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- )v .4- r J v -'j . i Mi -T1IE -NATIONAL, RRrUKiWAM ; .Vi t fi . .til 'J. 1 SW1 " i ! W , PtlJfIJ8HHi ,DAK.t. tf 't ' vma n AMrtwM."V J4 1TM O ADTtWrW JFa.' Ota Ullrt.ttnt lH1........1.t.i..lAUiall tt Oa a,aar, fr SiTI., ,. .,-; . VB4HBTftrmkii ,..,,. )1V,. S v 0mn,lxlarf.,r,, ,.,..,. .,.. ..,1 ssq. rsK.r lHt lilt. t. wwr 'lock.. rZ-W V " '- . wii-mi mi. Ciftk;: the'Sbutli; M InilrfM MflfJiT-. ji J "VI JTJii lwltll"" t- ti mWImMm Wr. MNMVJBBJIIiinHWHmni 11 W kuM la fefert n r r . r ,'i l ,, ju'i.'-rr- -IVt J. ejwx ei (special UQgrawioner: (Benj. CJCraasAiT. 1 lX 'l'r"l" I?,!1 f u J r tWiiinirT'Cnr,I;'c','it'rtI,l. Siai I hare thohonor to make the follow. Iria'rsnortAf mv Abtervattbns In the South, "and my Information concerning, affair ind ue people m tnat section. , , .,1 arrived.! atpatgraeryrAI4tbemt the? ,jirt p September, aso, suajresaaiBea m LoukfaM, "arid 'TeXas. rI" remained In Ala-, bamkTrbm th8 Ut of Beptmberr lSCS,1 untit the 19th of Octooerf the aatde year, From, therd Twwrt to Georgia; wheft' Ifteraained tantil'loe- 'itb of Dectrobtr, "fcen Heft 'that Btat for Florida, where I remained until the 20th, BubseqnentlT I ipent two wttlta'in TotmeBee,one weer in.Arkaniaa'. on f week ta UmUaippI, two week in lxmliahr and foncseeka iaXexaa. Hn thla tlme-I TUItcd all of i the.largo and limportsnt citiet of tho ,BoiiUv,..ni1.HBaiU' fwqnaa ;nJ-tandeA , ttppa tipott many of the largett plabtatioal.' I patted oyer,, nearly all of the railroad-in tbej abore-rmmed Statet, waa upon all o( tho , , navigable rirers.and trayejed eTen, handred and pdd.railfi In ttage coaches. ' 'I oallcd'npon all of the general officers commandlngpotts, districts, and departments In thy 'eight BUtet abore-mentionea, and also upon s" of the Commissioners of freedmen, except General Kskjand many other officers 'connected' with the FKcdmenV Bureau, I also converted wlth'at lcatt cmo'lhlrd of the ex-eeneralof the late confederate army', and largernuinbers of Houthem politicians and J ooninern pnop,A) mrinamg' iniiuimi uie gospel, editors 6f toewspapers, and others In professional capacities. i c -.From my closa and earefnl observation, in addition to what teems to mo to have been ,jny correct and Tariedaourcet'Of Informa t 'ino , DOTijQ , miny-one wresp, r, Kwy.piguv men who neret uio any aemce at montbjdqriog which, time 'I, traTeled oyer, but who ere Talormu with' word nearl tery. oorUonoreitthtof.theieleren uMirra1 forelcm rrn wtra trf 'aeceded SUleiBamely, Alabama, Gaorgia, Boath.ahdrnarchnnlntcrrarituUr 9 t7lAltd fTWifeAUJui Alrnaaa XflaATiulnml tion, a oeriTea lae impressions wnica,,iriia ntlre candor and Xranpiess, l will endeavof briefly to set forth: , ,, Jm I will speak, first, of the tenUmenU pf the 1 people; touching their relations with the Gen eral Government and the people "of the t distinguish between iSyalty nxxi patrioi- tim, ana i oeiieTe uio uuiocuoiv not ni grounded. That glorious, spontaneous burst of pdpular jnUmsIasm with which the North responded as one man to the echoing tburt dert 6f Sumter was the 'most splendid exhi bltlonof psnoWsm-tho'world has-yetwlt- Inessed : "ttayViuietness, and even cheerfulness -with Which the same people once yielded obe- -dience to ua rule ol James xiucnanan, wnoie dmmistratlon they despised and hated, was an Instance of loyally, sueh as only American citizens could bare furnished. The. tyorth never rebelled against James Ttnhnn (t. ta trnft. nnr aprlnnxlv nrnnnAMl to ( Jiut I assert without hesitation that, now the war has swept ove.r the South, thero Is no more disposition In that ,tection of the country to reoei against mo national uoy ernment thdn there then was In the North at the time referred to. ' If any general assertion can be made that will apply to the masses bf the people of the South, it is that they are, at the present time, indifferent toward the General Govern. 'menu For four yeart of neventfol' life as a nation, they were accustomed to speak of, and regard, "our government" -s the one which, had. Its seat laWwhmond, and thou sands who,iJlrst looked 'upon, that, govern ment with great suspicion and distrust grad ually, from the mere lapse of time ana the force of example, came to admif it ln(o, their Ideas aajheir government. The great body of the people, in any counlryalwaya mqyq 'slowly; the transferor allegiance from one de facto government to another la not effected in a day, whatever oaths bf loyalty may be taken) and I hive witnessed many amusing instances of mistakes" bn the pari of those of whose attachment tottbo Government there could be tfo question. Ignorance and prejudice always lay furthest, behind .any radical changeand no person can 'forget thatttio violent changes of the" past few years have left the Ideas of the populuco weatly 'unsettled, and Increased their indifftrenco. Fully one.half of tho southern people never cherished an educated and active attachment to any government that was over them, and' Ine.var nas leu mem very niuca as u lounu thein. . ' The rank and file Of the disbanded South ern army those who remained in It to the end are tho backbone and sinew of the South, ,long before, the surrender, corps, thoroughly purged of the worthless clsss tne tkuuers, inose onwooru uie rjonto as well as any other country, would be Pest fid, and these it is that ore now prolonging past bitternesses. These are they, in great part, as 1 abundantly learned by personal ob servation, that kio now editing reckless news papers, and that put forth those pernicious utterances that so little represent tho think ing, substantial people, and are'ao eagerly1 seiicd'out and paraded by certain Northern Journalists, who themselves as littlo repre sent the great North. To tho. disbanded regiments or the rebel array, bpth. officers and men, J look with great confidence si the best and altogether most hopeful ele ment of the,8outh the real basis of recon struction and the material of worthy citizen ship. Ua a thousand batUe-llelds they have tested the invincible power of that Govern ment they vainly sought to overthrow, and along a thousand picket lines, and under the friendly flag of truco, they have" learned that the soldiers pf tho Union bore them no hatred and shared with them the comajum attributes of humanity, Arpund the returned soldier of the South gathers the same circle of ad miring sfrienas that we see around the millions of hearthstones In our own