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The whole art op Government consists in the art of being honest. Jefferson.
STKOUDSBURG, MONROE COUNTY, PA., THURSDAY, DECEMBER 16, 1847. No.. 24 VOL 8. PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE. Fcllozt-citizens of the Senate, and House of Representatives: The annual meeting of Congress is always an interesting event. The Representatives of the States and of the people come fresh from their constituents to take counsel together for the com mon good. After an existence of near three fourths of a century, as a free and independent republic, the problem no longer remains to be solved, whether man is. capable of self-government. The success of our admirable system is a conclusive refutation of the theories of those in other countries who maintain that a " favored few" are born to rule, and that the mass of man kind must be governed by force. Subject to no arbitrary or hereditary authority, the people are the only sovereigns recognized by our Constitu tion. Numerous emigrants of every lineage and language, attracted by the civil and religious freedom we enjoy, and by our happy condition, annually crowd to our shores, and transfer their heart, not less than their allegiance, to the coun try whoee dominion belongs alone to the people. No country has been so much favored, or should acknowledge with deeper reverence the mani festations of the divine protection. An all-wise Creator directed and guarded us in our infant struggle for freedom, and has constantly watched over our surprising progress, until we have be come one of the great nations of the earth. It is in a country thus favored, and under a go vernment in which the Executive and Legisla tive branches hold their authority for limited pe rioJs, alike from the people, and where all are responsible to their respective constituencies, that it is again my duty to communicate with Congress, upon the slate of the Union, and the present condition of public affairs. During the past year the most gratifying proofs are presented that our country has been blessed with z. wide spread and universal prosperity. There has been no period since the government was 'founded, when all the industrial pursuits of our people have been more successful, or when 'labdr in all branches of business has received a fairer or better reward. From our abundance we 'have been enabled to perform the pleasing duty of furnishing food for the starving millions of less favored countries. In the enjoymentof the bounties of Providence at home, such as have rarely fallen to the lot of any people, it is a cause of congratulation, that our intercourse With all the Powers of the earth, except Mexico, continues to be of the most ami cable character. It has ever been our cherished policy to culti vate peace and good-will with all nations ; and this policy hag been steadily pursued by me. No change lias taken place in our relations with Mexico since the adjournment of the Jaet l.on- mi t-t- . L TT..:. J G-tnc cress, l ne war in wnicii S. X He war in yyiuuu iuc uihiku Lj-k TTnltnil States were forced to eri?are with tfie government of that countrv. still continues. i j I deem it unnecessary, after the full exposition bf them contained in rny hiessage of the eleventh f May, 1846, and in my annUaL message at the commencement of the sessiorf dr Congress in De cember last,to reiterate the serious causes bf bom ploint which we had against Mexico before she commenced hostilities. It is sufficient on the present occasion to say, that the wanton violation dt the rights of person and property of our citizens committed by Mexi co, her repeated acts of bad faith, through a long series of years and her disregard of solemn trea ties, stipulating for indemnity to our injured citi zens, not-only constituted ample cause of war on our part, but were of such an aggravated charac ter as would have justified us before the whole world in resorting to this extreme remedy. With an anxious desire to ayoid a rupture between the two countries, we loroore tor years to assert uur :nn.tne army, to deliver to the ueneral in corn clear rights by force, and continued to seek re- mJn(j the despatch he bore from he Secretary of dress tor the wrongs we nausuuereu uyiuiuauiu . negotiation, in the hope that Mexico migni yieiu to the pacific councils and the demands of justice. In this hope we were disappointed. Our Minis ter of peace sent to Mexico was insultingly re jected. The Mexican government refused even to hear the terms ot adjustment wnicii ne was authorized to propose; and finally, under wholly unjustifiable pretexts, involved the two countries in war, by invading the territory of the State of Texas, striking the first blow, and shedding the hnr nfntir citizens on our own soil. Though the United States were the aggrieved ; - nation, Mexico commenced the war, and we were j compelled in self-defence, to repel the invader, . il.t. xdttnngl hnnnr nnil interests! JHIU tu viiiuiatc mcu"u"' ....