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Jeffersonian Republican. [volume] (Stroudsburg, Pa.) 1840-1853, December 17, 1846, Image 2

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Siaxico, and her success prevented by these
inflmmecs from abroad." In the same dispatch
the Secretary of State affirms that "since
eighteen hundred and thirty-seven the United
States have regarded Texas as an independ
ent sovereignty, as muchs Mexico ; and that
trade and commerce with citizens of a Gov
ernment at war with Mexico cannot, on that
account, be regarded as an intercourse by
winch assistance and succor are given to
Mexican rebels. The whole current of Mr.
de-Bocanegera's remarks runs in the same
current as if the independence of Texas had
not been acknowledged. It has been ac
knowledged it was acknowledged in 1 S37,
against the remonstrance and protest of Mex
ico ; and most of the acts of any importance
of which Mr. de Bocanegra complains, flow
necessarily from that recognition. He speaks
of Tcxas as being still ' an integral part of
the territory of the Mexican republic but he
cannot but understand thai the United States
do not so regard it. The real complaint of
Mexico, therefore, is, in substance, neither
more nor less than a complaint against the
recognition of Texan independence. It may
be thought rather late to repeat that complaint
and not quite just to confine it to the United
States, to the exemption of England, France
i and Belgium, unless the United States,having
" been the first to acknowledge the independ
ence of Mexico herself, are to be blamed for
setting an example for the recognition of that
of Texas." And he added, that " the Consti
tution, Public Treaties and the laws oblige the
President to regard Texas a? an independent
Suite, and its territory as no part of the ter
ritory of Mexico." Texas had been an inde
pendent State,with tn organized Government,
defying the power of Mexico to ovcuthrow or
reconquer her, for more than ten years before
Mexico commenced the present war against
the United Stales. Texas had given such ev
idence to the world of her ability to maintain
' her separate existence as an independent na
tion, that she had ,been formally recognised
as such, not only by the United States, but
by several of the principsJ'powers of Europe.
These powers had entered into treaties of am
ity,commerce and navigation with her. They
had received and accredited her ministers and
other diplomatic agents at their respective
courts, and they had commissioned ministers
and diplomatic agents on their part to the Go
vernment of Texas. If .M fcxico,notwithstan
ding all this, and her utter inability to subdue
or reconquer Texas,slill stubbornly refused to
recognize her as an independent nation, she
was none the less so on that account. Mex
ico herself had been recognized as an indc
pendent nation by the United States and by
otter Powers, many years before Spain, of
which, "before the Revolution, she had been a j
polony, would agree to recognize her as such,
' and yet Mexico was at that time, in the esti
mation of the civilized world, and in fact,
nono the less an independent power because
Spain still claimed her as a colony. If Spain
had continued until the present period to assert
that Mexico was one of her colonies, in rebel
lion against her, this would not have made
her so, or changed the fact of her independ
ent existence. Texas, at the period of her
annexation to the United States,bore the same
relation to Mexico that Mexico had borne to
Spain for many years before Spain acknow
ledged her independence, with this important
difference that, before the annexation of
Texas to the United States was consummated
Mexico herself, by a formal act of her Gov
ernment, had acknowledged the independence
of Texas as a nation. It is true,that in the
act of recognition she prescribed a condition,
which she had no power or authority to im
pose, that Texas should not annex herself to
any other Power ; but this could not detract
in anr degree from the recognition which
Mexico then made of her actual independence.
Upon this plain statement of facts, it is ab
surd for Mexico to allege as a. pretext for com
mencing hostilities against the United States,
that Texas is still a part of her territory.