Bection, and from him they are slowly learning the lesson of charitv and of brotherhood. I know of very few more potent influences at work in promoting real and lasting reconcil iation end reconstruction than the influence of the returned Southern soldier. The question above all others that ouf nnnln Arn ftnslmM tn fitlc la. tn njun nfft war with, a foreign nation, what n ould.be tho acr tlon of the South f Of course, all answers to this must be founded chiefly in speculation, since a great deal would depend topon the , character or, joe, -nation wun wnom we were at war, and much upon the action of the Government between now and any such event 7, need hardly ssy that, whatever might be their sympathies, a case of a war with England; net a regiment of men could be recruited in thd South in her' support, even If it were, freely permitted. In-other cases it would be different. There is a certain loose floating population in, the, South, at 'V everywhere, sad pwftlyFfoportlo ta fej)r9gpa ! " i ' ' rt l t j"' iH;At i v1" &' -'.' v i. ": ,i ' '!!.. " ' & (151 i L v " ' - ic r. ,. i , , - , iti: : '- - T ' i-1 hi mi ' i 'j iv " Tl, Oglalal Advrtk.Uf lJttij'tCTttraMa4tttw'5aaiiat ajyutUaliwl J ft l,J-v J - t -,,,'' ' - ,,, i i T i , .. .i in . i i i i ii I ii n i i -nr-TT T I ' ' frfth,lncns4fec'oftnamord'omcrtolnlion. 'What, then, It tn tenunwnt " Tlsere to sf jrevaJeirt itiiiesitlon not to as-1 )Uon"causeo!bythewar,Uiatthathas inspired theses noisy and reckless "wUU Wfte w W norem men, o wis mil! in anvarm-r.whather I utterances of late which have given to much to receive them into then e4rel' of society r Ihit'trftA. Jforti.il p4flt (HwHJjtloncatMtcliby th wr, that WpnIU be cK to eoUaito anyarmy.nliethtr tprotagaiBtttteiUaKcdeutea. Itiiroald be DeeeMnr. ttcn. at thlnn are at ereeent tft'kWpufricVTOrtcQliiice'oTerlholiarbort WUtffprlndp! fcbrU to prevent them, from kllmy to Join the common enemy, If meh an oblect vaa " deatred.'.thdiurh I ua far from certain that the elaat jokn of wonld not be well bottea'rid of (a forelgtf eampi, Tby vflaia vonam aimoii prtoria,ijii are. . . Mexico "asuLltrasi In the rebel army were greatly overdone, Or ua front. alone. If fa-ride tie throuehtha rmintnyja Vhrtf Imnrahahlii Rnntinlrencv-l-a without doubt H would receive many roeruits. In Texas it would nr'obtblv Ht eli-ht. thou- Sana recruits aiseon ten tea, ronnc men, wno . .. . ore not engaged in'snyprouucie employ. menVand are adding nothing to tho Stale's ptlcltre Capacity, I estimate that ttero are, five thousand 'men In that State de serters nrinoittally. and rebel refureea from Ldrkansas ana Missouri that are to-day de- nenamg entirely upon TODDory-ana-mnruer for' k crCcarlous subistence. TheSe would of mrse tjo(ceiit such an opportunity. In oiqerniaies in proportion wouia ne very much less., SutJ'no invasion were accom plished, the substantial assistance that a for eisTi nemt would receive at-the hands of the late insurgents would be quite Insignificant; ntMl tnA tnarffTnat .tnnnv ntnprwlitn wlljn- formid person! entertain in this regard are Jilchlv' absurd. Naturally the American - "- . i, . -",j ,. . - people, am . gallon, arc aeroicu M no arm vi peace, ino soiaiers oi toe late reoei army hre,1f possible, Infinitely more -wearied 'and disgusted with war arid all Its works than those, of fiat army, and long' for nothing to much as quiet. The best proof of thlais the faefct War oaboloTolnntsrs, though vrewnel with the honor of Almost limitless success and Tlctonr.are clamorous and even mutinous td be discharged frbnt military duty. There fore, I am constrained! t6 btlievo that, with lew exceptions, toe, great masses oii tnos vho have been in, the rebel army will neyor again seek toenter the lists. "If there Is anyt thins; that I certainly Iearnod in' the, Soutli, It was that Its people are tired of war and era anxious to cslabluhaud pcrpituate peace. If a War should arise, sgalnit Great BnUIn, I ilo not .believe that one-fourth of tbejpeoplf would- even sympathise with that, Power; thousands would, of course, but' not to an extent that would lead' them to make any sacrifice Wher Intcrest.j'Thosa who did nof Join or sympttl4zo,wtth (he Federal army would,, maintain, a "neutrality," which would be observed, more strictly than that of Eng land during the existence of the rebellion! The South to-day hates England moro rigotl . ously than 'the North does; and the country may rest assured of this much, at least, that the South, as a people, is no more anxious for a war with any foreign Power than we ourselves, aro. Uesidea. there is a deen and steadily-growing conviction in the minds of many ox toe inot intelligent ana tnougmui of the South a conviction that if- straWcr wouia Boiaom aisovcr in toe journals or fmbrte speeches of prominent men, but only u the still undercurrents of private convert cation that hi the late war the hand of Providence,, tho decrees of destiny were against mem are sieauiasuy averse to an aniHltnn nt ihtk TTntnn T ..nnfuM itiat till discovery gave me an unfeigned satisfaction, such at no other I have made in the South. A nromlnent member of the Alabama con. vention, a railroad president rj Florida, three uuitrent icxas euiiors, ana scores di name less private, individuals all over the South have snoken ta mo in a tono of doeD earnest ness on this subject, citing the numerous ini stances that had come nnder, their observer tion, showing an almost providential Inter, ferenco.a balancing of tho scales of fate against them, ' Nor were they persons who lutd been, lukewarm in "the cause," and who liad been on the lookout for such inclina tions. I am' not mistaken. I know that there is a profound, and abiding conviction gradually gaining ground, in the Southern mind that their late struggle waa hopeless from the outset that it was contrary to the win oi tne jnuoiie." ' More than thatt I know; from actual ob servation, that thousands of the rank and file and hundred of their officers would gladly en list in the United Stales armies amdnat any and all forehmcrs. nartletilarlv If thev could lie allowed to serve under their old .officers. 