J -" -f
Editor and Proprietor.
. THS CONSTITUTION THI UBIOS-UID TH1 ZKrORCZXZST OF IH LAWS.
B. F. SCHWEIER.
MITFLINTOWN, JUNIATA COUNTY, PENNA.. MARCH 29. 1876.
i f i m i
Bt SAIXIB A. BBOCS.
Aleve a checkered Ubls they bent
A man in his prima and a maiden fair.
Over whose polished and blue-reined brow
Retted no shadowy tinge of oara.
Her eyes were fountains of sapphire light ;
Her lips wore the corves of cheerful thought;
And into her gestures and into bar smile.
Graos and beauty their spell had brought.
Above the checkered table they bent.
Watching the pieces, red and white.
As each mored on, in appointed course.
Through the mimic battle's steady fight
The queen, in her stately, regal power;
The king, to her person friendly shield ;
The mitred bishop, with bis support.
And the maaaire esstle across the field.
The pawn in his alow and eautkrae pace,
A step at a time ; and the mounted knight.
Vaulting, as gallant horsemen of old,
To the right and left, and left and right
But a single word the silence broke.
As they cleared aside the rain and wreck
Of the battle's havoc ; and that word
Was the little monosyllable check !
Tawna. and bishops, and castles, and knights
Trembled together in sad dismay.
While a pair of hearts were poising beside
To a deeper, wilder, sweeter play.
Vet the eaze of each the man and the maid
On the board was fastened for torn of fate,
When she archly whispered, with radiant glance
And a sparkling smile, "if yon please, air.
And gently her fluttering triumph-hand.
As white as a flake of purest pearl.
She laid on the crown of her victor-king.
While the other toyed with a wanton cod.
He lined the first to bis smiling lips.
And on it imprinted a trembling kiss :
And he murmured softly, "I should not cars
For losing the game, could I win Una!"
What the maiden answered twere treason to
As her blushes deepened to crimson glow,
Mounting, like lightning flashes quick.
Till they burned on cheeks, and ears, and
And in three months' time the church bells
And the parson finished the game began.
W hen both wore the conqueror's triumph smile,
Aud both were bsppy, for both bad won.
I From the German of fredntc Frederics.
BY EMILY B. BTEIXESTKL.
I shall proliablv excite a ripple of in
(Ignition in the minds of woe readers
at broaching so delicate a subject as the
one in question. Still I am willing to
concede that a good mother-in-law is a
blessing in any household. To the
Young husband her advice is golden in
value, a calming influence in possible
domestic storm or tribulation, a guar
dian angel to the little folks, and alto
gether she is a treasure. But a bad
mother-in-law is the very demon of a
household, and such a one I am about
to present for your delectation in this
Charles Shnson is s merchant, and
alxiut to unite his destiny with the
daughter of a Captain Beyer, dead, or
gone to a better land. Th bride is a
jretty, well-educated, sensible gfrl,
who, since the father's departure into
Ieace, had assisted her mother in keep
in? un a respectable appearance by do
ing bits of fancy work, the proceeds of
which, added to tne lime iortune ien
bv the captain, helped them to live
nicely, although insufficient to allow
them to cut much of a dash in society.
Si id son is well aware of his sweet
heart's poverty, but being in good cir
cumstances himself, he is entirely too
sensible to estimate a wife's value by
her fortune. He wants a wife to satisfy
his heart, one that will transform home
into a taste of Paradise for him; when
turning his tired steps away from busi
ness, will meet him- with a spirit of
domestic cheer, chasing from his brow
the dry and practical thoughts of com
merce and care, and substituting by the
witchery of womanhood an interest in
jtoetry and art.
He loves Charlotte dearly, and not a
doubt enters bis mind in regard to his
perfect happiness with her for his wife.
Charlotte's mother is a tall, lean, yes,
we might say, an arid sort of woman.
She is a descendant of nobility, and al
though her branch of blue blood is
somewhat impoverished in purse and
estate, nevertheless the lady looks back
proudly nnon her pedigree. Nothing
but sympathy aud necessity could have
induced her to condescend to a onion
with the plebeian and departed captain,
who still had many excellent and dis
tinguishing qualities as a man.
The lady has a pair of dark, uncom
fortable looking eyes, and her manners
and bearing are stately, majestic, rather
a natural consequence of her geneal
Simson never ventured confidentially
near her. although she invariably re
ceived him with kindness, and called
him "my son, Mr. Simson." But with
! flirmaiit consideration of her cour
tesy, he has not realized this as a gentle
familiarity on her part. He used to say
to himself. "I'm not going to marry the
mother, but the daughter," aud thus
the mother slipped irom his mind.
The captain's widow, who impresses
her servant with her importance into
calling her "my lady," has never made
any claims upon Simson, but this never
occurred to him until one day when in
her and Charlotte's company, looking
about for their future place of residence,
they found a bouse that he imagines
entirely too large for their little house
hold, and the stately lady with calm
decision said: "My son, Mr. Simson
will secure this house, as it is quite a
suitable one for us. These two rooms
M ill be reserved for myself, the others
you may arrange to your own liking."
Simson looked at his Charlotte aston
ished, who returned the look with a
blush, replving: "Dear Charlie, my
mamma wishes to reside with us, and I
should so like to have her. You know
it will be so lonely when you are away
all day if I do not have her with me.
Simson cannot deny an appeal made so
so tenderly, bethinks "she is right, the
old ladv is so accustomed to being with
her child, her cost will not be consider
able, why separate them V Neverthe
less he considered it just a little pre
suming to select the two most cheerful
apartments in the bouse for ber own
The situation changes, however, after
his marriage; he arranges his room to
suit his taste, places the furniture ac
cording to his ideas of easy comfort.
He hastens home from business the
first evening alter they begin hoase
keeping, feeling joyous and lightbearted
anticipating a social evening in their
bone-like little room, in the company
of his charming wife.
