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VOLUME XVIII. FRANKLIN, PARISH OF ST. MARY, (ATTAKAPAS,) LOUISIANA..... SEPTEMBER 29, S53. NUMBER 38.
(From the New Orleans Bulletin.] Yellow Fever-Its Consequences, &c. (Costinsed.) The principle of commercial monop oly, embodied in the navigation act of 1660, became, by subsequent enact ments, so oppressive to the colonial com merce, that by the year 1750 it had mIined the trade between the colonies and the West Indies. The consequence was that the yellow fever ceased to ap pear in the ports of the former; and it did not occur iq Charleston after 1755, nor in New York or Philadelphia after 1762, so long as the navigation laws were in force, which were only inter rupted by the war of the revolution, which, of course, likewise prevented this trade. No sooner was peace es tablished, than our commerce with the West ltadies revived, and in 1791 ,the yellow fever appeared in New York; in 1793 in New York, Philadelphia, and Charleston, and all these three cities were again subject to almost annual epidemics of this disease. Thus the thirty years, or more, of suspended commerce with the West Indies passed without the occurrence of a case of yellow fever in New York, Philadelphia or Charleston; whereas during the time their West India trade flourished, they were constantly ex eeriencing such visitations. After the revolution the trade of these cities with the West Indies continued prosperous aud uninterrupted till 1807, when the embargo was laid. During this period of prosperity New York had been visited by yellow fever nine times, Philadelphia seven times, anti Charles ton ten times. The several measures of embargo and of non-intercourse continued until the opening of the war with Great Britain, which lasted until 1815. Here we have a period of eight years, during which the trade of these cities with the West Indies was entirely prostrated ; but they were also entirely exempt from visita tions of yellow fever. On the establishment of commerce, by the peace of 1815, our trade with the West Indies and other intertropical ports had its nsual effect of introducing yellow fever in most of our principal ieaports. In the year 1817 it was in troduced into Charleston. Baltimore and Philadelphia, and in 1819 into New York. After this time New York and Philadelphia were regularly subject to epidemics of yellow fever until 1822. The particulars of the epidemic of that year, which prevailed at New York (poblished at length by Dr. Townsend.) are worthy of special notice. During the summer there arrived at port 71 vessels from the West Indies, having in all 56 cases of yellow fever on board at the time of their arrival at quaran tine. Besides these, there was the United States brig Enterprise, and other infected vessels from New Orleans and Pensacola. Between the 1st and 9th of Jely. 24 large lighter loads of freight were landed at the wharf, at the foot of Rector street, from four Havana vessels, atl of which had cases of vellow fever on board. On the 10th of July the dis ease appeared simultaneonsly in the two houses which face each corner, forming the two corners in which Rec tor street terminates at the wharf. These two houses were about fifty feet from where the lighters discharged. -In one a grocery was kept. and the trnk, eamed Thomas, was the first re sident attacked. In the other corner -was the establishment of a cooper, named Reder, who had been engaged in repairing the barrels, boxes, etc., which contained the landed freight. -lis two little daughters-one eleven, eod the other nine years old-had been much with him during his work on the boxes, etc, at the wharf, and all three were taken sick on the same day. On the 16th, Thomas died with the black vomit. On the 15th, the youngest girl died with the black vomit. On the same day John Reder, brother to the girls, was taken sick, and died on the 27th with black vomit. On the 20th, a little girl, daughter of Mr. Rose, who played 'ith the Reder girls, sickened, and in a few days died with the black vomit. a'O the 24th and 25th, four new cases oeneared in the same house with the last. In this way the disease was traced from family to family, as the result of eemmunication, until the epidemic be seme general. Daring the year 1822, New York -std Philadelphia, respectively, estab Eished new quarantine regulations, tinah 1aore rtigd than these which had pseviesly existed. Since that time .enlow fever has been totally unknown an thee cities. It has, however, been -.-mnsut lbroght to their quarantine ati. ha kssemomtimes spread in their .gqar n. establishments, aud it is on Sb th.agreatest strictness that it has -en psevested from reaching these •oites. Baltimore, that had, previously A 1822, been frequently the victim of f.lejw fever epidemics, also adopted atrmantina re slations that year. I nssets wart it has experienced s.ay tsh visittii. since. Charleston -weuer, ttgleotead until within the Jst few-years, totake efficient means -a prevent the introdnotion of yellow -vens, sd in asequenoe the disease Joes suiad these on nine or tea oena skis bdtwens the years 1828 and 183. ý>, Thlo. zepidmiae of yellow fewer :bLt wewrauianrsed in New Orleans was tiW -a:= kIt was traced to the veael eisr L " St In 1799, it again ua under eiroomstanees wert6sse egeeded as " proof of its - ~Of L .of this otly, prior to the . senai isimne ia 