1 nave conversed personally wun Hundreds of the cx-officcrs and soldlcn of the late Con. federate army, and. I only Tepeat what I have from their own lips when I say, that a ma jority of them assured mo they would enter our army in such an event, in creat cart to give the Govornmenta convincing proof that they meant' to be good, and loyal citisens hereafter. I recall at present the- names of Generals Ilardie, MeCaus, Forrest, Niohols, and vetr Thompson, and there are some others whose names have escaped my mem, cry, who told me that In coso a foreign war should grow up, they would offer -their ser vices to the united States Government in any capacity, even as a private. ibo opinion has gained wide-spread at-, ceptance in the North, through the medium of letter-writers, southern editorials, and other vehicles of rumor and information, that the South is to-day more disloyal toward the Government than at tho' conclusion of the Various reasons are urged to account for this, chief among which It that this people have been brought to this state by an 111. timed, Ill-advised leniency. 'What are the facta I When the war ended it left the South prostrated, stricken, helpless. Even many of the most Intelligent looked for sroneral confiscation, proscription, and the reign of the icaflold, The news of the successive sur. render of those armies that they had looked upon as standing alone between themselves and, the direst calamities of history, threw the in bids of the people into a state of tho most abject terror, For many days, and even weeks, so I have boeninformodin a thousand Instances, the wretched, frightened women and children, deprived of their former pro tectors, uvea in a state oi tne most leariui tusnense. in hourly apprehension of the be ginning of all that their fruitful imaginations and those of their editors had been able to conceive of northern vandalism and hideous butchery. The old men and the youths, and even the adult citizens, shared largely in thla fftftrfnl looklnir.for of tndirment. This waa hot loyalty, though, In my opinion. It was silence the silence of submission, of terror, oce tin of defeat At this juncture any terms, in- eluding even negro tun rage, raignt nave oeen imnosed. so far aa thevwert concerned. This feeling, however, almost .immediately after passed awayjjand the continued delay of an ticipated retribution restored them to their this there Borsiur nn what many eonsclen - tlout, people ore prone to term an increase of disloyalty, Pat wiHtnoT Iglvitt an - "TI " .. 1 ! "V utterances of late which have given so much color to the charge? It is simply the return fn wnf 4Kat fhllnwed the dcnreMlon of do- loat ltie,Jnevriaoieana waoiesome reaction from despsir. It was to have been expected, and in my humble opinion could not well have been avoided, and is not Indicative of any deep-seated malady, but -rather the con trary The wlaoTond 'skulful phystclarl watches' wlth'well-foundod apprehension the; progrcM,of-onoorth most fatal diseases, wilhwhjch hiscrt"is acquainted, tOiloog is Iti ragings are confined in the secret recesses bf tho body; bat so soon 'as he beholds it aBsnmltif thnforiH of vIolentand trouble some cutaneous eruptions hit confidence re turns, ana ne, prcaicts lor tne patient a ppuy convalescence.,. The boisterous demagogues, and especially the reckless editors, whom C6t nvnn-iha iron deanotiarif of Davis had been able to awe into silence, were for tho moment appalled and stricken dumb in the presence of the gigantic calamity that bad overtaken them, and ip. the near, prospect of Impending rami out toon tney Docamet,rcaurea oy tne moderation of tho Government and finding their lives still In their 'hands, have not ceased to pour forth those obnoxious utter ances which are taken as evWence and proof of an Increase of disloyalty. It Is with dim dence that I venture to dissent from tho pub lished opinions of many distinguished wit nesses -who have taken this view; but I am Jrce to declare my Arm conviction tuat it is altogether superficial and not founded in It .Is my, bellerbat tho Souilwlhe groat, substantial and prevailing element (a more loval now than it war at the end of the war: more loyal to-day than yesterday, and that it will be more loyal to-morrow thari to-day. it would be Impossible to present the numer ous and scattered evidences upon which I base this belief; but I entertain It in all atn Mrltr, and believer it to. be consonant with the tacts, ".No revolution ever goet back word," It a convenient, but shallow, truism; of. rather. exnrefcatrA nfnn tmtliNvliatAver. since every revolution has its ultimate revul sion, partially, at least; and Just as certainly as, for four years the mass of popular senti ment in the South was closely solidifying ana strengtnening in nvoroi tne Dogus uon foderacy, just so certain it if that, from the date of 1U downfall, that opinion has been slowly returning to Its old, attachments. tor many years toe dream oi independence had been increaainilr cherished and nurtured inthe breasts of thousands: 'for years past that dream was a living fact, penetrating the con sciousness of all, and receiving the sympai lilies v scarcely ip?s uuuiku, aim uicu came the sudden and appalling crash the awaken ing from. this dream to the unwelcome but Inexorable truth that the pleasing-vision had vanished. As weeks, months and years tteadily accumulate, and the remembrances Ul tuu uric, iipjuiB9 aujou,ui ui uuuwr, the yearning for it will crow weak and Incon stant, mat dream win never do revived, in my opinion; and if Iamsatisfied of anything in relation to the South, it Is that the great majority ois leaning men nave lorevcr re nouncea all expectatlona of a seperate na tionality. If I were asked to reconcile the abovo state ments with the grossly palpable appearances that argue to the'eontrary, especially as seen In some of the late Constitutional conventions, I would simply answer that this apparent contradiction is on raevitaDie product oi Hu man inconsistency: or rather, the Vconslsten- cy of politicians." For four yeart they found themselves required most of them by prefer ence,1 all of them by circumstances which uicy vuutu uvt " mvy .wyuiu, vvuirus -m argue in favor of the right of secession and independent government. It is strange how soon and how inevitably defence leads to conviction. I cannot say that when the Con; eaeracy went aown toero was not in an us borders a cititen who did not yield it so much of allegisnco aa he ever gavoi to any govern ment; but I oo not nesiiaie to declare mat there were not fivo prominent politicians. tlilt remaining within It, who could truly and conscientiously declare that they had not ?lven It, first or last, their sympathy. It has urnished mo an Interesting branch of his torical study to look up the antecedents of those men wno, ween our troops made ineir appearance, were forward bl their professions of unwavering Unionism. Alas, for political human naturo 1 Scarcely one of them but had eimer acccmoa an piuce unaer tne uon- rederacy. or surnincu nis wmuumess to do so There comes now a sudden and iranorious necessity, tnat tney cannot biintto declaro by their act! at least, that they were wrong In all, this; but who could expect 'politicians ana editors, neiore tney nau Deen reduced to a condition of absqluto vassalage, to reverse their "records" ab imlio.