At the open door of bis room be
stands stocit still; he must be dreaming
no every piece of furniture has been
moved, the sofa taken from its snug
comer near the stove and moved close
to the window, the table in the middle
of the room, the chairs backed stiffly
against the wall in a row, as if they
were sub-officers saluting their supe
rior. "Charlotte, Charlotte! what does this
mean?"heexclaluis. "Whohas brought
about this terrible revolution T"
The wife approached with a loving
smile, striving to hide her embarrass-,
"Dear Charles, thy mamma thinks
the room looks so much better this
"Better!" exclaimed Simson. "Why.
we will freeze on the sofa iu winter,
over there, and be broiled by the sun In
summer. And my dear 1 do not
comprehend I was under the Impres
sion this was our own, not your moth
er's room. I hope I am at liberty to
use my own taste and judgment iu its
arrangement, and 1 trust she has not
constituted herself my guardian."
He is going excitedly to work to re
arrange things. Charlotte clutches his
"O dear, dear Charley! You will
offend mamma! Please, for my sake,
leave them just for to-day.''
She put her little hands on his cheeks
and her rosy lips to his mouth. The
tempter has couquered he clasps her
in his arms.
"Well, for your sake, my angel, I will
leave them; but I do hope your mamma
will please to mind her own affairs, you
It is meal time. The mother-in-law
sails in and seats herself at the table
with silent grandeur. She nips her
food. Simson is delighted when the
meal Is over, trusting the highborn lady
will betake herself to ber own room,
for he is vexed in spite of himself at
her remarkable industry during his
Kven his wife acts somewhat subdued
in her presence.
Good gracious! is it possible? The
lady takes a seat on the sofa, draws her
knitting out of her pocket, puts on her
spectacles, and assumes a position, com
fortable and resigned, as if she had
taken up her quarters on the cozy sofa
for the next year and a half.
Simson stares at the knitting in
speechless agony. No doubt of it, the
old lady is going to grant them the
pleasure ot her company the whole
Charlotte takes a chair near her
Simson measures the room with rapid
pace, to aid him in disguising his ex
cessive joy. Helighiaacigar; scarcely
has he taken a whiff when the lady be
gan to sniff and scent the air, while
from under ber glasses she flashes a
glance at him and then at her daughter.
"Dear Charley," pleaded his confused
little wife, "Mamma cannot endure
"You assured me, Charlotte, that you
liked me to smoke," he replied.
"I do but mamma T" she says look
ing at him so tenderly, supplicatingly.
lie is not quite decided whether to
sacrifice his cigar or his mother-in-law.
He slips to the window, opens it with a
bang, but he only throws out the cigar.
With increased rapidity he resumed
his march, his blood boiling; an egg
could have been poached in it. Truly,
tli is is a promising beginning, not be
allowed to smoke in bis own house !
The captain's lady glances sharply at
him again, then at Charlotte, who does
not appear to comprehend until it is
renewed with decided Impressiveness.
"Dear Charley, mamma cannot toler
ate that incessant walking back and
forth," the wife implores with a flush
of distress on her pretty face.
"Please come and sit down here by
me will you?"
Simson bites his lips and grits his
teeth savagely, then exclaims: "Oh,
of course' certainly t why not?" He
bounces into a chair with such violence
that It groans at every joint. Charlotte
knows why he Is so vexed, and tries to
divert him by every conceivable device
of her gentle heart until his brow is
clear once more under her tender influ
ence, and he no longer observes n is
mother-in-law's drawndown mouth nor
her searching glance, nor the hateful
click of her knitting-ueedles. By and
by Charlotte asked him jestingly, wnat
he would like for dinner on the morrow.
The dame's head is suddenly erected.
"Child, you forget that we have already
decided on to-morrow's dinner," sue
But. mamma, maybe Charles has
some favorite dish," the wife replied,
"Mr child, in well regulated families,
special wishes cannot be observed, but
must be subservient to rules," was tne
Simson beat a tattoo on tne oaca 01
his chair. He had a disposition to ask
her if he was her guest, or v. versa;
but he restrained, saying, as he caught
Charlotte's imploring glance, "I shall
not be home to dinner; a particular
friend has also invited me to breakfast
in the morning. At all events, 1 shall
not be at home."
The clock strikes ten. The knitting
is rolled together and Madam Beyer
takes her departure with a stately bow.
Simson gives a sigh of infinite relief.
Charlotte throws her arms around him
a moment, then runs and lights a cigar
for him, saying, "dear, dear Charley,
don't be cross, don't be provoked !" Cau
a cloud of anger rest on his brow after
that? But bis last thoughts on going
to sleep were of the various stories he
had heard about awful niothers-iu-law.
The following day he was enlightened
about the character of bis mother-in-law.
She was proud, domineering,
sensitive and presuming. She is mas
ter, and evidently had an idea that
Simson was eternally Indebted to her
for giving him her daughter. War is
declared the very next day between the
two. He is anxious to spare his wife,
but the mother's presumption Is intol
erable; but for Charlotte's sake the
battle is conducted in silence. When
he found that 10 o'clock was her hour
for retiring, he set the clock an hour
ahead. She soon discovers this and re
mains until 11 o'clock. Simson acted
as if be did not notice it, but smoked so
vigorously that he nearly blinded him
self. The old dame accustomed herself to it
nobly. He replaces the furniture to
his liking, and every time he comes
home, the chairs stand ranged against
the wall again, like a line of grenadiers
nn dnrr- At the exDiration of two
weeks the old lady is boss of the estab
lishment. The servant obeys oniy ner,
Charlotte is treated like a child in her
"teens." The old lady commands and
the old lady knows everything better
than snrnndv else. The voung couple
mi h no en iovment without ber. if
Charlotte desires to visit the theatre,
rh. mam m a stands unmasked and un-
invirjxl resrlr to aecomoanv them. If
h. rWidea to walk, she calls a carriage,
when he and Charlotte take a walk, she
trips along, either beside or after them,
in,, wnman hi determined to embitter
bis life. He has lost hU appetite be
cause she ta at his table. v ben sne
turns those great cold eyes on him, the
victuals become acnu, or .asic.o.
. V. A mam mlfvht hfl
He might be able to endure this, but
in his absence sne enawvwrcu
..m his wife against him also.
