest zephyr will prodtir. nothing but the vilest discords, resembling angry passions. Let us then, in our journey through the year on which we have entered, acquire a> much possible a knowledge of the science and the art of social and domestic moral music. Let us learn to measure our time with care to cultivate our voices, that tliey may lose all harsh ness ; let each attend to his own pait, and strive to excel in that. Let us consider our feel ings, passions and dispositions, as the strings of the Harp; and the ordinary events of life as the breezes which give vibration to the string; if these strings?our feelings, passion and disposi tions?are in proper tune?under due regulation, and preserving a just relation, each to nil the others, we have then all the elements of moral music, domestic and social, and in a few weeks, by due regard to all the principles and arrange ment above mentioned, we shall soon be good scholars, giving and receiving all that pleasure which harmony can afford, and as the sober au tumn advances, our tastes for his kind of music will be more and more ripened towards perfec tion; and when the cold Decembeily evenings shall arrive, we can listen to the angry music of the elements abroad, full of discordant strains, sweeping by our peaceful homes, while within them all may be the music of the heart, in its gentlest movements. It is a melancholy truth that we ourselves manufacture seven-eighths of what we are dis posed to term our misfortunes in this world. Want of precaution mar3 our arrangements: want of prudence exposes us to dangers which we might easily have avoided?want of patience often hurries us into difficulties, and disqualifies us to bear them with calmness or decency. In dulgence in follies and fashions often plants the seeds ol waste and disease. Intemperance in our passions always is followed by unwelcome sensa tions, and sometimes with a sense of shame.' Stimulants are succeeded by debility, and when they are used to excess, we know and daily wit ness the dreadful results?if death is not one of them?either the death of the offender, or of some other destroyed by his hand in the tempest of infuriated passions?we are too often compell ed to mourn over the desolation they occasion? presenting in one view. "Hate?giicf?despair?the family of pain." Sore pinched by wintry winds, How many sink into the sordid hut 01 chcerless poverty ! In the midst of the merriment and mirth ma king of the Christmas season, let the pleading voice of the bereaved and poor, be heard by the gay and rejoicing sons and daughters of prosper ity. How the wind howls at the window, as if angry at my careless comfort, at my thoughtless ness ol the shivering, starving poor! Or does it call me with its hoarse blustering impatience to look out upon the driving storm, that I may be reminded of my hard heartedness to the wretch ed inmates of the hovels, into which the angry tempest spirit is rushing with his keen, keen, cold. Ah! How many eat the bitter, bitter bread Of miser}'! The poor widow sits close to her hungry chil dren, who are hovering, about those few embers on the hearth of that open room, while her hands, stiff with the cold, urge the vain effort to procure with her needle the necessaries of life for herself, and her orphans. That rude, rude blast that makes her whole frame shudder, reminds her of the awful visitation that swept away herhusband, her property, and her earddy comfort. Poor, lone, widowed one ! My heart bleeds for thee ! Thou hast seen better days ! Hut now Nay, hard hearted as I am, I cannot endure even to remind myself of what thou now art. Pale, shivering one, what is they crime, that thou art thus deserted by those that called thee friend, and enjoyed thy hospitality ? AVhy has society shut against thee the fountain of its sympathies, and denied thee by a secret, silent and heartless com pact, half the compensation for thy unremitted toil, that is eagerly offered for the fitful services of the rougher anil less dependent sex? What jatal stain of guilt cuts off thy friendless children from their former supply of apparel and little gifts suited to this, the child's own season of the year? Why must thou be doomed to hear the sweet lips of thy prattlers shout eagerly " Christ mas gift!!" and thou have nothing to bestow but a bitter, briny tear? Ilere are my children with their new clothes and cheerful, laughing, expect ing countenances?and here are the several little presents suited to their respective ages; and when the eve of Christmas comes, they will scarce tar ry in their nightly rest, for the eagerness of their spirits in anticipation of the blessed, jovous mor ning. Hut thy poor orphans must be content with their long-worn and scanty vestments, and instead of presents and rejoicings, rtiust hear thee say " Ah ! my children, this is not like the Christmas we used to have when your poor father was alive!" Thou lone, lone, sufferer, thou shalt have a part of my little morsel, and thou shall have a part of my fervent prayer. Goil shield thee, widow, with thy helpless orphans, God shield thee! O that Christians would remember the character of Him, whose advent into our world they celebrate; that they would remember that he loved the poor. Oni.y Twc> Diseases. 