-and declare freely and without hesitation that all their utter ances of tho post four years had been mis taken. Hut this unwillingness docs not no- cessarlly involve a corresponding sluggish ness of belief. I record It as my profound conviction, gathered from hundreds of Inti mate and friendly conversations with lead ing men in the Sou,th, that there are not tiny respectaoie politicians woo sun Deucve in the constitutional richt of secession. though they aro exceeding slow to acknowl edge it in publio speeches or published arti cles. Our conversations generally ended with the confession which to me was en tirely satisfactory as meaning much more man was lnienacui " n naiever mav ue aaia about the right of secession, the thing Itself may as wen oe laiu asiae. ior it is certainly not jiraefieaMs, and probably never will be. I believe there Is the most charity, and by far the most correctness, In that reasoning which accounts in this way for tho extreme reluctance that has been exhibited in most of therconventions against declaring tho act of secession null ana void from tho begin ning. Thev will willingly concedo that tho nght of secession does not now' exist, pro vided only they are allowed to assert "mt " did at that time, which is simply a petty de vice of sorely humbled and defeated men to save their wounded pride. Said Gov, Ham ilton, of Texas, the most nobly and earnestly loval man I met in all the South, in conver sation with me one day, "After all, our peo ple aro doing about aa well as a reasonable man ought to expect. Politicians must have their 'explanations' and their 'records'; they must be allowed to retreat gracefully, and to fall gently; but tho vast majority of them are all right at heart. Ihoy must have time." And I will hero add that I found in Texas more genuine and honest loyalty and patriotism than in any other of the cotton States. There are M.CKXJ' Ger mans, 8,000 Norwegians, 9,000 Mexicans, and 70,000 Americans la that State, who hare remained loyal all tho time, and they have in Gov. Hamilton the noblest leader in any Southern State. There were thirty-four men In the Texas convention who voted for l the molt loval measures and In favor of the I most enlarged civil rights to the negro, layta 'cfvtliorafAvoMiJnravcnilsutrrsga, YASMilWi,bN6hV,;C.'TiWAYORNnfOMAYi80'. ' "". fT soeUte trrWy. wjlfc the northern men, or1 to receive them Into then etrc4etf of society r butfU 1st far- from insunsouirtable. Over southern society, ta over every other, woman reigns supreme, and Jit jre more embitterta against .mow wnom tney ucem tne autnors Of all their calamities than are their brothers sons and husbands. Mt is A -noteworthy cth' nological fact, and one I have often observed, that, of the younger; generation, the southern women ore much -'surieric to the southern men. uotn in intellect ana energy: ana mar ascendancy over society Is correspondingly great. However tins aispamy is to oe ac counted far,'whether by the enormous-watt-aga of tho war amongtho males or otherwise, it nevertheless exists" arid io Its existence hi greatly duq. the excloslvenees of southern, society. , . , But the stories andi rumors to the effect thai northern men orerbltterly Persecuted and Compelled to abandon the country ? renounce raise, ir nonnem men go eouui hey must expect for o while to be treated wth neglect, and tomeUmes frith contempt ; but If tnev refrain from bitter Political dis cussions and conduct themselves with ordi nary discretion, they toon .overcome these prejudices, and1 are treatcd'.wlth respect. The accounts that arc fromnirae -to time flooded over the country In regard to south' ern crucltynd Intolerance toward northern ers are mostly false.- 1 could select many districtspsrttcuiarly In Northern Texas and portions of .Mississippi, where northern men could not at present UveVith any degree of self-respect IThcre are '.also localities In many of the southern States, where it would be dangerous lor a norwern man to live ; but they are exceptional, and are about equally unsafe for any maft who possesses attractive properly. For some unknown csuse, a large number of persons are engaged In writing and circulating falsehoods. For some unpatriotic, purpose -pr other, reports of on Incendiary character concerning the southern people aro transmitted North. T6 team the falseness of these reports one needs only to qbtain the facts lam personally acquainted with .most of the officers of a hundred-odd regiments of volunteers, and out of theso I could name thirty regiments, and half of whoso officers and many of the men have returned to the Booth, and as many more that havo left large numbers there upon' being tdiabanded. Hundreds, even, of the officers of colored regiments tne most onensivo to the couth nave re mained there and entered into business, the most'of them having rented plantations and employing ineir oia soiaiers. uirge numbers of ex-Feaeral and ex-Confederate officers are engaged together In mercantile pursuits and in cotton planting. Nearly all of the cotton plantations in t lorida are being run oy sucn parties. The banks of the Mississippi are lined wilh plantations which have been leased by northern men and Federal officers. Arkansas and w site, river plantations are generally being inn by officers who hate served under General Reynolds, while a large number of the lied river plantations have) been placed under cultivation by ex-officers oi ucnerai a. . smitus command, i ourr teen officers of a colored (Kentucky! regi ment are tngaged in planting and raising cotton near Victoria, Texas. The First Na tional Hank or Texas, at ualvcston, baa for fircsident ex-Major General Nichols, or the ate confederate army, and ten of its directors are alto ex rebel officerawhUe the cashier is ex-Major General Cltrk, of the Union army, and wno formerly commanded a division of colored troops. In