She tyrannized over the poor little wo
H tries to convince Charlotte!7 f
would be for the happiness ok t
cerned if her mother would live else
where. He offers to pay all her ex
penses, anything, everything in the
power of man, but Charlotte is afraid of
ber mother and cannot be induced to
eject or forsake her.
"If she expressed wish to leave us
of her own accord, then I should gladly
reconcile myself to do without her,"
the wife declares.
Simson takes the hint and immedi
ately sets about the delightful task of
making his house as agreeable for the
lady as possible, but she has her wits
about her, and enjoys her revenge.
She likes the room warm. As soon
as he enters every door and window is
thrown open. He is ready to freeze to
death rather than endure his mother-in-law.
The old hen trots out, but re
turns wrapped in furs. She orders in
turn the very dishes he dislikes above
all others, and is compensated for her
troubles thus :
She is taken sick. The first day she
is forced to keep her bed. He believes
himself In heaven, to have the table
alone with Charlotte. He is so happy
he stays home the whole day. The next
morning the doctor is called aside and
anxiously asked bow his patient is.
"Do not be alarmed, my dear, sir.
Your mother-in-law will be about again,
in a day or two."
"You are mistaken, doctor," the poor
fellow exclaimed, "you treat her case
too lightly. She is ill, very ill ; in fact,
she is out of her head. Oh, for heaven's
sake impress her situation upon her; do
not let her leave her room for at least a
week or two, or a mouth. She is sick,
the woman is indeed. Tell her so."
Some evil spirit must have whispered
his joy to the old lady, for Charlotte
was in such constant demand at her
bedside alter this, that Simson got so
tired of taking his meals alone and hav
ing no one to talk to evenings that he
longed for her convalescence, lie knows
bis mother-in-law detests the sound of
music, or practicing on any musical
instrument, and he begins to take les
sons on the cornet. Morning, noon and
night this abused Instrument gives ut
terance to such terrific groans and ear
splitting shrieks that the neighbors
threaten to have him arrested for dis
turbing the peace.
The old lady Is furious but she stuffs
cotton iu her ears, covers them with
ear-muffs, and scents herself so fear
fully with musk that the house is intol
erable, because she knows the least bit
of this perfume makes him sick. The
conflict becomes warmer on both sides.
If he ventures to bring a friend home to
supper, he can be sure there will be
nothing fit to eat, or that it will not be
served until bedtime. He cannot drive
the woman away. His bouse becomes a
hell to him, and be begins to pass his
evenings at the club. The second even
ing be finds his door key missing, bas
another made, and it likewise vanishes.
He bribes the night watchman to sound
the hours directly under her windows,
and she revenges herself by a noisy
quarrel with the servant before his door
as he takes bis noon-cay nap. lie is
frequently tempted to strangle thei
dragon, pitch her out of the window,
or poison her, but the angelic patience
and sweet disposition of his wife hold
him in check. He wonders how this
angel can be the offspring of such a
devil. He observed her spectacles fall
one day and he placed his foot upon
them until they were ground almost
into dust. The following day he found
all his cigars had been thoroughly oiled.
Accidentally he discovered that his
mother-in-law had a perfect horror of
mice. He jumped for joy. In the even
ing he brings home a box literally
swarming with white mice. He con
quered his own disgust for the creatures
lor tne pleasure oi wrmeiiiing
mother-in-law. He takes one of them
out of the box for the purpose of show
ing the cunning pet to Charlotte. By
chance It escapes his hold and rushes
for the sofa where the old lady is sit
ting. With a wild cry she rushes out
of the room. He catches the little mousy
and kisses it In bis extravagant delight.
He would have hugged a rat that nad
driven this woman away. He resolves
to follow up his success aud become a
regular mouse hunter.
The following noon the august dame
sails into the room with a cat on her
arm. However. Simson is not discour
aged. He thinks a cat can dispose of
ten mice a dav. I will fetch Dome
twenty; if she devours twenty 1 can
get fortv. He is resolved to sacrifice
his fortune, if need be, on mice, and at
last succeeds in clearing bis room of the
old lady, and Simson permits the de
tested little beasts to overrun nis wnoie
house. The niother-itirlaw . rocires
auoU.:: ejtt, ud stutters poison about,
but be daily brings home a new case or
mice, and after awhile fetches two rats.
It was war to the death with him. If he
was forced to scour the sewers of Paris
and London to obtain the wherewith to
The old lady does not venture out of
her room anv more, but issues her or
ders from there to Charlotte and the
His wife comDlains that the noxious
animals are destroying kitchen and lar
der, even penetrating the clothes-press
to build their nests.
"Never mind, let them devour and
destroy everything, I will buy morel"
He thought it was time enough to begin
to exterminate rats and mice when the
lareer annovance was extirpated, "i
shall not give up until they have de
voured us all! Your mamma has de
stroyed weeks and months of my hap-
. ....I . 1. .u ....... h. Mftrtl,rail "
One day Charlotte informed him that
mamma had found another residence
and resolved to leave them. He clasped
her iu his arms and danced around the
room like one mad at this information.
Sure enough, the very next daythe
dame departed bag and baggage. Sim
son straightway buys his wife the finest
outfit in town, donates fifteen dollars to
the poor, and absolutely goes to church
the following Sunday to pour out his
gratitude for this deliverance.
Months passed before his mother-in-law
honored his house with a visit, and
then onlv because Charlotte wasobliged
to keen close and guard a little sou of
tender age. Simson received her with
ceremonious pomp. Since then matters
seem quite tolerable between them. The
captain's widow never remains after
eight o'clock in the evening and rarely
sits at the table with him. And Simson
is happy. ;
"No one,'ays a writer on bird-keep;
ing, "who -has not a una neari,
thoughtful head, observant eyes, and
crentle hand, has the least right to keep
birds. One should weigh the matter of
keeping a bird as if it were the question
nf milootlng an orphan." If a careless
neglect a cat or a dog, it will
make it wants known, and, the worst
coming to the worst, go out on foraging
expeditions, anJ appropriate whatever
it finds to its own use. But the poor
neglected bird has no voice to tell iu
hnnirer: all its notes are called "sing
ing It cannot escape from prison to
borrow, beg, or steal seeds from its
neighbors, ana can oniy uea ji mue
wings against the bars. Therefore those
who enjoy keeping birds should make
their csa matter 01CV" iii
Perils writes Cs.