1803, was very d iS abbeis thiewe rasy cribe s rie eaemption from . .I esa or While between the year 1799 and 1803 New Orleans was entirely free from such visitation, Charleston had been so visited three times, and Phila delphia and New York, each twice. The commerce of New Orleans with the West Indies being chiefly with the Spanish Islands, was only interfered with by the embargo from 1807 to 1809, and by the war, from 1812 to 1815. During these three years of trade with these islands, viz: from the spring of 1809 to 1812, New Orleans experienced two epidemics, one in 1809 and the other in 1811; while the commercial cities North, whose trade with the West Indies was entirely in terrupted, had no yellow fever at all. Yellow fever did not appear in New Orleans during those years that the em bargo operated against her commerce, nor during the war. But no sooner was peace declared thean she became the centre of an active commerce, es pecially with the West Indies; and with the revival of commerce yellow fever again made its appearance in her midst. In the year 1817, yellow fever was introduced here from Havana by the British cutter Phaenix, which arrived here on the 18th June, with some of her crew sick. It became epidemic in July, and was deplorably fatal. In consequence of the positive proofs of the imporation of the disease on this occasion, the Legislature of the suc ceeding winter passed an imperfect quarantine law, which was repealed, however, the succeeding session, with. out any good reason. This year is rendered doubly memo rable as the one in which steamboats were first introduced on the river, and in which yellow fever made its first appearance in our river towns. Previ ously to this time, the commerce be tween this city and the towns watered by the Mississippi was in flatboats, down the river, and in keel-boats and barges up stream. A barge would be 30 days from New Orleans to Natchez. The means of communication were thus too limited and slow to transmit infection; and hence the immunity which these towns had hitherto en joyed from yellow fever. After the disease of this year had existed in the city for some time, the steamboat Washington left here, and arrived early in September at Natchez. with persons on board ill of yellow fe ver, some of whom were landed. Se veral young men of Natchez, who went on board the steamer, contracted the disease and died of it. The disease spread rapidly, and with destructive malignity. All who could, fled. The number of deaths there by this epi demic was 134. The disease was this year communi cated to people at Whilzel's Landing, 20 miles below Natchez, by a steam boat from New Orleans. In June, 1819, several vessels, with crews sick with yellow fever, entered this port from Havana and Martinique, and about the 1st of July, cases appear ed among the shipping. The disease became epidemic before the middle of August; its malignity defied skill and attention, and before its close multi tudes perished. By this time the arrival at Natchez of steamboats from New Orleans be came so common that the origin of the fever at Natchez in 1819 was not traced to any particular one. It began on the 4th of September, and continued to prevail until 200 persons had fallen vic tims to its fury. About the 20th of July, 1820, it be coming known that cases of fever had appeared in thiscity, Dr. Davidson was desired by the Mayor to examine into the matter. The doctor reported the arrival of two vessels, one from Havana on the 17th of June, and the other from Matanzas on the 16tH of July. The vessel from Havana had lost two men on her passage, and the one from Matanzas two more, and having others on board sick with yellow fever. The disease became epidemic in the city between the first and middle of August. On the 22d of Novmtuber, of this year, Gov. Villere, in his vkledictory address to the Legislature, strongly recommend ed the establishment of a quarantine against yellow fever. The same poli cy was urged upon the State Legisla ture by Gov. Robertson in his inaugu ral message, delivered on the succeed ing 18th of December. Accordingly in the February following the Legisla ture passed a code of quarantine regu. lations, "for the protection of Louisiana !against the importation of yellow fever and other infections diseases. As the operation of this quarantine has been the subject of much misconception- quoted as it is every day as an all4uffi cient argument against the efficiency of each institutions-it is time that the public should be correctly informed on the subject The believers in the " local origin" of yellow fever declare that they have no faith.in the efficacy of quarantine regulations, here or elsewhere-that the trial of a quasantine which was for merly established here demoustated the utter inefficiency of such institu tions. It is true that the code of quar antine regulations passed by the Le gislature of this State in 1821 did not result satidnctorily. The epidemics of 1822, 1823 and 1824, oeeurred while this quarsatine was in operation. But thls so far from furnishing the believers in the mlegal origin" doctrine with new facts in suptn of their theories, had -esalts of a .re directly the reverse. For althogh these quarantine regula ios were ersmeouly framed sad fee S rminted they esabledus more Stanat aueii od be .eorssipt.'eir eai ,toacean e iefia t rh eign" so;rib ' H.r. is aoef