But there are those who, conceding all this
to be true, assume the ground that the true
western boundary of Texas is the Neuces,in
stead of the Rio Grande ; and thai, therefore,
in marching our army to the east bank of the
latter river, we passed the Texan line, and in
vaded the Territory of Mexico. A simple
statement of facts, known to exist, will con
clusively refute such an assumption. Texas,
as ceded to the United States by France, in
I SO 3, has been always claimed as extending
west to. the Rio Grande or Rio Bravo. This
fact is established by the authority of our most
eminent statesmen at a period when the ques
tion was as well, if not better understood than
it is at present. During Mr. Jefferson's ad
ministration, Messrs. Monroe and Pinckney,
. who had been sent on a special mission to
' Madrid, charged, among other things, with
the adjustment of boundary between the two
countries in a note addressed to the Spanish
'Minister of Foreign affairs, under date of the
, 2Sth of January, 1805, assert that the bound
. aries of Louisiana, as ceded to the United
States by France, " are the River Perdido, on
the eas,t and the River Bravo on the west
and they add, that, " the facts and principles
which justify this conclusion are so satisfac
tory to our Government as to convince it that
Die United States have not a better right to
.t!he island of New-Orleans, under the cession
.referred, to, than they have to the whole dis-
met ot territory wnicn is aoove described.
Down to the conclusion of the Florida trea
ty, in Februan', 1819, by which this terri
.tpj' was ceded to Spain, the United States as
rtpd and maintained their territorial rights to
tills extent. Jn the month of June, 1818, du-
iflg M r ..Mgnrpe's administration, information
adventurers had landed at Galveston.with the
avowed purpose of forming a settlement in
that vicinity, a special messenger was de
snatched bv the Government of the United
1 - ' . . - . 1 1 , , 1 4.1. . 1
States, with instructions from the Secretary ot war wnicn sue lias wageo upon uic grounu
Corpus Christi, as well as the remainder of
Texas against the threatened Mexican invasion.
But Mexico herself has never placed the
State to warn them to desist, should they be
found there, or any other place north of the
Rio Bravo, and within the territory claimed
by the United States." He was instructed,
that our armv occupied the intermediate terri
tory between the Neuces and the Rio Grande.
Her refuted pretension that Texas was not in
fact an independent statc,but a rebellious pro-
should they be found in the country north j vince, was obstinately persevered in ; and
of that river, to make known to them "the I her avowed purpose in commencing a war
surprise with which the President has seen i with the United States was to reconquer lex
possession thus taken, without authority from
the United States, of a place within their ter
ritorial limits, and upon which no lawful set
tlement can be made without their sanction."
He was instructed to call upon them to "avow
as, and restore Mexican authority over the
whole territory not to the Neuces only, but
! to the Sabine. In view of the proclaimed
menaces of Mexico to this effect, 1 deemed it
my duty, as a measure of precaution and de-
under what national authority they profess to I fence, to order our army to occupy a position
act," and to give them due warning " that the on our frontier as a military post, trom wnicn
place is within the United States, who. will our troops could best resist and repci any at
suffer no permanent settlement to be made
there, under any other authority than their
tempted invasion which Mexico might make.
Our army had occupied a position at Cor-
own." As late as the 8th of July, lS4&,thc!pus Christi, west of the Neuces, as early as
Secretary of State of the United States, in a
note addressed tj our Minister in Mexico,
maintains that, by the Florida treaty of 1819,
the territory as far west as the Rio Grande
was confirmed to Spain. In that note he
states that, " bv the treaty of the 22nd of
February, 1S19, between the United States
August, 1845, without complaint from any
quarter. Had the Neuces been regarded as
the true western boundary of Texas, that
boundary had been passed by our army many
months before it advanced to the eastern bank
of the Rio Grande. In my annual message
of December last, I informed Congress that,
and Spain, the Sabine was adopted as the j upon the invitation of both the Congress and
ted' him, "at the present date I suppose you at
the head of that valiant army, either fighting al
ready, or preparing for the operations of a cam
paign and "supposing you already on tfie thea
tre of operations, and with all the forces assem
bled, it is indispensable that hostilities be com
menced, yourself taking the initiative against the
The movement of our army to the Rio Grande
was made by the Commanding General, under
positive orders to abstain from all aggressive acts
towards Mexico, or Mexican citizens, and to re
gard the relations between the two countries as
peaceful, unless Mexico should declare war, or
commit ccts of hostility indicative of a sate of war;
and these orders he faithfully executed. While
occupying his position on the east lumk of the
Rio Grande, within the limits of Texas, then, re
cently admitted as one of the States of our Union,
the Commanding General of the Mexican forces,
who, in pursuance of the orders of his Govern
ment, had collected a large army on the opposite
shore of the Rio Grande, crossed the river, inva
ded our territory, and commenced hostilities by
attacking our forces.