A French caricaturist has lately de
picted in a certainly humorous, if some
what extravagant manner, the peril to
which the patron of a hackney carriage,
at a period of very severe frost, might
find himself exposed. The occupant
of a eouj on the boulevards is suddenly
confronted by a pair of human feet
thicklr encased in muddv boots. The
fact is that the frost-bitten driver has
turned around on his box, and thrust
his legs through the window full in
the face of the fare. "Excuse me.
bourgeoise," he remarks, "'but it's so
cold that I would just give myscii a Pit
of a warm." Fortunate, Indeed would
it be for the English fare if such a con
tingency as that Imagined by the Par
isian artist were the only one to
which he was liable while journeying
in one class, at least, of London cabs.
A correspondent of a medical contem
porary has just alarmed the cab-using
community by pointing out that the
popular bandsom labors under the se
rious disadvantage of the passengers
head being on a level with that of the
horse, end that the secretion of the ani
mals nostrils are exceedingly apt to be
blown into the face of the fare, whose
more exposed mucous membranes are
thus rendered susceptible of intractable
irritation. Dreadful to relate, a more
serious danger is involved in the actual
construction of the vehicle. A few
months ago a glandered cab-horse co -veyed
a whiff of contagious vapor from
his nostrils to a well known member of
the stock exchange, who survived the
infection only a few days. The case
came under the notice of two Lon
don physicians, and they were both of
the opinion that the ioor gentleman
died from glanders. Our contemporary
suggests that, as diseased horses are fre
quently driven in hackney carriages,
the front of hansom cabs should be al
ways protected by a screen placed dlree
ly above the apron. This appliance
might serve a double purpose, since, al
though happily the wind is not always
in our teeth, and we are thus not always
liable to catch fatal diseases from the
vapor issuing from the nostrils of a glan
dered horse, we might, If they were the
other way and there were anything the
matter with our mucus membranes,
afflict the horse himself with bronchitis
or catarrh, or give him at least a stiff
neck. Keally there would seem to be no
end to our woes iu connection with cabs.
In the neighborhood of the metropolitan
dead meat market, four-wheelers have
been seeu ere now crammed to the roof
with carcasses of beef and mutton. How
about the foot-and-mouth disease ? On
the danger of communicating small-pox
and scarlet fever through the medium
of cabs we need not dwell ; still hitherto
the hansom, so long as the driver is
sober, and the wheel does not fly off,
and the horse does not kick through
the splash-board, and the blind In front
does not come down wi;hout wanting
and break the bridge of the passenger's
nose, has been held to lie a tolerably
secure and commodious vehicle, justify
ing its claim to the term "patent safety.'
As things stand at present our faith in
the gondola of London to say nothing
of the gondolier mnst be terribly sha
Sir Moses Monteuore. now in the
ninety-second year of his age, a few
months back paid a seventh visit to
Jerusalem for the purpose of collecting
information relating to the actual con
dition of the Jewish inhabitants of the
Holy Land, as to their capability and
inclination to engage in mechanical
and general agricultnral pursuits. The
report (the Loudon Timet says) Is now
published, with a letter to Sir Moses
from two of the leading Rabbis of Je
rusalem, in which they refute the char
ges of disinclination to work of the
Jews of Jerusalem while there was a
possibility of obtaining eutlicient chari
ty to enable them to live. It is known
that, in order to give a refutation to
these charges Sir Moses Montetiore de
termined to undertake a mission to the
Holy City and report on bis observa
tions. Sir Moses states that a whole
village has been pointed out to him
which might be purchased at a moder
ate rate. All the persons who reported
to Sir Moses on this subject stated that
there would be no difficulty whatever
in securing as much land as might be
required, either for cultivation or
building purposes. The Governor and
Kadi of Jerusalem assured him of the
readiness of the Turkish Government
to render every possible assistance to
encourage any industrial scheme for
th nrotnotion of the welfare of tv
people in the Holy Land. The French
and American consuls also assured him
of their willingness to assist. Sir Mo
ses states that a great struggle may
arise in the future between the educa
ted or Progressist party those who do
not come to the itoiy city irom reii
irtnna motives, tint from reasons con
nected with special circumstances and
the strictly Conservative party, whose
sole object in going to Jerusalem was
the preservation ot tneir religion, cu
ring his short stay at Jaffa Sir Moses
Montetiore notices some indications to
that effect. Sir Moses gives a long ac
count of the different institutions es
tablished in Jerusalem for the benefit
of the poor, There are a soup kitchen ;
a loan society, wuose onject it is to
make advances without interest; a
hospice, which provides every poor
person coming to Jerusalem with gra
tuitous board and lodging until he may
have procured for himself a suitable
residence ; three building societie&.e.
Sir Moses says : "1 bad mime conversa
tion on the subject of general drainage
in Jerusalem with a gentleman ot au
thority. He told me that all the refuse
of the city is now carried into the pool
of Bethesda, which, strange to say I
was informed, is close to the house in
tended for the barracks, and the sol
diers living there appear not to expe
rience the least inconvenience on ac
count of its vicinity. If arrangements
could lie made to clear that pool en
tirely, to admit pure water only, and to
diar special pools for the purposes of
conducting there the city drains, Jeru
salem night become free from any
threatening epidemic. All the doctors
in Jerusalem assured me that the Holy
City might be reckoned, on account of
the purity of its atmosphere, one of
the healthiest of places." Sir Moses
speaks of the skill of Jewish mechan
ics in Jerusalem, whereas it has been
said that there are no Jewish mechan
ics in the Holy City. Sir Moses saw
sculptors, goldsmiths, bookbinders and
carpenters, and, he says, "all did their
work most satisfactorily." A watch
maker into whose bands he gave a val
uable repeater for repair put it, within
a very short time, into excellent order.