-. . prosecuting it with vigor until we couia ODiain a just and honorable peace. On learning that hostilities had been commeM 'ced by Mexico, I promptly communicated that fact, accompanied with a succinct statement of our other causes of complaint against Mexico, to '"Congress : and that body, by the act of the thir teenth of May, 1846, declared that " by the act 'ol the republic of Mexico a state of war exists be tween that government and the United States" this act declaring "the war to exist by the act of the republic of Mexico," and making provision for its prosecution "to a speKuy and successful termination," was passed with great unanimity bv Cono-ress. there being but two negative voices in ihp Rpnafp. and but fourteen in the Houe of ilepresentative8. The existence of the war having thus been de clared by Congress, it became my duty, under the constitution and the laws; to conduct and prose cute it. This dutv has been- performed ; and tftough, at every stage of its progress, I have manifested a willingness to terminate it by a just peace, Mexico has refused toaccede to, any terms which cou-ld be accepted by the United piaies, consistently wkh'tfie national honor and interest, '"he rsoid and brilliant successes of our arms, fifl t-flflt ?steitf of the enemy's territory which had beri' overms and conquered, before the-closa of the last aewien of uagrM, were war has been prosecuted, with increased energy, and I am gratified to state with a success which commands universal admiration. History pre sents no parallel of so many glorious victories achieved by any nation within so short a period. Our army, regulars and volunteers, have covered themselves with imperishable honors. When ever and wherever our torces have encountered the enemy, though he t was in vastly superior numbers, and often entrenched in fortified posi tions of his own selection, and of great strength, he has been defeated. ToonuchpraiBe, bannot be bestowed upon our officers and, men, .regulars and volunteers, for their gallantry, discipline, in domitable courage and perseverance, all. seeking the post of danger, and vieing with each other in deeds of noble daring. ' ! While every patriot's heart must exult, and, a just national pride animate every bosom, in. be holding the high proofs of courage, consummate military gkillt steady discipline, and humanity to the vanauished eiiemY, exhibited by our gallant nrmv. thfi nntinn is called to mourn the loss of manv bVave offipers, and soldiers who have fallen in defence of their country's honor and interests. The brave dead met their melancholly fate in a foreign land, nobly discharging their duty, and with th'eir country's flag waving triumphantly in the face of the- foe. .. Their patrioticJtleeds are justly appreciated, and.-ivUl long be rertiembered Dy tneir graieiiu couuiryuiuu. xuc paicmui wc of the government they loved and served should be extended to tlici'r surviving families. Shortly after the adjournment of the.late session of Congress, thd gratifying intelligence, was re ceived of the signal victory of Buena Yista and of the fall of the city of Vera Cruz, and with it the strong castle of San Juan de UUoa. by. which it was defended. Believing that after these and other successes, so honorable to bur arms and sp disastrous to Mexico, the period was prdpitious to afford her another opportunity, if she thought proper to embrace it, to enter into negotiations for peace, a commissioner was appointed to proceed to the headquarters of our army, with full.powr ers to enter upon negotiations, and to conclude a just and honorable treaty of peace. , He was not directed to make' any new over tures of peace, but was the bearer of a despatch from the Secretary of State of the United States to the Minister of Foreign Affairs ot Mexico, in reply to one received from the latter of the 22d of Febuary, 1847, in which the Mexican govern ment was informed of his appointment, and of his presence at the headquarters of our army, and that he was invested with full powers to conclude a definite treaty of peace, whenever the Mexi can government might signify a desire to do so. While I was unwilling to subject the United States to another indignant refusal, I was yet re solved that the evils of the war should not be protracted a day longer than might be rendered absolutely necessary. by. .the Mexican government Care was taken to give hp instructions to the commissioner which could in any way interfere with our. military operations, or relax our ener gies in the prosecution of the war. He possess ed no authority in any manner to control these stnictions to the General in command bf