Thufc, after all the injuries which we had re
ceived and borne from Mexico, and after she had
insultingly rejected a minister sent to her on a
mission of peace, and whom she had solemnly
agreed to receive, she consummated her long
course of outrage against our country by com
mencing an offensive war and shedding the blood
of our citizens on our own soil.
The United States never attempted to acquire
Texas by conquest. On the contrary, at an early
1 . i 4.1. i .i m l l i.: l
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' " jf , L i , i 4 41 . f thfcir independence, they sought to be annexed to
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had been effected in Texas; but fhc territory
between the Sabine and the Rio Grande being
confirmed to Spain by the treaty, applications
were made to that power for grants of land
and such grants,or permissions of settlement,
were in fact made by the Spanish authorities
in fayor of citizens of the United States pro
posing to emigrate to Tesas in numerous fam
ilies, before the Declaration of Independence
by Mexico."
The Texas which was ceded to Spain by
the Florida treaty of 1819, embraced all the
country now claimed by the State of Texas
between the Neuces and the Rio Grande.
The Republic of Texas always claimed this
river as her western boundary, and in her
treaty made with Santa Anna, in May, 1836,
lie recognised it as such. By the Constitution
which Texas adopted in March, 1836, senato
rial and Representative districts were organ
ized, extending west of the Neuces. The
Congress of Texas, on the 19th of December,
1836, passed " An act to define the bounda
ries of the Republic of Texas," in which they
States. At a general election in Sep-
Mexico, and to concentrate an efficient mili- j tember, 1S36, they decided with great manimity
tary force on the western frontier of Texas,to i jn favor of "annexation ;" and in November fol-
protcct and defend the inhabitants against the lowing the Congress of the Republic authorized
threatened invasion of Mexico. In that mes
sage I informed Congress that the momcm the
terms of annexation offered by the United
States were accepted, the latter became so far
a part of our own country as to make it our
duty to afford such protection and defence ;
the appointment of a minister to bear their re
quest to this Government. The Government,
however, having remained neutral between Texas
and Mexico during the war between them, and
considering it due to the honor of our country,
and our fair fame among the nations of the earth,
that we should not at this early period consent to
and that for that purpose our squadron had ! annexation, nor until it should be manifest to the
been ordered to the Gulf, and our army " to whole world that the re-conquest of Texas by
e a position between the Neuces and the-1 Mexico was impossible, retused to accede to the
Norte "or Rio Grande, and "to repel 'T6 oy xTdS'
., ,t, . , , ie44. anu alter more t ian seven years nau eiauseu
invasion ot tne lexan territory wnicn m 4i.i-i.
I KIIII'I' I JA (S 11)111 F'sl If III ISIO'II I 1 1 I I II 1 1 ir Mill I It.t.. L
tne Mexican lorces.
might be attempted bv
It was deemed proper to issue tins order,because,
soon after the President of Tcxas,in April, 1845,
had issued his proclamation convening the Con
gress of that Republic, for the purpose of sub
mitting to that body the terms of annexation pro
posed by the United States, the Government of
Mexico made serious threats of invading the
Texan territory.