The same man. in additiod to his skill
as a watchmaker, displayed also great
talent as a Hebrew caligrapbist. 'He
presented Sir Moses Montetiore with a
grain of wheat on which were written
nineteen lines, forming an acrostic on
the name of the venerable philanthro
pist. The traveller states that he has
had every opportunity of convincing
nimseii mat tne Jews are eager and
willing to engage in any kind of labor,
agricultnral or otherwise, which will
obtain for them the necessaries of life
and place them above the need of the
chanty of their benevolent co-religionists.
Sir Moses says that the great re
gard which be has always entertained
lowaras ins oretnren in tne Holy iana
has now become, if possible, oubly
increased, and he emphatically asserts
that they are deserving of assistance ;
they are willing and able to work,
their mental Dowers are of ajusrwiac
tory nature, and all IsraeliteMought to
render them support. The Jews of
Jerusalem, and in every part of the
Holy Land, be observesr " do work,"
and he furthermore says that they "are
more industrious than many men, even
in Europe, otherwise none of them
would remain alive, but when the
work does not sufficiently pay, when
there is no market for the produce of
the land, when famine and cholera and
other misfortunes befall the inhabi
tants, we Israelites, unto whom God
revealed himself on Mount Sinai, more
than any other nation must step for
ward to render them help, and raise
them from their state of distress." He
suggests the building of houses in and
around Jerusalem, with European im
provements, also colleges and public
baths. Each honse should
plot of ground large enough for the
cultivation of olive trees, the vine, and
necessary vegetables, so as to give the
occupiers of the house a taste for agri
culture. He states that many pertut
in toe cities and around jeriisn
have already announced their wil ,
ness to follow agnculturitV-Ursuj
Deity la rwrty-elajBt
The following list, conipr.wiig the
name of God iu forty-eight languages,
was compiled by the well-known French
philologist, Louis Burger, in the fol
lowing manner: one nay, as ne was
walking along the streets of Paris, he
heard a voice beseeching him to buy
some nuts. Upon looking back he dis
covered that it was the voice of his old
barber, who was gainings scanty living
by selling nuts on the street. To aid
him. he hastily made out and gave to
the barber the following list:
Hebrew Elohium, Eloah.
Syriac and Turkish Alah.
Language of the Magi Orsl.
Old Egytian Tuet.
Modern Egyptian Teun.
Eolion anil Doric Ilos.
I -a tin Deus.
Ixiw Latin Diex.
Celtic aud Gallic Diu.
Old German Diet.
Low Breton I Kmc.
Olalu Tongue Deu.
German aud Swiss Gott.
English aud Old Saxon God.
Danish and Swedish Gut.
1 1 iiidostance Rain.
Peru vian Puchccam mac.
Bv the sale of these lists the barber
was enabled to make as good a living,
if not better, than M. Burger himself.
Trees af Bra.aU.
British Consuls in Brazil notice the
extraordinary floral wealth of that vast
empire. Their "reports in lt75 call at
tention to the abundance or the trees
from the juice of which Indiarubber Is
prepared. At Aracaty this has recently
become the most valuable article
brought into the produce market of
that place. From Bahia Consul Mor
gan sends a translation from a book
published by the inspector oi tne custom-house
of that port, in which It is
stated that the consumption of a century
would not exhaust the supply or India
rubber. The inspector gives an account
of a very remarkable tree, the Carnauba
palm, which grows in Brazil witnout
any culture, and it Is so hsrdy m .
ni'uruVi.in tne mosi prolonged drought,
and bas often served at such times as
the means of support ,to the population
of more than one Province. The top,
when young, is an appreciable and nu
tritious article or food ; and rrom this
tree also wine, vinegar, aud a saccha
rine matter are extracted, as well as a
kind of gum similar in its taste and
properties to sago. From the wood mu
sical instruments are made, as also tubes
and pumps for water. The delicate fi
brous substances of tpe pith of the stalk
and Its leaves make a good substitute
for cork. The roots have the same vir
tues as the sarsaparllla. The pulp of
the fruit is of an agreeable taste, and
the nut, oily and emulsive, is roasted
and then used as coft'ee by many' ier
sons. From the trunk are obtained
strong fibres, and also a species oi flour
similar to maizena, and a liquid resem
bling that of the Bahia cocoa-nut. From
the dried straw are made mats.hats, bas
kets, and brooms, aud large oiiantities
of the straw are exported to Europe for
the manufacture or fine hats. many,
from the leaves is produced the wax
used in the manufacture of candles;
and the export of this wax exceeds
i;lU2,000 a year in value. The Inspec
tor suggests that perhaps in no other
country can there be found a plant ap
plied to so many and varied purposes.
Ttee Pwla41eai IsMllat.
nere are the results of the first census
of the population of India, taken from
the English documents, complied byL'
Union M-dicaU. India, with the vassal
states of England aud all their depen
dants, contains 238,830,958 souls, which
is eaual to the entire population of
Europe. To every square English mile,
there are. on an average, 211 persons.
The largest city is Calcutta, and It pos-
seses a population oi ott.i.ouu innaniunis.
Bombay has 644,000; Madras, 318,000;
Lucknow. 234,000. Their religions, in
round numbers amount to 140,500,000
Hindoos; 40, 7o0,000 Mahomedansi 9, -500.000
Buddhusts, Jews, and Parsees,
the Christians amount to 000,000, of
which 250,000 are Europeans, the other
65O.0U0 are native. There are 23 differ
ent languages spoken In India; in the
Western Provinces there are 300 differ
ent castes; In Bengal about 1,000 exist.
There are employed by government
Ljao.ouv persons (the natives Included) ;
020,000 (of which 819 are missionaries)
are supported by religion; there are
3U,uuu religious medicants ; 10,000 astrol
ogers;5 sorcerers; 465 exorcists; 513
poets; 1 orator; 33.000 jurists: 75.000
physicians: 218,000 artists, among
whom are acrobats, serpent charmers.
and monkey showers; there are 137.000
agriculturists; o0,uoo elephant and
camel drivers and shepherds; 22 profes-
sionaDie gamblers; o pigeon trainers:
49 spies; 361 professional thieves; 30
highway robbers: 103.000 mendicant
Tke Celtic Cylatc ! Ireland.