'After all,' says a witty French physician, ' there are only two diseases in the world; one of which you die, and another cf which j ou don't." Infli:i:\ci-: of Cities.?By associating in large masses, as in camps and cities, talenlsare improv ed a;id the mind strengthened, but virtue is im paired and morality weakened. m in i??imi in ? htmw?MMMinr? irr"!"!?i?irnnnnri wr-n A CHAPTER FROM TlIE YOUiNG MAN'S GUIDE BY W. A. ALCOTT. Section III. On Hooks and Study. I will now mention a few of the particulai studies to which he who would educate himself for usefulness should dircct his attention. 1. CK'. or.Ai II '? As it is presumed that every one whom I ad dress reads newspapers more or less, I must be permittt d to recommend that you read them with a good map of every quarter of the world before you, and a geography and correct gazetteer a', hand. When a place is mentioned observe its situation on the map, read an account of it in the gazetteer, and a more particular description in the geography. Or if you choose to go through with the article, and get some general notions of the subject, and afterwards go bac k and read it a second time, in the manner proposed, to this [ have no objection. Let ine insist, strongly, on the importance of this method of reading. It may seem slow at first; but believe a?e, you will be richly repaid in the end. Even in the lyceum, where the sub ject seems to demand it, and the nature of the case will admit, it ought to be required of lectu rers and disputants, to explain every thing in passing, either by reference to books themselves on the spot, or by maps, apparatus, diagrams c.; with which, it is pl iiu, that every lyceum ought to be furnished. The more intelligent would lose nothing, while the les&so, would gain much by this practice. The expense of these things, at I he present time, is so trifling, that no person, or association of persons, whose object is scien tific improvement, should, by any means, dis pense with them. No science expands the mind of a young man more, at the same time that it secures his cheer ful attention, than geography?I mean if pursu ed in tlie foregoing manner. Its use is so obvi ous lh.<t the most stupid can not fail io see it. Much is said, I know, of ditferences of taste on this, as well as every other subject; but I can hardly believe that any young person* can be entirely without taste for geographical knowl edge. It is next to actual travels; and who does not delight in seeing new places and new objects.? 2. HISTORY. Next in order as regards both interest and im portance, will be a knowledge of history, with some attention at the same lime to chronology. Here, too, the starting point will be the same as in the former case. Some circumstance or event mentioned at the lyceum, or in the newspaper, wili excite curiosity, and lead the way toinqurv. I think it well, however, to have but one leading science in view at a time; that is, if goographv be theobject, let history and almost every thing else be laid aside for that time, in order to se cure, and h?ld fast the geographical information which is needed. After a few weeks or months, should he wish to pursue history, let the student, for some time confine himself ehi fly., perhaps exclusively, to that branch. The natural order of commencing and pursu ing this branch without an instructor, and 1 thin*' in schools also, is the following. For ex ample, you take up a book, or it may be a news pap'.r, s nee these are swarming every where at the present time, and you read that a person has just deceased, who was at Yorktown, in Virgin ia, during the whole siege, in the American Revolution. I am supposing here that you have already learned where Yorktown is; for geogra phy, to some extent at least, should precede his tory ; but if not, I would let it pass for a mo ment, since we cannot do every thing at once, and proceed to inquire about the siege, and rev olution. If you have any books whatever, on history, within your reach, do not give up the pursuit till you have attained a measure of suc cess. Find out when the siege in question hap pened, by ivhom, and by how many thousand troops it was carried on; and who and how many the besieged were. He who follows out tin's plan, will soon find his mind reaching beyond the mere events allu i dec! to in the newspaper, both forward and back jward. As in the example already mentioned, for I cannot think of abetter;?What were the c nsequences of this siege??Did it help to bring about peace, and how soon ??And did the two nations ever engage in war afterwards??If so, how soon, and with what