fit- if tire f Wtft r siport of this statement, which we find in a more extended form in Dr. Carpenter's work already referred to: About the middle of August, 1822, yellow fever from Havana was com municated to Pensacola. From this place, it was introduced into New Or leans about the 21st of August, by two sloops, the Ann and the Eliza, both crowded with passengers, who were flying from the fever. Some of these passengers were sick when they em barked, others sickened and died on the passage, and nearly all the remainder after having landed in this city, died of the disease. These vessels reached the city by way of the Lakes and the Bay ou St. John, and consequently eluded the quarantine officers, none of whom were stationed in that direction. The first cases that occurred here among our citizens, in the year 1822, were traced to infection from the pass engers above mentioned. The year following, 1823, fever made its appearance in the city early in Ju ly. We are without any information as to the manner in which the conta gion of this year was introduced. From its first appearance among the shipping, however, we are left to infer that it was introduced by a breach of the quaran tine regulations. Dr. Forsythe, the quarantine officer, had previously re ported to the Board of Health of New Orleans, "that with the means placed at his disposal, it was not practicable in all cases to prevent passengers and seamen from leaving their vessels and getting to the city." He concluded by declaring that vessels were "permitted to go into port without the necessary precautions being taken,'" leaving it with "the board to decide what influ ence vessels thus entering may have had in producing or aggravating the malignant epidemic which afflicted the city." In 1824, the schooner Emigrant arri. ved from Havana and was brought to the quarantine station about the 20th of July of that year, by the towboat Ba lize. This vessel was brought up along side the Balize, from the mouth of the river, to within six or seven miles of the quarantine station, when she was dtropped astern, and towed up in this manner the remainder of the way. It appears that the other towboats were likewise in the habit of thus towing up alongside vessels from ports infected with yellow fever. The health officer, on boarding the Emigrant, found one of her passengers dying with yellow fe ver, and another that had been danger ously sick of the same malady. By the affidavits subsequently taken it ap pears that during the passage up the river of the towboat Balize and the schooner Emigrant, there was no re straint upon the intercourse between the two vessels; that a number of the hands of the towboat went on board of the schooner ; that they there saw the two men above referred to, who were laboring under the effects of the fever and that three of these hands were af terwards taken with the fever, and brought to the city. The captain and mate of the Emigrant also took the fe ver and died. Soon after, the towboat Post Boy, having had communication with a vessel from an infected port, bringing her up alongside from the Ba lize to the quarantine station, two of her hands were taken sick with the fever, and brought to the city. About the same time the towboat Enter prise brought up the schooner Dorothy. from Tampico, also alongside-the in tercourse between the vessels during the passage being unrestrained; anti. having left her tow at the quarantine station, proceeded to the city. The first cases of yellow fever that occurred this year in New Orleans were among the hands of the towboat Balize. When, as at present, we are left with out the shadow of protection against the introduction of disease from abroad when even the pretence at supervision of such introductions only tends to mis lead, and to lull us into a false security. it is difficult, if not impossible, upon the sudden appearance among us of im ported contagion, to furnish the public with incontestable proofs of its importa tion. But give us even the mockery of protection which was furnished by the quarantine regulations of 1821, and the fact that yellow fever is of foreign ori gin is no longer a matter of doubt or contestation. If these regulations ef fected no other service, they at least en abled as to trace the epidemics of 1822 and 1824 to their respective sources. They enable us positively to prove, that the first cases of yellow fever which occurred in this city on each of these occasions were those above mentioned, and that thenceforward the disease spread rapidly among the inhabitants. So far from furnishing arguments against the utility of efficient quaran. tine regulations, we are, through the agency of the quarantine then existing, enabled positively to assert that the seeds of the epidemics of 182hand 1824 were communicated to this city-the first from Pensacola, by the sloops An. na and Eliza, and the second from Ha. vana, by the schooner Emigrant. We find that by a gross breach of the quar antine, which rendered nugatory all its precautions, the disease was, in both these instances, smuggled past the sta tion, and passed up to the city. We are sustained in the declaration, that had the quarantine of 1821 been organized npon correct principles, and had its te gulatious been rigoroasly enforced aginst the towboats and all other ves sels violating its `requirements, the epi demiso of 1822, '23 and '24 