It is very probable that the use of the
Celtic tongue will eventually die out.
It is by do means so much in vogue with
the rising generation as it was with the
former. There are but few persons
now, even among the old, who really
"have no English," as the phrase goes;
although many will pretend that this is
the case for purposes of their own. I
believe, also, that the peasants would
by no means wish their superiors to
learn their speech. Nevertheless, they
will express approval and admiration of
any efforts made in this direction. Both
Protestants and liomanisls mutilate
and distort the Saxon language. Ju the
mat wonderful manner, 'ley ar" as
fond of long and dillici. sounding
words as the negroes r said to be.
They are even ingeni(M? enonli to
mount polysyllabic te-As. on the spur
of the moment, V taif memory fails to
bring forth any Jl-p.-.rt vullii'lentiv
startling. "Or ; 3t-r, you g;ve us a very
line allegation"Mlay," a neapei table
man said to h'wlergymau once. Now,
if timjfcid not been Immejinlel v
I Tkhormiig service, there might have
J. some dilliculty iu discovering hat
"vne subject of commendation was a ser-
W :.l . ..-
lliuu. A iimnrfiri lauv uu vun
angrily called a troublesome child "the
most ecclesiastical boy she had ever
seen in her life," as the greatest term of
reproach she could think or, and the
same woman described a Fenian gather
ing as "a wonderful triangle of people."
Then, when one of the gentry was ill in
a country neighborhood, there were
many inquiries made a to whether he
would be likely "to intercede." mean
ing were there hopes for his recovery.
A dispensary becomes an "expensary,"
the excise service "the outside. 'lo
exfiect is to "inspect," and vice versa.
A cypress-tree 1? a "cypher," a surplice
a "cypress," an inn "an end," and so,
ad i'ntiuitum. The staple malady and
cause of death In Ireland Is a pain or
stitch in the heart; but the peasants
lso suffer occasionally from "a great
impression," and a "fluency on the
chest." The most grateful heart can
find no richer or more elegant mode of
expressing thankfulness for some favor
done than to wish the patron "a blanket
of glory iu Heaven." Arjg.
VI he I vested Ike Barrel?
Few inventions have had a vi ider o
more varied usefulness than the bar
rel; few give such promise of jier-
iietuitv. limine in principle, simple
yet singularly jierfect in plan and struc
ture the barrel is little less than a stroke
of genius. Who set dp the first one?
ho lirst conceived tne nappy thought
of making a vessel tight and strong out
of strips of wood bound together with
hoops? And when did lie liver
No history of inventions, none of the
eneycloiedias in our great libraries, no
historian or human progress, so iar as
we know, gives any information on the
subject, unless we except the Roman
author Pliny, who mistakenly attri
butes the Invention to the Uauls, who
inhabited the banks of the Po. We say
mistakenly, since there is the best of
good reason for believing that the bar
rel was in use long before the Gauls
took possesion of their Italian home,
ierhais long before the Gauls existed
as a people.
The momuments of Egypt furnish
proof of the early use of hooped vessels,
though no date is given of their inven
tion. In one of the inscriptions copied
by Wilkinson may be seen two slaves
emptying grain from a wooden vessel
made with hoops, while a scribe keeps
tally and a sweeper stands by with a
broom to swtep up the scattered kernels.
Close by an unfortunate is undergoing
punishment by bastinado, for short
measure perhaps, or as Mr. vt likiuson
suggests, for petty theft. The measure
is barrel-shaped, and precisely like tne
kaijl of modern Egypt. It would hold
apparently about a peck. Unfortunately
the age of this inscription not indica
ted, Measures of the sort would seem
to have been in common use very early
in fcgypt, though not Tor the storing of
liquids, for which skin and earthen
vessels were used.
At first thought Egyi would lie the
last place to look for the invention of
hooped vessels, its arid climate making
it specially unsuited for their employ
ment. Possibly that may have been
the compelling cause of their invention,
. Throughout the East, the bamboo is
largely used for making hollow vessels,
a section of the stem through a node se
cntlug a solid bottom, and one between
the nodes an open mouth for natural
tub or bucket. In well woo.'.! regions,
nothing would be more natura. 'ban
the employment of hollow tree trunt
for the same purpose or section of tree
stems, hollowed out by fine or other
wise. In drying, such vessels would
split and spoil, and it would require no
great genius to repair them by means
of withes or wooden bauds, the prima
tive form of the hoop.
If the users of such natural barrels
should migrate to a region where timb
er was scarcer, enconomy of lumber
would be likely to suggest the building
of liarrels from pieces artificially split,
in short, the use of staves, by means of
which the primitive cooper would lie
able to make several barrels out of a
block that would siilh'ce but for a single
But this is speculation merely. It is
enough to know for a certainty that
the cooper's art, like the potter's, is one
of extreme antiquity. We had no sus
picion of its veiieraiileness when we le
gan to trace Its history in resince to
the inquiry who made the first barrel ?
Tnbiwr- Pi pes
There are some remarkable objects to
be met with amongst the relics of North
American antiquity, but none are more
curious than the stone tobacco-pipes
which have been discovered in the
mounds formed by the early inhabi
tants of the continent. They are un
doubtedly, the oldest things of the sort
In the world. There is something about
them, however, more Interesting than
"These pipes," remarks one writer,
"are unique in form, and are carved
out of hard, ornamental stone, in which
their bowls are hollowed and their
tubes drilled with perfect skill, and the
bowls themselves are sculptured into
the forms of birds, animals, and human
heads, in a manner quite unapproacha
ble by any but civilized races."
This is information which must re
joice the heart of every smoker. Is it
not gratifying to know that the nse of
the gentle weed was thought so much
of by races now hidden in the mists of
antioiiitv. that they exhausted all the
resources of their ingeuuity and artis
tic skill upon the construction and or
namentation of the needful apparatus t
it may be added, that elaborately
carved pipes continue to be made by
the North American Indians in the
present day. Some tribes devote most
of their attention to the ornamentation
of the bowl, others to that of the stem.