These threats became more imposing as it be
came more apparent, in the progress of the ques
tion, that the people of Texas would decide in
declared the Rio Grande from its mouth to ?on' inf 1110 l?eoP 01 -texas would decide m
it emnvn tn hn thW l,nn,,r nnA ihn favor of accepting the termsof annexation ; and,
its source to be their boundary, and by the
said act they extended their " civil and polit
ical jurisdiction" over the country up to that
boundary. During a period of more than
nine years, which intervened between the
adoption of her Constitution, and her annexa
tion as one of the States of our Unionfexas
asserted and exercised many acts of sove-
finally,they had assumed such a formidable char
acter as induced both the Congress and Conven
tion of Texas to request that a military force
should be sent by the United States into her ter
ritory for the purpose of protecting and defend
ing her against the threatened invasion. It
would have been a violation of good faith toward
the people of Texas to have refused to afford the
reignty and jurisdiction over the territory and ; vasiorlj to which they hadbeen exposed by their
inhabitants west of the Neuces. She organ- j free determination to annex themselves to our
ized and defined the limits of counties extend-1 Union, in compliance with the overture made to
ing to the Rio Grande. She established i them by the joint resolution of our Congress,
courts of justice and extended her judicial Accordingly, a portion of the army was order
system over the territory. She established a ; ed to advance into Texas. Corpus Christi was
custom-house, and collected duties, and also ' the position selected by General Taylor. He
. i . m . 1 pnnnmnpfl nt. thnf nlnrr in Ann-iicf 1.9d.F nnd tlin
post omces and nost-roaos. in it. sue estab
encamped at that place in August, 1845, and the
army remained in that position until the 11th of
March, 1846, when it moved westward, and on
the 28th of that month reached the east bank of
the Rio Grande opposite to Matamoras. This
movement was made in pursuance of orders from
the War Department, issued on the 30th of Janu
ary, 1846. Before these orders were issued, the
dispatch of our minister in Mexico, transmitting
the decision of the Council of Government of Mex
ico, advising that he should not be received, and
; also the dispatch of our consul residing in the city
' f TIT : 4l. r i i .1- a- ii
lished a land office, and issued numerous
grants for land, within its limits. A Senator
and a Representative residing in it were elect
ed to the Congress of the Republic,and serv
ed as such before the act of annexation took
place. In both the Congress and Convention
of Tcxas,which gave their assent to the terms
of annexation to the United Sates, proposed
by our Congress, were representatives resi
ding west of the Neuces, who took part in ' 0f Mexico the former bearing date on the 17th
the act of annexation itself. This was the : and the latter on the 18th December, 1845, cop
Texas which, by the, act of our Congress of ies of both of which accompanied my message to
the 29th of December, 1845,was admitted as Congress of the 11th of May last were received
one of the States of our Union. That thei a.1 the Department of State. These communica
Congress of the United States understood the ! t"!Jt.h,SIlly PV not absolute-
iy ueiuaui, uiuluut iniiiisier wouki noi oe receiv
State of Tcyqs which they admitted into the
Union to extend Jieyond the Neuces is appa
rent from the met, that on the 31st of Decem
ber, 1845, only two days after the act of ad
mission, they passed a law " to establish a col
lection district in the state of lexas, by
which they created a port of delivery at Cor
pus Christi, situated west of the Neuces,
ed by the General Government of General Her
rera. It was also well known that but little
hope could be entertained of a different result
from General Paredes, in case the revolutionary
movement which he was prosecuting should prove
successful, as was highly probable. The parti
sans of Paredes, as our minister, in the despatch
referred to, states, breathed the fiercest hostility
against the U. States,denounced the proposed ne-
and being at the same point at which the ; ff0tiation as treason, and onenlv called nnon the
rPnriij pnefnm lrTicn unrlrtv f li n l'nrp rC flmf ! tKAAni nml K 1 i 4 .1 . 1. .
-.wwu.. vuuiuui-iiuujj u'iui-i w- 4M.no j i iiiui j nuwjjs mm U1U jJCUjJlU LU JUIUUVI1 IJ1U gOVCmulCnL
republic, had been located, and directed that of Herrera by force. The re-conquest of Texas,
. 1 .'" . 1 t t 1 ..1 ... Til. TT Ox a 1 .i
a surveyor to collect tne revenue should be ,um Wiir WUIi L,1U u. oiaies, were openiy tnreat-
appointed for that port by the President, by
and with the advice and consent of the Senate
A surveyor was accord
.V V , 11 under the command of General Taylor
mgly nominated and . l0 th(J westem frontier of Texasan(
ened. These were the circumstances existing.