would in all probabhli? have nsever occurred. Let us hear no more, then, of the erperiment ,of aqnarantine having been tried at isfw Orlean, and of its having proved a foI:tre. Of the epidemics of 1822, 1823, and 1824 in this city, only that of 1823 was communicated to Natchez so as to pro duce an epidemic: yet Dr. Monette was well convinced that during the year 1820, 1821, and 1822, and espe cially in 1823, there were several deaths from this disease in Natchez, which were traced to merchandize re ceived there from New Orleans, and to persons who visited the city on busi ness, and were attacked on their re turn. The epidemic of 1823 in Natchez was considered the most terrific that ever visited that city, or any other one of its population. It commenced late iin the month of August, and was in troduced by steamboats from New Or leans. The first cases occurred be Iween the 12th and 20th of August. It continued to rage with great mortality until checked by frost near the 1st of November. About 320 died of the dis ease. As soon as the fever became epi demic at Natchez, all who could left the city. A number of these took up their quarters at a place called Coon ville, and there erected sheds and huts for temporary residence. In a few days the fever appeared among them, and before the lapse of a month two-thirds of the whole number there had been sick, and one-third had died of the dis ease. In 1825 .he fever appeared here again. The epidemic of this yearat Natchez began under the hill, among clerks of a commission house and others near the steamboat landing. Cases began to multiply about the 20th of A ugust. The disease having at length beeni communicated to the upper town, the citizens generally fled. The number of deaths was about 150. The first cases were traced to intercourse with the steamboat landing. This year the disease was transmit ted to Washington. a village six miles east of Natche;: which, upon the fe ver breaking out in Natchez. became crowded with citizens of that place. About 60 died of the disease at Wash ington, a place described by Dr. Meon ette as remarkable for the absence of everything like city filth, marsh mi asm, etc. In the summer of 1829, many Span iards, flyjne Irom Mexico, arrived in this city. Yellow fever beginning to deve!ope itself at the time, they fled to Baton Rouge: but having been ex posed to the infection here, the fever broke out among them there. Many of these fugitives, and a numberof the residents of Baton Rouge, died of the epidemic of that year. The epidemic was communicated in the usual way and at the usual time to Natchez that year. The disease did not spread, however. It is described as the mildest epidemic of yellow fever ever experienced there. During the time between 1829 and 1837, but two epidemics of yellow fe ver are recorded as having occurred in New Orleans-those of 1831 and 1833. They appear to have been in their ca reer. The first cases ot the memoraole epidemic of 1837 occurred on board of vessels in port from the West Indies. It was characterized by great maligni ty, and the mortality was great. The epidemic of this year was cornm municated to Baton Rouge, Plaque. mine, Opelousas and Natchez, subse quently to its appearance here. The first cases at Natchez appeared about the 8th of 10th of September, and by the 15th of September it was considered epidemic. The disease con tinued to spread in that city until checked by a frost, which occurred on the 25th of November. The number of deaths from this epidemic was about 280. For several years previous to 1837, the Natchez Hospital (the ap proaches to which are through the cen tre of the city) had been closed against the sick from steamboats, and during this time there had been no epidemic there. But a year before the Mississippi Legislature had made provisions for throwing open the hospital to the in digent sick. This law was in full ope ration when the fever of 1837 broke out at Natchez, and after the 1st of August scarcely a day passed without the reception at this hospital of one or more yellow fever patients from boats direct from New Orleans. The epidemic of 1839 was wide spread and terrible in its effects. It constitutes a memorable epoch in the history of this malady. Its rise and progress to the close of its fatal career were carefully observed and noted by Dr. Monette, in his ably written work. already referred to. As this is one of the few instances that have come to our knowledge where the subject of yellow fever-considered in connec tion with one of the most remarkable visitations of the disease that ever oc curred-attracted the close attention it deserves, and as the result is conclu sive in proving the transmissibility of the malady, we propose to notice this epidemic at some length. With this object, we avail ourselves of the lucid account.referred to, an abstract of which follows : Yellow fever has never prevailed epidemically, at the same time, in so many seaports and inland trading towns of the United States, as it did in the summer of 1839. Scarcely one of these seaports, having commercial in tercourse with the infected ports of 'the West Indies, or of Mexico, escaped.the fever; and -almost every inland town, basing direct and unrestricted com merce with these seaports after they became infected, became infected also. The first appearance of the disease was ivariably in the seaports; and the