Occasionally the bowl is adapted for
the insertion of two tubes a conveni
ent arrangement, whereby two smokers
may lnuaie the fumes or the tobacco at
the same time.
A hundred pounds of flour costs $28
In the Black Hills.
Queer IImu$. am going to tell you
a story about a horse whose name is
Tom. snd who is fond of children. I
know he would like to give yon a long
ride ; for. when he baa a load of cnn
dren behind him, he pricks up his ears,
and trots offiu tin style.
Last snmmer, he took Bertie. Howie,
Dollie, Emma, Annie, and Charlie, and
Charlie's mamma, on a picnie-party to
the woods. I thoueht some of the
children wonld be tipped out of the
carriage before we got there ; but old
Tom carried them all safely.
They bad a line time gathering ferns,
and playing ; then they sat down and
ate their supiicr, spread on the grass,
with Torn standing near. Tliev gave
hiv. cake a. id ginger-bread, which he
ate jip i to please them ; and. before we
cauie homtssj'hey trimmed his harness
One day, when Tom was standing in
his stall, 'he felt something tickling his
legs. He bxtked around, and there
stood a little girl, who was brnshing
the Hies off from him. He stood pr
tectly still and did not kick, as some
horses would have done. Hut it was a
rash thing for a little girl to do, and
her mother told her not to go near a
horse's heels again.
Now I am going to tell you abont a
horse who was fond of strong drink.
l es, he loved whiskey and brandy.
One d.iy. his master had occasion to
drive him a long distance. Coming
home, they were caught in a heavy
shower. The horse took cold, and hail
a chill. He was nut in his warm stable
and well rubbed : and then iiis master
gave 1 1 i iti some whiskey, which he took
with a great relish.
After that, his master noticed, that.
when driven any distance, this horse
was always sick. He would paw. shake,
lasli lus tail, and cut up many antics ;
but liquor always cured him very soon,
so soon, that the men on the farm
began to think he was playing a trick.
So one dav when he began his ca
pers, they watched him, unseen by him.
When the men were near him. he
seemed in great distress ; but, when
they were out of sight and hearing, he
would stand Quietly, aud eat his oats
like any sensible hors'. His master,
coviuced that he was playing sick,
gave him a whipping, and after that he
wad a strong cold water horse.
T7ir amior of the WheeUmrrov.
It takes a great man to do a little thing
Who do you think invented that very
simple thing called a wheelbarrow f
by. no less a man than Leonardo ua
And who was he T
He was a musician, poet, painter,
architect, sculptor, physiologist, engi
neer, natural hi.-toriau, Uitanist, aud
inventor, all in oue. He wasut a
Jack at all tradesaud master of none.
either, lie was a real master of many
arts, and a practical worker besides.
u hen did be live 7
Somewhere about the time that Co
lumbus discovered America.
Aud where was he horn f
In the beautitul city of Florence, in
Perhaps some of you may feel a lit
tle better acquainted with him when I
tell you that it was leouaruo ua inci
who painted one of the grandest pic
tures in the world, "The Last Sup
prr,' a picture that has been copied
many times, and engraved in several
styles, so that almost every one has an
idea of the arrangement and position
at the table of the figures of Our Lord
and his disciples; though I am told
that, without seeing the paiuting it
self, no one cau form a iioiiou of how
grand and beautiful it is.
Aud only to think of the thousands
of poor, hard-working Americans who
really own, in their wheel barrow, an
original "work" of Leonardo da Vinci.
Hhooliu'j Latcyers. "One day when
I was at the Orkney Islands," said the
wild duck iu one of our conversations
"1 saw an Islander walking along with
a gun upon his shonlder and a game
bag in his hand. He was met by a
group of travelers from Eugland, who
had just landed.
" 'What sport V cried one of them to
the islander. 'What sport have you
had this morning T'
"Well, nothing very great.' an
swered the man civilly euoiiirh. 'I've
only shot a brace of lawyers this morn
ing".' "'Whatr screamed the travelers.
'What' killed two lawyers, aud talk
about it as cooly as if you had only
bagged a couple of birds !'
"'And so 1 have,' laughed the islan
der. 'There is a bird here, a sort of
putlin, that we Orkney folks always
call biTjem. hy, you dulu't thiuk 1
ui'iTit men. did you I
"And," i.;itimied the wild duck,
whilH the rrvr'..?S thought It a
dreadful thing to kill a laCf when
the lawyer was a num. they
nothing at all of it when the lawyer
was a bmi. Just as if a bird's las
wasn't worth as much to it as a man's
lite to him. Humph! Very queer, 1
And wiih this the wild duck dived
suddenly to catch a little perch that
be fancied tor his dinner.
Very quect world tins, altogether.
'Wonders. Lewinbeck tells of an in
sect seen with a microscope, of which
twenty-seveu millions only equal a
Insects of various kinds uiav be seen
iu the cavities of a grain of sand.
Mold is a forest ot beautiful trees.
with branches, leaves and fruit.
liutlei Hies aie lully leathered.
Hans are holiow tube.
The surface of our bodies is covered
with scales like a fish : a single grain
of sand would cover one hundred and
fifty of these scales, and yet each scale
covers five hundred pores. Through
the r narrow openings the perspira
tion forces its ll, like water throun a
The mites take five hundred steps a
Each drop of stagnant water contains
a world of animated beings, swimming
with as much liberty as whales ui the
Each leaf has a colony of insects
grazing on it, like cows in a meadow.
Kerp tip. Never be cast down by
tritlea. It a spider break his thread
twenty times he will mend it again.
Make up your mind to do a thing and
yon will do it. rear not if trouble
comes upon you; keep np your spirits.
though the day be a dark one. Mind
what you run after. Never be content
with a bauble that will burst or lire
wood that will cud in smoke or dark
Nothing on earth can smile but human
beings. Gems may flash reflected light.
but what is a diamond-flash compared
with an eye nasn and a mirth-flash ? A
face that cannot smile is like a bud that
cannot blossom, and dries upon the
stalk. Laughter is day and sobriety is
night, and a smile is the twilight that
hovers gently betw een both, aud is more
bewitching than either.