results? What became of the French troops and of tli'e good La Fay ette ? This would lead to the study of French history for the last forty years. On the other hand, where had Washington and La Fayette ? and Cornwallis been employed, previous to the 'siege of Yorktown ? What battles had they fought, and with what success? What led to the quarrel between Great Britain and the United States? &c. Thus we should natually go back ward, step by step, until we should get much of modern history clustered around this single event in the siege of Yorktown. The same course should he pursued i:i the case of any other event, either ancient or modern. Ifnewspapers are not thus read, they dissipate the mind, and probably do aboutas much harm as good. It is deemed disgraceful?and ought to be? for any young man at this day to be ignorant of the g< ography and his'ory of the country in which he lives. And yet it is no uncommon occurence. However it argues much against the excellence of our systems of education, tha4 almost every child should be carried apparently through a wide range of science, and over the whole ma terial universe, and yet know uothing, or next to nothing, practically, of his own country. ?J. ARITI1MKTIC. No young man is excusable who is destitute of a knowledge of Arithmetic. It is probable, however, that no individual will read this book, who has not some knowledge of the fudamental branches; numeration, addition, substraction, multiplication, and division. But with these, every person has the kfv to a thorough acquain tance with the u hole subject, so far as his situ ation in life requires. To avail himself of these keys to mathematical knowledge, he must pur sue a course not unlike that which I have re commended in relation to grographv and history. He must seize o:i every circumstance which oc curs iii his reading, wheje reckoning is required, and ii possible, stop at once and computeit. Or if not, let the place be marked, and tit the fiist lei-ure. moment, let him turn to it, and make the estimate!. Suppose he reads of a shipwreck. The crew is said to consist of thiity men brides the captain and mate, and three hundred and thir teen passengers, and a company of sixty grena diers. Th,e captain and mate, and ten of the crew escaped in the long bout. The rest were drowned, except twelve of the grenadiers, who clung to a floating fragment of the wreck till they were taken oil' by another vessel. Now is there a single person in existence, who would read such an account, without being anxious to know how many persons in the whole were lost? Yet nine readers in ten would nol know; nud why? Simply because they will not stop to use what little addition and substruction thev possess. I do not say that, in reading to a company, who did not expect it, a young man would be .required to stop and make the computation ; but I do say that in all ordinary cases, no person is excusable who omits it, for it is a flagrant wrong to his mind. Long practice, it is true may ren der it unnecessary for an individual to pause, in order to estimate a sum like that abovementioned. Manv, indeed most persons who arc lamiiar with I figures,might compute these numbers while rea ding, and without the slightest pause; but it cer i tainly requires some practice. And the most I important use of arithmetical studies (except ;is a discipline to the mind) is to enable us to reck on without slates ami pencils. He has hut a miserable knowledge of arithmetic, who is no arithmetician without a pen or pencil in his hand. These are but the ladders upon which he should ascend to the science, and not the sci ence itself. 4. CHEMISTRY AND OTHER NATURAL SCIENCES. If I were to name one branch, as more impor tant to a young man than any other,?next to the merest elements of reading and writing?it would be chemistry. Not a mere smattering of it, how ever; for this usually does about as much harm as good. But a thorough knowledge of a few of the simple elements of bodies, and some of their most interesting combinations, such as t are witnessed every day of our lives, but which, for want of a little knowledge of chemistry, are never under stood, would do more to interest a young man in the busiues in whi<*h he may be employed, than almost any thing I could name. For there is hardly a single trade or occupation whatever, that does not embrace a greater or less number of chemical processes. Chemistry is of very high importance even to the gardener and the farmer. There are several other branches which come under the general head of Natural Science, which I recommend to your attention. Such are Bota ny, or a knowledge of plants; Natural History, or a knowledge of animals : and Geology, or a general knowledge of the rocks and stones of which the earth on which we live is composed. I do not think these are equally important with the knowledge of chemistry, but they are highly in teresting, and by no means without their value. 