first cases were as invariably among the shipping, especially those from in fected West India or Mexican ports. In every instance the disease existed for weeks among the shipping before it spread among the inhabitants. In no port of the United States was a case seen, until after it had been prevailing for weeks in the WVest India and Mexi can ports. The yellow fever began to rage in Havana, Vera Cruz. Matanzas St. Jago. and other West India and Mexican ports. early in May. It became epi demic before the 1st of June. It be ,tan to decline at Havana in the latter part of August, and at Vera Cruz about the middle of October. At Charleston, S. C., on the 7th of Jnne. three cases of fever were re ported to be on board of the brig Bur mah, just arrived from Havana. Two of these cases died the next day. On the 10th, other cases were reported on board of other vessels. On the 12th, the Briganza arrived from Havana with several yellow fever cases on board. On the 1st of July, other vessels with fever on board having arrived in the meantime, the sickness spread rapidly among the shipping. About the 10th of July, the disease began to extend among the people near the wharves, and in 10 days after it prevailed over the city. As soon as the fever became epidem ic in Charleston, all the inhabitants who could leave the city immediately fled, and for the most part to Augusta. where yellow fever had never existed before. During the latter part of July a few of these fugitives (lied of the fe ver at Augusta. On the 20th of August the disease had become epidemic there. For some 15 or 20 days before the appearance of the fever at Augusta, and for as long a period after it had ap peared epidemically at Charleston, the disease made its appearance at Savan nah. As vessels from the West Indies as well as fugitives from Charleston had arrived at Savannah before the fe ver broke out there, it is uncertain to which of those causes i? was ascriba ble. About this time an .infected vessel from Havana arrived in Portland, Me., after losing several of her crew on the voyage. Several deaths by yellow fe ver soon after occurred in that place in persons belonging there, who had been on board this vessel while at the Port land wharf. The disease made its appearance at Mobile this year among the shipping, simultaneously with the same disease here. In both places the first cases were among the shipping. It continued to spread until the 20th of October, when it began to abate. On the Ist of November the disease was considered extinct. Let us now note the rise and progress of the disease at New Orleans. Ves sels from Havana arrived almost daily during the season. About the last of June several cases of yellow fever were discovered among the shipping in port from the West Indies, particularly among those from Havana. Towards the close of July cases among the ship ping increased, and by the 1st of Au gust about 25 cases had been received in the Charity Hospital. By the 12th of August it was speading among the re sident population near the wharves. On the 15th of August it was admitted to be epidemic, and strangers were ad vised by the authorities to leave the city. The disease spread with great violence and rapidity over a large por tion of the city near the wharves. The early victims were laborers, draymen, clerks, merchants, and others whose business brought them on board or in the vicinity of the infected vessels. From this time until the close of the epidemic the Charity Hospital, that un erring chronometer of public health, was crowded with fever patients. The angel of death was manifest in every part of our devoted city. This summer was unusually hot, dry and calm. Up to the time when the fever began to increase, the population of the city, resident and transient, never was more healthy at any season of the year. The press only echoed public opinion in congratulating the city upon the prospects of a healthy season, and the '-absence of local causes of the lisease." Burby the 15th of August these prospects were blasted; and at he instance of the authorities, the un acelimated, to the number of some thousands, immediately left the city, and spread themselves over the coun try, and in the towns and villages with in 300 or 400 miles of New Orleans. The extension of the epidemic of 1839 from this city to those adjacent, and the owns in the interior, will now be noted : Pensacola.-The first case that ap peared at this place was at the Navy Yard. The subject was a gentleman who had just arrived from New Orleans, and who was sick at the house of Dr. - of the U. S. Navy. He died with black vomit on the 5th of September. The Doctor himself, and a negro man who had nursed the deceased, were simul taneously taken sick with fever a few days after his death. The next eases were other members of the Doctor's family, and several physicians and other persons, who attended on or visit ed the doctor while sick. The infec tion then spread through the yard; but owing to the precautions taken.by those commanding, in checking.communica tion between it and the town, the latter escaped. The Navy Yard is about eight miles from Pensacola. Donaldsonville.-This place con I-tiunued healthy until the 1st of Septem ber. If the meantime, ten or twelve cases offyellow fever had been intro dooed from New Orleans by the steam boats. About the middle of the month a number of persons belonging to that place, mostly those who had narsed and I attended to the sick from the city, con tracted the disease. Before frost ap peared 30 persons had died besides the first imported cases. Plaquemine.