when it was deemed proper to order the army
to advance
mil nuniinir n
confirmed by the senate, and has been ever ' position on or near the Rio Grande,
since in the performance of his duties. All j Tho apprehensions of a contemplated Moxi
these acts of the Republic of Texas, and of can invasion have been since fully justified by
our Congress preceded the orders for the ad- i the event. The determination of Mexico to rush
vance of our army to the East bank of the ! it0 hostilities with the U. States was afterward
K10 Grande. Subsequently, Congress passed I inanebieu irom tne wiiole tenor ot the note ot the
an act " establishing certain postroutes," ex"- ! ?Iex,(ran Minister of Foreign Affairs to our m in
tending west of the Neuces The country ! TrntT ' U. .f r''' 184G'
.... -,.! Paredes had then revolutionized the Government,
wesi 01 mm river now constitutes a part ot
one of the Congressional districts of Texas,
and is represented in the House of Represen
tatives. The senators from that state were
chosen by a Legislature in which the country
west of that river was represented. In view
of all these lads it is difficult to conceive
upon what ground it can be maintained that,in
and his Minister, after retering to the resolution
lor the annexation ot Texas, which had been
adopted by our Congress in March,1845,procecds
to declare that "a fact such as this, or to speak
with greater exactness, so notable an act of usur
pation, created an imperious necessity that Mexi
co, :br her own honor, should repel it with prop
er firmness and dignity. The Supreme Govern
ment Had beforehand declared that it would look
occupying me country west ol the deuces . upon such an act as a causus belli; and.us a con-
wun our army, witn a view solely to its se-1 sequence ot this declaration, negotiation wad the
curity and defence, we invaded the territory of
Mexico. But it would have been still more
difficult to justify the Executive, whose duty
it is to see that the laws be faithfully executed.
if in the face of all these proceedings, both of
the Congress of lexas and of the United
States, he had assumed the responsibility of
yielding up the territory west of the Neuces
tol&jxico, or of refusing to protect and de
fend this territory and its inhabitants,including
only recourse of the Mexican Government."
It Appears, also, that on the 4th of April fol
lowiiig.Gen. Paredes.though his Minister of War,
issued orders to the Mexican General in command
on the Texan frontier to "attack" our army " by
every means which war permits." To this Gen.
Paredes Jrnd been pledged to the army and people
of Mexico during the military revolution which
had brought him into power. On tho 12th of
April, 1843, Gen. Parede3 addressed a letter to
the Commander on that frontier, in which he tta-
treaty was concluded for the annexation of that
Republic to the United States, which was reject
ed by the Senate. Finally, on the first of March,
1845, Congress passed a joint resolution for an
nexing her to the United States, upon certain
preliminary conditions to which her assent was
required. The solemnities which characterized
the deliberations and conduct of the government
and people of Texas on the deeply interesting
questions presented by these resolutions, are
known to the world. The Congress, the Execu
tive, and the people of Texas, in a Convention
elected for that purpose, accepted with great
unanimity the proposed terms of annexation; and
thus, consummated on her part the great act of
restoring to our Federal Union a vast territory
which had been ceded to Spain by the Florida
treaty more than a quarter of a century befor.
After the joint resolution for the annexation of
Texas to the United States had been passed by
our Congress, the Mexican Minister at Washing
ton addressed a note to the Secretary of State,
bearing date on the 6th of March, 1845, protest
ing against it as "an act of aggression, the most
unjust which can be found recorded in the annals
of modern history ; namely, that of despoiling a
lnendly nation, like Mexico, ot a considerable
portion of her territory;" and protesting against
tho resolution of annexation, as being an act
"whereby the province of Texas, an integral por
tion of the Mexican territory, is agreed and ad
mitted into the American Union ;" and he an
nounced, that, as a consequence, his mission to
the United States had terminated, and deman
ded his passports, which were granted. It was
upon the assurd pretext, made by Mexico, (her
self indebted for her independence to a successful
revolution,) that the Republic of Texas still con
tinued to be, notwithstanding all that had passed,
a province of Mexico, that this step was taken
by the Mexican Minister.