5. GRAMMAR AND COMPOSITION. The foundation of a knowledge of Grammar is, in my view Composition ; and composition, whether learned early or late, is best acquired by leller writing. This habit, early commenced, and judiciously but perseveringly followed,will in time, ensure the art not only of composing well, but also grammatically. I know this position is sometimes doubted, but the testimony is so strong, that the point seems to me fully established. It is related in Ramsay's Life of Washington, that many individuals, who, before the war of the Ameaican Revolution, could scarcely write their names, became, in the progress of that war, able to compose letters which were not only intelligi ble and correct, but which would have done credit to a profund grammarian. The reason of this un doubtedly was, that they were thrown into situa tions where they were obliged to write much and often, and in such a manner as to be clearly un derstood. Perhaps the misinterpretation of a sin | gle doubtful word or sentence might have been the ruin of an army, or even of the cause. Thus they had a motive to write accurately ; and lono practicc with a powerful motive before them, rei? dered them successful. Nor is it necessary that motives so powerful | should always exist, in order to produce this re j suit;?it is sufficient that there be a motive to i write well, and to persevere in writing well. I have known several pedlars and trailers, whose business led to the same consequences. FARMERS. There is no class in society so important to the welfare and the happiness of the- community as farmers. Without thier aid, even science and the arts would be neglected, and commerce and man ufactures languish. Some of the most distinguished characters, whose lives have been handed down to us by history, have been Agricultarists. Abra ham, the highly favored of God, and most of the ancient Patriarchs, had llocks and herds;?Ciu cinuatus was called from the plough to lead the armies of Rome to victory, ond when her enemies were vanquished, he icsigned all power and returned again to his rural occupations. In mod ern times our own Washington and our adopted La Faj ette are on the list of farmers. It is a mistaken idea that the farmers have no need of education, or no leisure for acquiring it. Knowledge is important to all human beings; as it enlarges the mind, and raises the thoughts above merely sensual gratification. Farmers have a better opportunity for attention to general ed ucation, than any other class. Professional men are obliged to confine thier reading, in some mea sure, to their profession, mechanics generally la bor through the whole of they ear; and merchants are deeply immersed in buisness: while it is on ly the farmers who have five whole months of spare time in the season best calculated for intel lectual improvement. Free from care and anxiety and surrounded by the comforts'of life, which their farms afford, they may, if they will, with their families, store up rich treasures of history and biography; and become famili ir with the people of other couutr ies without departing from their own firesides. It would be highly benefi cial to the interests of this coun'rv if larger numbers of men of wealth and lent'.ing should become fanners; they exert a beahhiui and sta ble inlluciic on socicty, and the want of thein no other clss can supply. The lines in Goldsmith's Deserted Village are not only beautiful'hut tru?; "l'rinc * untl lords may flai.iij-Ii or tnav fad", A bre.iih can make tlsnn, as a biva'h h ?s m.i-le; I?'il a yeomanry, tin ir country's | r Wlien onco.destroyei!, can mver J'rcin the lumay Mupotwt. A SINGULAR PRISON AMUSEMENT. ?Stripped, and re-clothed in rugs which were i ropjiing to pieces, his hands and feet heavily ironed, the prisoner wan thrown into one of tho most noisome dungeons of the fortress. A sprink mg ol straw formed his bed; covering it had none. J he only light and air which penetrated into tins den of torment came through a loop hole, which narrowing gradually from the inside to the outside had a diameter of not more than five inches at the farthest extremity. This loop hole was secured and darkened l>y a fourfold iron grating, i=o ingeniously contrived that the liars of one net work covered the instcrsticcs of another; but there was neither glass nor shutters to ward ofl' the in clemency of the weather. Tho interior extremity of this apciture readied within two feet and a half of the ground, and served the captive for a chair and table, and some times he rested his arms and elbows on it, to lighten the weight of his fetters. Shut out from all communication with his fellow beings, Latudo found some amusement in the socielj" of the rats which infested his dungeon. His first attempt to make them companionable was tried upon a single rat, which in three days by gently throwing bits of bread to it, he tendered so tame that il would take food from his hands. The animal even changed ils abode and cs'ablish ed it.