all of these connections the utmost narmony prevails, notwiib-, standing the above facts and I could multU ply mem i maintain mat in many sections of the South there is a widespread hostility to northern men, which, however, In nine eases out of ten. Is tneedilv disnelled bv In dividual contact and the exercise of a geni erout regard for private opinions. In fine, I will say that all vho can be spared from the Industry of the North to go South can readily find places of business where thoy cart live m quiet and prosperity. I have already alluded to the loyal Ger mans of Texas. I visited their colony and settlements, and was most favorably im pressed. They are tho most thrifty, indus trious, and prosperous citiicns of that State; and. now that the rebellion is over, are living In comparative security, though their suffer.. lugs during tne war was moro arcaaiui man anv that the history of this country has be fore afforded. They wero ably reprostnteil In the late convention by five men, three of whom favored negro sulTrsge with certain educational qualifications. The loyal Nor wegians, and the loyal Americans of the Kcd Ttiter district men whose lovaltv was fear less and unwavermg throughout the rebel lion i aia not nave ume to see. ineir uci egates in the convention, however, were among the ablest, as well as the most patri otic In that body, and far superior to those loyalists of North Alabama, who wero gen erally men oi mouerato capacity, inougo there Is no district in Florida thancanstrictly be called lojal, in contradistinction to tall others, vet I found the feeling of tho people in that State much better and more cucour uging than In Georgia, which is overrun with Suiiueiaua, iubuv vi nuuiu iipi-iu ih ul j mo ovcrnment ana its authority. Alabama is in much better condition than Georgia, and its state of affairs are extremely encourag ing. Mississippi, from one end to the other, of all the States which I visited, is far behind hand in her tokens of loyalty. There is an unmistakable flow of ill-fteling in that State, although I witnessed no exhibitions of un mitigated disloyalty. On the whole, the peo ple Ol liiab Dime n-ur uie uuiuuruy ui mu United States more than they respect It. In Louisiana thero is an encouraging element of loyalty, which is experiencing a healthy in crease. Tennessee evidenced in a great de- reo tho most nourishing signs or loyalty, i o not think there are ten men hi that State at present who could be induced to favor a iiusoiution oi tne union, not even, uiucou, if such athing should be peatcablvnermltted There Is a healthy intercourse between all classes in Arkansas, and it seemed to me to occupy nearly tLe identical position or i en nessee. I will now proceed to tho second great topic, to wit, "The freedmen and their affairs." Almost the only key that furnishes a satisfactory solution to tho southern ques tion in its relations to tho negro, that civet a reasonable explanation to the treatment which ho receives and the estimation In which he is held, is found in the fact too often for gotten in considering this matter that the people from their earliest days have regarded slavery as his proper estate and emancipa tion as a bane to his happiness, That a vast majority of the southern people honestly eh. lenain mis opinion no one wno travels among them for eight montht can doubt. m Y- I--1 , I it.,... .1 ,, of theory, and can see no other that la rational, l o one nuu looai out irura tuia aianu jiomt the question presents Itself In a different as - nAnt- TCviirv nna who eonaetentioualv seeks io blow Un e truth ihould not Ignore I. this Ppr ay Awth.rttyf THII rBBjtlbgftV. ' ' - -,-, Irl -i W. Ill, W 11 I 1 j T TV - t ..!.', . I .. I ,, , i'i ' j ,,!'' J their beliefs whife' he 'cerirorM th? feTyltlag I ptocVitwa p'fwapt, and pvui I a middle ground hclwftn the human re -e I Bdrneroui' JnsUncet of cal practices. -Holding j.tfiat.thti negro pecupi middle ground JiclwrVn the human re. -e ana too animal, toey regard it aa a realm s fqrtuni to.hlm that be should be stripped bf a protector,' and that the immortal nroebna tlontf President Lincoln was wieked,'o at leasf rntsUken, and a scourge to f pcIely.Xhe persistency and honcsty.with.whlch many, even of the greatest men, of the South hold to this opinion Is almost unaccountable, to a northern rnliyend.-Is ion 'element vf " n rasgnltudo that it cannot,wel! be fctnitt- d frora'tho consideration: ? " ' , ' Hesultlng as a propel corollary from, lie e UUKI ne UUIVKXUIMIW1JMI )IHKV U eome of the States, hut i more-particular y Mltslsslenl which Stats rambennoTito say' las-displayed tber most flhberal spirit t&warjd ine irpromen oi ail ma noniajmnflur a heavy taxes.on 'negroes t ngageil la the .vatf ous trades, amounting to a virtual Drahlhitloh.' ietty, unjusifaaa discriminating! licenser are icviea in una .mate uporr meenanic storeKeepers," ana various artisans. "I one and their common conncils contendthati thesei pursuits the negro is out of his nisei that hcirtiot adapted to suh1sbdfsV brjl oniy to tne ruaer tasxroi toe news' , yt oat are known as the "poor whites" Sustain, In fact originate this legislation, upon the insane, dread Iheyjmare in common with ccrtaip skilled laborers at the Norlbyof competition ana an overcrowding oi the'sopmyj -r&B folly and injustice on the part of the law makers. Is being corrected In. inanv sections. Ino negro, however, hot not ,-boeii discour- ogod.'evcn in Jillaaissippl. Ills industry-and his thrifts are -overleaping all obstacles, and in Jackson there are 'St least twOcoloreB craftsmen of most kinds to one'of the whltei. Froni the turrtifoVr of lh"c-rebel,armict up io the Christmas holidays, end more especially for a ftw weeks preceding tho latter, there was a nervousness exhibited throughout the South in relation td their late slaves that was little consonant td their former professions of trust In them. There were vague, and tcrribli fears of a servile Insurrection a.thlng whic the simple-minded negroes scarcely drcamei I of. In consequence of this there were exten sive scirures of arms and ammunition) whicl the, negroes had' foolishly -collected, and strict precautions, were taken to avoid any outbreak. Pistols, old muskets, and shptr guns were taken away lrom them, as sucn weapons would be wrested front the hands of lunatics. Since the holidays, however, there has been a great Improvement in this matter : many of thpvhttcs appear la he, ashamed 0 ' iiieir luruier uisinist, ana- tue negroes ar seldom molested now In carrying the fire arm ui wmcii incy uiaao suca a vain (wapiay In one way or another thevJaavo hroenrct great numbers of old army musVc'ts and re voivcrs, particularly in lexos; ana i hare u a few Instances .been amused at the vigo and audacity with which they have empldyei them to protect themselves" against the rob bers and murderers' that Infest that State. Another result "of the above-mentioned set tied .belief In the negro's Inferiority, and b the necessity that, he should not be left tt himself without a guardian, is thatinsomi sections no is aisconragea lrom leaving ini old master. I hare known of planters whd considered it on offence against neighbor. hands, and In Iwo'Jnstancct that wero refuted the disputants came ta blows over the breach pf etiquette. It la only, however, In the mosl remote regions, where our troops have seldom or never penetrated, -that tho negroes-have not perfect liberty to' rovewhero they choose I........ II.,. ..,,.,. .., n.l. ,A .A.lmln ll. ,1A IJIO ,,ClUJJb ,UBM. ,W IJ,H,UI tUKMI by a st stem of passes from their employees or from police patrols, is of littlo avail; foi the negroes, in their ignorance and darkness of understanding? are penetrated with a sin gularly"strong conviction that they " are not free so long as they stay at the old place,'! and all lost summer and fall they pretty thoroughly demonstrated their freedom bji changing their places of residence Such a thorough chaos and commingling of popula-l tion has seldom been seen since, the great barbarian Invasion of the' Soman Empire, Iu this general upheaval thousands of Ting- scattered families were joyously reunited.. It Is a strange fact, however, and one which I have abundantly established bv the testi mony of hundreds of the negroes themselves. that a large majorlly'.of them hare finally returned voiuntaruy ana seuiea aown m tue old-cabins of their former quarters. Ihe negro clings to old associations it was only a temporary Impulse of their new-found free dom to wanaer away irom toera; ana at lost iIiaw rnlnrneil.-Venornllv wearied, hunprv. and forlorn. Inmost cases, or at least in many cases, it was not so much from any affection toward their former masters, as it was from a mere instinctive attachment to the homes of their youth the familiar scenes In the midst of Which they were born, and reared When I was in Selnia, Alabama, last fall, a constant stream of thero, of all ages and conditions, were pouring through that city, on their way, as they always told rue, to Mississippi or Tennessee. Many were transported free by our Government, while many were on foot, trudguig hopefully but fiumiuiiy lurwaru i,,nint uivk uiu uuiuu,, rom which they had been taken to escape our armies. I believe thst In eome of the most Interior districts, especially In Texas, the substance of slavery still remains in tho form of the bondsge of custom, of fear, and of inferiority; but, powhere are there any negroes so igno rant of tho great change that hat taken place to submit to the lash. In no place did I hear the slightest allusion to any punishment of this sort laving been inflicted since the re bellion ended. In every caso it wss violent stabbing or shooting, resulting from a per sonal encounter. 'Ihe negro was aware of his rights and was ueteuding tliein. tils menus need never icar pis re-cnsiavement it never can, never will, take place. Ills head is filled wilh the idea of freedom, and anything but tho most insidious an! bland ishing encroachments upon his freedom he will perceive and resist. The planters c ery where complain of his "demoralization" in this respect. Aa to the personal treatment received by the negro at the hands of tho Southern peo ple there is wide-spread misapprehension. It Is not his former meter, as a general thing, that is bis worst enemy, but quite the con trary. I have talked earnestly with bun. dreds of old slave-owners, and seen them move among their former "chattels." and I am not mistaken. The feeling with which a Very large majority of them regard the negro Is one of gttnutne commisscration, although It It not a sentiment much elevated above that with which they wonld look upon a suuerug animal for which they had formed an attach ment. Last summer the negroes, exulting in their new-found freedom, as was to have 1 been expected,"were gay, thoughtless, and I itnnrovldenti and. OS a eonseouence. when the winter came hundreds of them felt the. " . . ., 3" Kn IH7. I k i '-? "." ! IilF I i.l rp f many rjensnto, ,.. oldiPlanters Juve, often pointed ont- to Bjnerout'lnstances1 of calamity-that hd, Mmi Hl. ftrttf ,,' nt,Mttn In iM ciso of their former slaves and others. JtwaSonttoCtheJnostDernlcioua effects of slavery ya it conunoa ue atienuon oi tne .1 .,.., ,. .j ,-- ...:., '.,l owner entirely to.ino present ooaiiy condi tion of "hit ilaYes, and IgnoretT'all calcula tions upon bis future mental or moral growth: If gave hlmlhaV mean opinion of the negroes csoacltv that ha still .retains.vnuo planter reasoned only from 'the actual facts, and never from possibilities, .Inheriting his slavef, and Snding them alwyi,brutish, stupid, and slow.. of undeinding. he commlUed the tftffl,,! Tn,tiM, if nnkvpntlnv-fliAm fmnt ver becoming anything tile, and proceeded I argue' that they never .coold become sd. To a certain' extent It i true, u has been forcibly sold, that " th,bse who" have seen moat of the negro know least'of him. though the assertion should be- reduced, 'to this 'that they knewfor less of hint at a human being than we of the' North but much tnore rel ipecunt; nis mere -annual eharactenauci . Notwithstanding all thit,I insist ' that then waa in most cases real attachment betweei i master and slave, and still hy especially be tween tne utmiiy ana house servants. It is the former slaveowners who are tin best friends-tho negro has in the South; thou who heretofore have provided ifor his men physical comfort, generally with sufficlen meanathoogh entirely neglecting his bettei nature, while It Is the "poor whites" that ari his enemies. Kit from these he suffers most In a state or ,alarery they hated him ; an now that he is free Uitre Is no striking abate ment of this sentiment, and the farmer mas ter no longer feels called by the Instincts o interest to extend thaf protection that hi once oia. -tn tne streets, oy toe roausiae in his wretched hut. In the field bf" labor- everywhere, the