Every honorable effort has been used by me to
avoid the war which followed, but all have proved
vain. All our attempts to preserve peace have
been met by insult and resistance on the part of
Mexico. My efforts to this end commenced in
the note of the Secretary of State of the 10th of
March, 1845, in answer to that of the Mexican
Minister. While declining to reopen a discus
sion which had already been exhausted, and
proving again what was known to the whole
world, that Texas had long since achieved her
independence, the Secretary of State expressed
the regretofthis Government that Mexico should
have taken offence at the resolution of annexa
tion passed by Congress, and gave assurance that
our "most strenuous efforts shall be devoted to the
amicable adjustment of every cause of complaint
between the two Governments, and to the culti
vation of the kindest and most friendly relations
between the sister Republics."
Tliat 1 have acted in the spirit of this assurance, will ap
pear from the events which have since occurred. Notwith
standing iUc.tico had abruptly terminated all diplomatic in
tercourse with the United States, and ought, therefore, to
have lieen the first to aslc for its resumption, yet, waiving all '
ceremony, I embraced the earliest favorable opportunity "to
ascertain from the Mexican Government whether they
would receive an envoy from the United States entrusted
with full power to adjust nil the questions in dispute between
the two Governments." In September, 18-J5, 1 believed the
propitious moment for such an overture had arrivec. Te.aa,
by the enthusiastic and almost unanimous will of her people,
had pronounced in favor of annexation. Mexico herself had
agreed to acknowledge the independence, of Tsxas, subject to
a condition, it is true, which she had no ritjht to impose and
no power to enforce. Tho last lingering hope of Mexico, if
sliK still could have retained any, that Texas would ever
aain become one of Iter provinces, must have been aban
doned. The consul of tlie United States at the city of Mexico was,
therefore, instructed by the Secretary of State on the 15th of
September, 1815, to make the inquiry nf tha Mexican govern
ment. The inquiry was made, and on the loth of October,
115. the Minister of Foreign AtTiirs of the Mexican Gov
ernment, in a note addressed to ourconsul, paw a favorable
response, requesting, at the same time, that our naval force
might bo withdrawn from Vera Crux while negotiations
should be pending. Upon the receipt of this note, our naval
lorco was promptly withdrawn from Vera Cruz. A minister
was immediately appointed, and departed to Mexico. Every
tbing bore a promising aspect for a speedy and peaceful ad
justment of all our difficulties. At the date of my annual
message to Congress, in December last, no doubt was enter
tained but that he would be received by tha Mexican Govern
ment, and tho hope was cherished that all cause of misunder
standing between the two coantries would be speedily re
nioved. In the confident hope that such would be tho result
or Jus mission, I informed Consiess that 1 forebore at that
time to ' recommend such ulterior measures of redress for
the wrongs nnd injuries wo had so long borne, as it would
have been proper to make, had no such neuotiation bean in
stituted." To my surprise and regret, he Mexican go
vprnintiul, ihniioh somily pledgor! 'io do so,
iipiut i he arrival nf nnr minister in Mexico, re
finnd i rpcujvf, accredit bjn. When he
reached Vera Cruz, on the 30ih of Novomber,
1845,- he found lhat ihe aspect of affairs had
undergone an unhappy change. The govern
ment of General Herrera, who was ai lhat time
Presjderit of the Republic, was lotierinu i0 ji
fall. General Paredes (a miliiary leader) had
mamfesied his determination to overthrow ihu
government of Herrera, by a miliiary revolution;
and one of the principal means which he em
ployed to effect his purpose, and render the go
vernment of Herrera odious to the army and
j people of Mexico, was by loudly condemning
its determination to receive a minister ol peace
front the United States, alleging that it was the
intention of Herrera, by a treaty with ihe Uuir
ted States, to dismember the territory of Mexi
co, by ceding away the department of Texas.
The government of Herrera is believed to havo
been well disposed to a pacific adjustment of
existing difficulties ; but, probably alarmed for
its own security, and in order 10 ward off the
danger of the revolution led by Paredes, viola
ted its solemn agreement, and refused to re
ceive or accredit our minister ; and this, although
informed that he had been invested with full
power to adjust all questions in dispute between
the two governments.