-eif in another hole, in order to be near lo him. In a few days a female joined the first comer. At the out-set she was timid ; but it was not long before she acquired boldness, a: d would quarrel and light for the morsels which were given by the prisoner. 'When ir.y dinner was brought in,' says Latude, 11 called my companions ; the male ran lo mo directly ; the female according to custom come slowly and timidly, but at lei?gth approached closer to me and ventured to take what I offered her from my har.d. Some time after, a thud appeared who was much less ceremonious than my first , acquaintances. After his second visit he constituted himself one of the family, and made himself so perfectly at homo that he resolv ed to introduce his comrades. The next day he came, With two others, who in the course of a week brought five more ; and thus, in less than a fortnight, our family circle consisted of ten large rats and myself. I gave each of them names which they learned to distinguish. When I called them they came to eat with me, from the dish or off the same plate ; but this I found unpleasant, and was soon forced to find them a dish for them selves, on account of their slovenly habits. They became so tame that they allowed me to scratch their necks, and appeared to me pleased when I did, but they would never permit me to touch the back. Sometimes I amused myself in making them play, and joined in their gambols. Occa s'onaliy I threw them a piece of meat scalding hot; the most eager lo seize it, burned them" selves, cried out, and left it; while the less gree dy, who had waited patiently, took it when it was cold, and escaped into a corner, where they di vided their prize : sometimes I made them jump ~ up, by holding a piece of bread or meat suspend ed in the air.' In the course of a year his four footed companions increased to twenty-six. Whenever an intruder appeared he met with a hostile reception from the old slanders, and had to fight his way, before he could obtain footing. Latude endeavoured to familiarize a spider, but in this he was unsuccessful." What some call lucic. One person will swal low penknives and yet live many years; while another, in eating, gets a small bit of liver in his windpipe and dies. One has the shaft of a gig passed completely through his body and rec overs; another only runs a thorn in his hand and 110 skill can save him. One is thrown fifty or an hundred feet down a cliff, and survives; anoth er has his neck broken, by a mere overturn in his gig, on a smooth plain. We have lately seen an aged and healthy minister who fell from the belfry of a common steple to the ground, a few years ago; but we have also seen a lady die in consequenee of falling dowu gently, on a level floor. So that the race is not always to theswilt, nor the battle always to the strong. Hanging for Suicide.?A young lady, just from school, who knew many things, and thoght she knew many more?and who was particular ly fond of high sounding words, of which she scarcely understood the meaning?sat very pati ently hearing an account of the hanging of a per son for house-breaking. Assuming, suddenly an air of importance, she observed; "Why, dear me, is it possible that people are ever hanged for any thing but suicide?" A Goon Answer.?A child of six years of age, being introduced into company for his ex traordinary abilities, was asked by a dignified clergyman, "Where God was,"with the proffer of an orange. "Tell (replied the boy), where he is not, ar.d l will give j ou two." ENIGMA. I am a w ml of 13 letters. My 1 13 11 5 3 is a scientific art. My 9 8 11 is to rest. My 1 9 10 2 signifies to be prudent. My 9 8 13 2 is a father. My 9 10 11 is a situation. My 9 5 2 3 4 is to render smooth. My 9 10 13 is a word of rcspcct. My 9 5 3 6 is to part into threads. My 10 13 3 signifies anger. My 8 13 9 is a rainbow. My 10 13 4 is to be weary of anything. My 5 3 7 2 13 is a mechanical power. My 3 $ 8 is to lean on. My 5 10 9 11 is to paValicn'ron. My 2 4 3 signifies before. 3 0 2 is to watch. My 13 2 5 0 is to depend on. My 5 12 11 is a chance. My 5 12 9 2 is to fail. My 5 i 13 :) is a musi cal instrument. Mv 12 11 2 13 signifies' above. My 13 8 2 1 1 is a religious ceremony. My 2 4 3 signifies also. My 5 12 7 1 is a passion. My 12 0 9 11 2 13 is a fish. My i3 J2 11 is the last thing we all do. 3 7 3 is the eloso of the day. My 9 12 I I is a drunkard. My whole passes through the hands of a grei'.t many people. W. F. h. Washington, Dec. 21th, ANSWER TO ELIZABETH'S LAS I' EXiC-MA. \V i::g. A .hens. Shells, Hail, Illinois, Nest, Gin, Tunnel, O.-ean, Net, Lion, Young. ('a.-h, Eaton, Union,Mountain.' 'If you lake the li:? i letter of each of these wordy, you have the Washington Lyceum, a-Society of which 1 have heard much that is praiseworthy, and of the merits of which 1 hope soon to judge personally. ELI^A.