unoffensive' negro Is exposec to their petty and conternptlble persecutions while, on the other hand, I have known in stances where tho- respectable, substantia people oia community, have united togethei to keen guard over bouse in which the ne groea were taking their amusement, and frprr which,a,fcw nights before, they, had been rudely drivcn'by white vagabonds, who found pleasure In their fright and suffering. I reiterate that the former owners, as s class, are the negroes'' best friends hi the south, although many otthls class diligently strive, to discoursge U15 freedmen from any earnest efforts to promote their higher wcM fare. When one believes that i certain race. of beings are incapable of advancement, ho is very prone to witaaoia tne means ei mat advancement And It Is In this form that a species of slavery will longest be perpetuated -j It is in these strongholds that It will last die out I am pretty sure that there Is not a sng)e negro In the whole South Who It n6t recelv. Ini, nrtv tfr nla l.lu,, aMMAnl,.,,- ,n kta Awn . I - .- .nuv. wbv.uuiK ,v MM vnu cuutracis, uut as v ircnerai uiuujtoa ireea men are encouraged to collect about tho old mansion in their little quarters, labor for their former master for set terms, receiving, be sides nis pay, 100a, quarters, ana medical at tendance, and thus 'continuing on In his former state of dependence. The cruellies of slavery, and all of its outward forms, have, cuun-iy uasmiu away; Dut, ma migut nave. been expected, glunmenngs of Its vassalage,! Its subserviency, and its helplessness linger. It is the result of my observations, abuvnot oniy tnat tno juanicrs generally are better menus to tne negro man tne poor wanes, but also better than a majority or Northern men whd go Booth to rent plantations at least thev show more patience id dealing with him. Tho Northerner Is, practical, energetic, eco nomical, anu inriity ) tno negro is now, aw. ward, wasteful, and slovenly 1 he .causes his new employer to lose hit patience, and to tcize hold and attempt to perform himself waatuo sees so uaaiy executea. ine south erner is accustomed to tho wayt of slaves from his youth up, hence he is languidly and good naturcdly indifferent, or at most, vents his displeasure In empty fuming. The North ern employer Is accustomed to see laborers wno are vigorous and industrious; he snows tho extent of full j day's labor, and ho ex pects all to perform the amount; the South ern man nas always been compelled to em ploy two or three to do the work of one, and Is mora indulgent. Jt is the almost univer sal testimony of, tho negroes themselves who have been under the supervision of both classes and 1 have talked with many wilh a view to this point that they prefer to labor for a Southern employer. This Is not bv any means to be construed to mean that they de sire to return to slavery not by any con sideration;, for the thought of freedom is dearer to their hearts than to any other peo ple of like intelligence in the world, but that, being once assured of their liberty to go and come at will, they generally return to the service of tho Southerner. Tho negro has far less to apprehend. Inmv Indgmcnt. from organised oDurcsslon bv the courts tnan irom suuaen ana violent out bursts of passion on the part of employers, or from the petty and malicious persecutions of mean whites. He has less to fear from the perversion of law than from the observ ance of It: and the some is true of the whites. and has always been. It might almost be said of some interior counties In Texas, that there never has been any executed law there, for white or black; for It Is a recorded fact that before the war, even, 450 murders per year were committed in that State, while there never were half a doren formal convic tions and executions for manslaughter. The others were acquitted On the ground of self defence; The point is, then, that there have not been, and are not how, more colored people murdered in proportion to their whole number than wnius. On the great question of negro suffrage I have seen no occasion, in presence of the fuels, to change materially the belief I enter tained eight months, ego. To say that the South is opposed to it, almost to a man. Is sluiplv to utter that of which every one al. rt uuy is a ore ; to toy that It it simply a ques tion 01 time is 10 give 11 no satuiaciory solu tion. The pith and substance of the whole matter Ilea In the answer to this single question: "Will the Immediate conferring of suurage on tne,oiacas put them in possession of anv substantial good which thev aro now denied, or avert from them any et(l that threatens their wtlfaret" So general and so bitter Is (ho -pposltionof the whites to this measure, that 1 am fullv persuaded that to confer suffrage forcibly by national enact ment upon tho blacks at this time would re sult to their serious idetrunenC I do not believe it would beget "a war of races t but from the manner inwhtch negro schools and othi r similar iuttltutiens have been treated in some sections, by Ignorant and malicious persons, I am constrained to believe that the negro would be the recipient of 'more wrongs and injuries than he now Is lLho wss found at the polls voting, It Is the Truth of history that when classes of population are opposed in feeling and unequal in power and Influence the dominating class is oppressive 'and Intolerant toward, tho Inferior in revert Tirg-NATAIrMPBlHIltX IftSSQlT m ,tiu Assujits,ssrwwaseiasr tt ntHatss "t7j;'"ifci;r' ) W.w. It niMrltvs (Vr ttej'tw) asjfmla mmi. ikSJtBl " -U rasssssg rtsai aja, W. 'Ht mM tmi'j nasu amlta, a mih.