Among the frivolous pretexts for this refusal,
the principal one was, lhat our minister had not
gone upon a special mission, confined to the
question of Texas alone, leaving all the outra
ges upon our flag and our citizens unredressed.
The Mexican government well knew that boih
our national honor and the protection due to our
citizens imperatively required that the two
questions of boundary and indemnity should be
treated together, as naturally and inseparably
blended, and they ought to have seen that iht
course was best calculated to enable the United
Stales to extend to them the most liberal jus
tice. On the thirtieth of December, J845, Gen
eral Herrera resigned the presidency, and yield
ed up the government to General Paredes with
out a struggle. Thus a revolution was accom
plished solely by the army commanded by Pa
redes, apd the supreme power in Mexico passed
into the hands of a military usurper, who wai
Known to lie bitterly hostile to the United States.
Although the prospect of a pacific adjustment
with the new government was unpromising,
from the known hostility of its head to the Uni
ted States, yet, determined that nothing should
be left undone on our part lo restore friendly
relations between ihe iwo countries, our minis
ter was instructed to present his credentials m
the new. government, and ask to be accredited
by it in the diplomatic character in which he
had been commissioned. These instructions
he executed by his note of the first of March,
1846, addressed to the Mexican Minister of
Foreign Affairs, but his request was insultingly
refused by the minister in his answer of the
twelfth of the same month. No alternative re
mained for our minister but to demand his pass
ports, and return to the United States.
Thus was the extraordinary spectacle pre
sented to the civilized world, of a government,
in violation of its own express agreement, hav
ing twice rejected a minister of peace, invested
with full powers to adjust all the existing dif
ferences between the two countries in a man
ner just and honorable to both. I am not aware
that modern history presents a parallel case, in
which, in time of peace, one nation has refused
even to hear propositions from another for ter
minating existing difficulties between them.
Scarcely a hope of adjusting our difficulties,,
even at a remote day, or of preserving peace
with Mexico, could be cherished while Paredp.s
remained at ihe head of the government. lie
had acquired the supreme power by a military
revolution, and upon the most solemn pledges
to wage war against the United Slates, and to
reconquer Texas, which he claimed as a re
volted province of Mexico. He had denounced
as guilty of treason all those Mexicans who
considered Texas as no longer constituting a
part of the territory of Mexico, and who were
friendjy to the cause of peace. The duration
of the war which he waged against the United
States was indefinite, because the end which
he proposed, of the reconquest of Texas, was
hopeless. Besides, there was good reason to
believe, from all his conduct, that it was his in
tention to convert the republic of Mexico into a
monarchy, and to call a foreign European prince
to the throne. Preparatory to this end, he had,
during his short rule, destroyed the liberty of
the press, tolerating that portion of it only which
openly advocated the establishment of a mon
archy. The better to secure ihe success of his
ultimate designs, he had, by an arbitrary de
cree, convoked a Congress not to be elected
by the free voice of the people, but to be cho
sen in a manner to make them subservient to
his will, and to give him absolute control over
their deliberations.
Under all these circumstances, it was believ
ed that any revolution in Mexico, founded upon
opposition to the ambitious projects of Paredes,
would tend lo promote the cause of peace, as
well as prevent any attempted European inter
ference in the affairs of the North American
continent both objects of deep interest to tho
United Slates. Any such foreign interference.
! if attempted, must have been resisted by the
j United Slates. My views upon that subject
jwereiuiiy communicated to Congress in my
last annual message. In any eveni, it was cer
tain that no change whatever in the government
of Mexico who would deprive Paredes of pow
er, could bo for the worse, so far as the United
States were concerned, while it was highly
probable, that any change must be for the better.
This was the state of affairs existing when
Congress, on the thirteenth of May last, recog
nized the existence of the war which had been
commenced by the government of Paredes ; and
it became an object of much importance, with
a view to a speedy settlement of our difficulties
and ihe restoration of an honorable peace, thai
Paredes should not retain power in Mexico.
Before lhat time there were symptoms of a
revolution in Mexico, favored, as iv was under-

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