Car loads of salmon are every day
shipped East from California. The
California salmon is coarser man mat
I ot Maine-
The first water works in Texas are
being established at Austin.
The United States consumed 2,000
000 bushels ot peanuts last year.
.. In the vicinity of Detroit there are
twenty-six brick yards which make an
nually about 60,000,000 brick.
For several years Iowa was the
banner Granger" State, but it lost
seventy-five iocal granges last year.
Mr. Caleb dishing becomes, by the
death of Keverdy Johnson, the oldest
Cabinet Minister living in point of
years and appointment.
. In Richland county, Wisconsin,
the farmers have built a wooden rail
way, sixteen miles long, costing only
three thousand dollars a mile.
The astronomers say there will be
another total eclipse of the moon
August 25, liKfJ. Ladies and gentle
men prepare your smoked glasses.
. Gen. Butler's Dutch Gap canal ha
now twenty feet of water in it, and en
ables vessels to save seven miles in
passing up and down James River.
J. B. Phillips, of Orwell, Ohio, is
making a cheese which will not be com
pleted until the 20th of May, when it is
expected to weigh 2!,0U0 pounds.
A bill has been introduced In the
New Jersey Legislature requiring rail
road companies to pay the funeral ex
penses of all persons killed npon their
It is calculated that the shrinkage .
in the value of foreign Government
bonds on the London Stock Exchange
has been 3f5,000,'00 in the last four
Cardinal McCloskey is negotiating
for the purchase of Le Grand Lock
wood's mansion in South Norwalk, Ct.
with the intention of converting it
into a ISomish college.
The Municipal Register of 1374
gives 3iX),0i. as the population of
Boston, but Messrs. Sampson, Daven
port & Co., according to a recent count
only figure up 311,911).
One of the most striking objects at
the Centennial exhibition will be a col
umn of coal one hundred feet in height
to be transjiorted to Philadelphia in
sections from Tennessee.
George B. MeCartee, Chief of the
Bureau of Engraving and Printing at
Washington, has resigned. Having
spent a year's appropriation in eight
months his shop is closed.
A Paris (Ey.) young lady will send
to the Centennial a poker fiishioneil
from a revolutionary gun barrel.
Nothing could be better calculated to
stir up the fires of patriotism.
Mr. Bayard Taylor has accepted the
position of an editorial writer on the
New York Trihunr, and will commence
work as soon as his lecture engage
ments for the season will permit.
There are 162 driving p.lrks in the
United States. The vabie of the pro
Mrty held by these associations is esti
mated at $5,000,nuo, and that of the
horses entered in a single year $15,000,
ono. The late Reverdy Johnson leaves
12 children, about 50 grandchildren,
and several great-grandchildren, nearly
all of w hom were present at the anni
versary of his golden wedding in Nov.
The sound portions of the old Elm
of Boston Common will he made Into
furniture for the City nail of Boston,
and various specimens will be sent to
the various historh-al societies of the
Twenty thousand salmon eggs,
taken from the Columbia River, in
Oregon, have arrived safely in Auck
land, New Zealand, and been deposited
in waters there carefully prepared for
The Swiss exhibit at the Centen
tennial will be small, but complete and
well classified. Among manufactured
articles watches will occupy the first
rank, but the show of laces will excite
The united ages of a family of five
persons, two sisters and three brothers,
named Seabold, whose homestead is at
Baptistown, Hunterdon county, N. J.,
amounts to 373 year. Their ages
respectively are $3,'8l, 7U, 70 and 60.
Sharon h;nl a banquet In Frisco re
cently. There were flowers and plants
an ! iiiu-ic, singing-birds, wine and
rich viands, and at each guest's plate
w as the bill of fare, engraved upon a
heavy plate of solid silver, and costing
over 1 10 each.
There was a good blubber crop last
year. The average catch of whaling
vessels engaged in the Arctic sea
-"ounteil to 1,384 barrels of whale and
wain.? ?'! a'"' H.9"0 pounds of whale
bone, the iT.rp'-'t average for any sea
son since 1""0.
Nine bushels and O-f 'Sbtii is all
the w heat crop averages pe acre in
the I'nited States, and only aboul tfn
or eleven on the fertile prairies of UiZ
West, while in old England it avera
ges twenty-eight bushels per acre by
A man is serving out a year iu the
Wisconsin State Prison w ho was con
victed of robbing the mails of twenty
five cents. Since he ha been confined
there the btter has been returned from
the dead-letter olliee, with the twenty
five cents inclosed.
The Cincinnati "Commercial"
thinks that the government can save
nearly tl.OHO.OOO by reducing the sala
ries of po-,tm isters in the smaller cities
and tow ns. There are more than two
hundred postmasters in the country
who receive a salary of more than $:1000
According to the latest returns re
ceived by the Adjutant-General, and
by him transmuted to Congrss, the
aggregate organized militia force of
the Mate of New lork is 19.413: in
New Jersey, 3,838; in Pennsylvania,
10,.t3. The grand aggregate of all the
States is 89,063.
Governor Bagley, of Michigan,
urges upon every citizen of his Suite
who owns a piece of ground, whether
it be large or small, to plant ujion it on
the 15th of April next, a tree which
shall be venerated in the distant future
as one planted by patriotic hands dur
ing the Centennial year of the repub
Dr. J. If. Funk, of Boyertown
BerVs county, who has probably the
largest collection of bees iu Pennsylva
nia, reports that the present weather Is
death to them. He fears that already
more than half of his honey-producers
have died from starvation, the mild
weather having caused them to make
way with their winter's rations earlier
in the season than usual.
Th irntuA r William If. Sewaw.
hw TC.ndnlnh Kocers. is finished.
ill be shipped in time to reach here I u
Mar next. It cost
amount w subscribed by some gen
tlemen of this city, among whom were
statue Is described as being one of Mr.
Rogers's best productions.
xml | txt