-This place was free from any disease until after several yellow fever patients had been landed by the boats from New Orleans. The disease was communicated to others who had not been exposed to any other Isource of infection. Twelve or fifteen ot the inhabitants of this place died of yellow fever. Baton Rouge.-There is a shoal bar opposite this town, which prevents steamboats from landing at such a low stage of the river as existed at this time. The people, too, refused to re ceive yellow fever patients into their town. The consequence was, that this place was one of the few in the neigh borhood of New Orleans swhich entirely escaped the epidemic of 1839. Port Hudson.-During the month of September, the yellow fever was intro duced among the merchants, clerks and laborers of this village, and about fifteen of them died. A number of peo ple from the country contracted the disease by coming into the town, several of whom died after their return home. Waterloo.-A number of the inhabit ants of this place. having imprudently visited New Orleans while the epi demie was raging, contracted the dis ease, and upon their return home were taken sick. Several others, who were not exposed to any other source of in fection, were also seized with the ma lady. The whole number of deaths at this place was about 15. Bayou Sara.-Soon after yellow fe ver became epidemic in New Orleans, an infected district was created near the steamboat landin_ at this place, its consequence of the introduction of per sons sick of the fever from steamboats beond up the river. The disease sub sequently spread among the resident population. It was also communicated to a number from the country, who had not been exposed to any other source of infection. About 20 persons died in this town and the vicinity. Fort Adams.-The yellow fever was introduced into this town in the same way that it was introduced into Bayou Sara. It assumed an epidemic form late in September, and about 20 deaths occurred before it was checked by the frost. NTatc/he.-This city was very healthy for thirty days preceding the introduc tion there of yellow fe.ver. During this period, the disease had been epidemic in New Orleans. Passengers and sear chandise continued to arrive in the meantime without restriction. At length, about the 22d of September, the disease took an epidsamical form and spread with great fury. A large pro portion of the inhabitants immediately tied to the surrounding country for pro tection; and by the 28th, the popula tion was reduced to 800 or 900 souls. Yet before the epidemic received a check, in the middle of November, 235 persons, including three practising phy sicians. hadt died. WashingWton, Miss.-When the yel low fever appeared in Natchez, a large number of its inhabitants fled to Wash ington. During the epidemic of 1825. this little town had suffered severely from an unrestricted intercourse with Natchez. at that time suffering under a visitation of fever. The town authori ties, recollecting this, took measures to protect their own citizens. They for bade the introduction from Natchez ei ther of yellow fever patients, or of beds, bedding, persons, merchandise, etc. By these and other prudent precautions they preserved themselves irom a visit ation of fever. Vidalia.-This very beautiful town, situated about a mile from Natchez, on the opposite side of the river, entirely escaped this year. It has never been visited by yellow fever, although Nat chez has frequently been decimated by the disease. Vidalia undoubtedly owes its exemption solely to the eircuum stance that it has no steamboat com munication with New Orleans. Vicksburg.--This city was never be fore this year visited by yellow fever. It continued, on this occasion, free from the disease, until after Natchez .ad be come so thoroughly infected and deso late, that the upward bound boats ceased to make landings there, and passed on to Vicksburg, as their fi-st principal landing above New Orleans. In the second week in October, the lower part of the city, at the foot of the bluff, began to be very sickly, and seve ral deaths occurred every day until the last of the month, when, for a part of toe time, there had been as many as seven deaths a day. The mortality ot the disease was greatly increased by the faculty at that place mistaking it for the congestive fever. It continued its ravages until checked by a frost, d!u ring which time about fifty persons fell victims to it. Grand Gulf.-This town had free in tercourse with all ascending boats which chose to latrd, and freely admit ted the sick. In consequence, about twenty deaths occurred from the dis ease, and it was increasing in extent and virulence just as it was arrested by frost. The appearance of these cases in Grand Gull was simultaneous with those in Vicksburg, and occurred only after boats ceased to land at Natchez. We will now briefly notice the dis ease as it prevailed in the towns on Red River, and on the bayous west of the Mississippi and south of Red River. xlzandria.-This place was very healthy for some time after the fever became epidemic in New Orleans. It was at that time the head ot navigation on Red River, and swarmed with emi-