- .. - itf1 Tniwwtr.ru 1- talM-l. 1 Litkl Moot TWMfttfm rais, 1ftw mmmm ii ,r t" T-Tf.J proportion as It It eleW4rvri','the southern, poor whites, eoeaetaeW' AtiMs in of only a slight superiority aver,; fW rsro. and knowing that, the suffrage osel lew minor factious distinctions: are' the"'8fy points of their superiority, are .JealeosorOT them accordingly, It is they ttst.wIIIj-asM' most stubbomly'tbe negroes' enfranesee. ment, as It will remover, ue most marked of, the few sllght'.barriers, that; separate them . from t the blocks, and it bj they that sUl hail' his advcnftcV tho-'polls with tie most Bare lentmg and aenecient siBasei i 'mj , The proper avenues of approach ta, these unreasoning minds it' through 'the'wealthy and powerful land owners' of the! Soutlw-the poUticianswho ,are lords and tmastws,orer the peasantry to almost as great an extent as they are over ther negfoes, Thrcjrritfieto et the parallels ba.conskacted-nporMihis strong castle of prejudice., If the potitlclane of the South have the absolute certainty laid before them' that m.lSTO their representation in Congress will be diminished largely jfn consequence of the non-enfranchisement of tho. negro, they will see it before that 'time that 1 thq measure Is, Introduced. They wjll convince their constituents thai it Is necessary-and proper to allow the negro io rote, ana he will be allowed so to do. At present it seems to me-that-it would be a misfortune to the bfgro himself to thrust this 'privilege upon him, Thero is sit popular tradu)on4hat a certain, very humbIo?and, usefuVhut un sightly, animal carries in iu head (.precious pearl, and it is often" killed In the, Vain search for it. So It would M substantially with tie helpless, inoffensive negro, if this Valuable pre rogative was at once put into- hie hands.'. ( The Southern negro is fsr less concerned In the result of elections at present than he Is in the decisions or the local courts, and fat less Interested in -these than lit the general temper of society. The negro always haabeen and always must remain associated with tho , people of the South; in a thousand intimate relations relations over which legislation can have little"- control, whatever attempts are made to the contraryr Even before the courts of the country I' have little fear but that ha wiH secure substantial justice. These courts are generally in the hand of the more intelligent and reasonable (, classes,,. among whom there Is a Sentiment of real pity to ward the negro, as being now left to contend on' bis. own resources against the stronger white man. Legislatures and common coun cils may frame mean-spirited and .discrimi nating laws against him, but when, her is brought td actual trial, and his helplessness is made apparent, the practice of his Jurors, his judges and hit lawyers is -much better than tneir proiesstons. .Especially, It true when the suit is. as it often happens, between a negro and a nean. white. The old alave owners alway felt a preference for their negroes over this clsss, and even had a posi tive disuxe toward the latter, ana uey enter tain tho same feelings still: and let a suit be brought between one of them and a respect able negro, and I have no fears for the result bn the part of the negro. - The treatment which the negroes receive at the hands of the people is a quick and ac curate thermometer, guaging Southern ley.' ally the temper of the whites toward, the uenerai uovernment. Closely louowing ue conclusion of tho war were witnessed far more outrages upon the blacks than have been known amcc. In the exasperation and bitterness resulting from fresh defeat, they in many cases vented their wrath on the heads of the unoffending negro. Since then, there has been a steady Improvement nnder the fosterin ir influences of hope and returning' lovaltv. loo South alwavt hat been, ana dways mutt be, to a great extent, the guard ians 01 tne negro; tor tne tune wiu never come, so long as he remains a part of our so ciety, when, frdm the very-nature of his Infe riority, ho will not require a certain guardian- hip. At an evidence 91 toe most encouraging growth of publio sentiment in the South, conforming to the great onward march of events, I may mention the advance that has tsken place in relation to the question' of negro testimony. Eight months ago, when I first went South, tho subject was one that scarcely engaged the serious attention of public men, much less their favorable cor. slderatlon; but when tho Texas , Convention, the last In the South, and only very recently assembled, come together, so much had pop ular sentiment advanced on this subject that only eight inembera of that body offered any opposition to a measure proposing to allow the negro to testify In cases of his own con cern, and nearly one half the delegates fa vored giving him the moat unrestricted righti; A tremendous strugglo was made on this last point a struggle notfor partial rights, hut for -universal privileges. The opponents of the measure strongly argued that if the ne'gro was admitted to testify In all cases in which ho or any of hisrace might be interested his own rights were secured beyond peradren lure, and he was legally placed on a better foundation than the white man, which is true, since in Texas a colored man can now sub-' puna witnesses both from whites snd blocks, while a white man cart summon only those of hit own color. I know if no State among all that I visited in which either the constitution or statutes do not authorlie the negro to tes tify in all cases In which ho or any of Ms race) may be interested. The Freedmen' Bureau (son Institution which was highly necessary in the months; Immediately following the close of the war, and which is still needed in all of the States but Tennessee, and will continue to be for some time, especially in Mississippi, Ala bsma, and Georgia. Except for the aid fur nished by tho bureau last summer, fall, and winter, thousands of freedmen, ana reTugeet as well, would have perished from starvation; The bureau also performed a highly useful office lato in the fall and early last winter Irs assisting both planter and laborer to make mutually profitable arrangements, securing the latter against fraud and the former par. tially against the negroes' fickleness, When Ihe Christmas holldaysxajno and passed, and brought around no Government agents, as the freedmen bad' fondly trusted, to divide out the property of their late masters, they were sorely disappointed, and for a brief spsco were naturally despondent, but very soon the!r"wonted buojsney returned, ana they entered in earaeit upon preparation for the coming year. , , , Then It was that the Bureau was instru-, mental in accomplishing moro good than it had at any previous time. Tho Usk of set tling hundreds of thousands of improvident and disappointed people into situations with; : those who were distrustful and discouraged, was one of great main tude and importance Thtnkt, how ever, to the unexpected kindness,, with which these discordant element asihn-. Hated, the Bureau performed its taikwelC Vast numbers of tho fr-edmen were provided nithgodd situations, and the planter re ceived anew Impetus of hopefulness. 'In the, great State of Texas the reports of the Bu reau show that there are three hundred ti..u.' lOeaaliata w ItarU fast. ' '