the ar- mv ; ana in me event yi a treaty uciu tuuuiuu ed and ratified on the part of Mexico, he.was di rected to give him notice of that fact On the Happening of such contingency, and on receiving notice thereof, the General m command yas in structed by the Secretary ol War. to suspend further active military operations until further orders. These instructions were given with a view to intermit hostilities, until the treaty thus ratified by Mexico could be transmitted to Wash ington, and receive the action of the Government of the Uriited States. The commissioner' Was also directed, on reach- gtate tQ the -m,ster 0 foreign Attairsor mexi co, and, on receiving it, the General was mstrub tori inr thpRprmtarv of War to cause it to be ':..! f,. ua ??.rT,nn,inr r,'f jKp Mpirn fnf - T 1 ces, with a request that it might be transmitted to his government. sp . . . m. to - im-! i. ul lne commissioner uiuiioi ruuiiii iini.iiuau-4uai- nf thp nrmv until nftPr another brilliant vie- ters oi the armv torv had crowned our arms at Cerro Gordo. 10 "v " - . The despatch which he bore from the Secre tary of War to the General in command of the armv. was received bv thatofficer, then at Jalapa, ! on the seventh day of May, 1847, together with lne despatch from the Secretary of State to the fljnjster 0f Foreign Affairs of Mexico, having i ' , r . um Cnm Vom r.Mi-7 TIip The i Deen LranoIIlIlLcU IU mm iiuii vv. commissioners arrived at the head quarters of the .r-:.- rinninrls TIc nrpRPnpp with t i,a irmv nn,l his dinlomatic character were made knoWn to the Mexican government from Puebla, the twelfth of June, 1847, by the transmission of, ISUIUiUIUttlllt Luaiuwici iimu , - t knoVn to the Mexican government from rueuia, the despatch from the Secretary of btate to uie Minister of Foreign affairs of McaIco: Many weeks elapsed after its receipt, and no overtures were made, nor was any desire express ed by the Mexican government to enter into ne gotiations for peace. Our army pursued its march upon the capital, and, as it approached it, was met by formidable resistance, uur iorces nrsi encounLeiuu mc cu- pmv. and achieved sicrnal victories in the severe ly Contested battles of Cohtreras and Churu.busco. It was not until tnese acuuns uau iquhw cisive victories, and the capital of the enemy was within our power, that the Mexican government manifested any disposition to enter into negotia tions for peace, and even then, as events have proved, there is too much reason to believe they were. insincere, and that in agreeing" ta'go tlrfoagh the'forms of negotiation, the object was to gam time to strengthen the defences of theif capital, and to-pfepare for fresh resistance. The General in command of the army deemed it expedient Co suspend hostilities temp rarily.by enteriii!? into an armistice, with a view to the opening of negotwtioaa. Commiseioriera were missioned on the part of the United States. The result of the conference which, took, place between these functionaries of the twb.govebnientfl Was a failure.to conclude a treaty of peace. 1 The. commissioner bf the United States took with him the project of a treaty" already prepared, by the terms of which the indemnity required by the United States was a session of territory. It is well known that the only indemnity which it is in the power of Mexico to make in satisfaction of the just and long deferred claims of our citi zens against her and, the only means by which she can reimburse the United States for the ex pehses of the. war, is a cession to the United States of a oortioh of her territory. Mexico has jio money to pay, and no means of matting the re quired indemnity. If we refuse this, we can obtain nothing else. To reject indemnity, by re fusing, to accept a cession of territory, would be to abandomall our just demands.and to wage the war, bearing all its expenses, without a purpose or de finite object. . A state of war..abroga tea. treaties previously existing between the belligerehts'.and a treaty of peace puts arr end to all claims for indemnity--for tortious acts committed, under the authority of one government against the citizens or sub jects of another, unless they are provided for in the stipulations, A treaty of peace which would terminate the -existing war without providing for indemnity, would enable Mexico-r'tne acknowl edged debtor, fd herself the aggressor in the war to relieve her from her just liabilities,. By such. a; treaty, our citizens,, who hold just demands against her, would have no remedy either against Mexico or their., own governmont. Our duty to these citizens must forever preventuch a peace, and no treaty which does not provide a.mple means of discharging these demands can receive myiSanctiori. A treaty of peace should settle all existing differences between the two countries'. .If an ad e'dtiate bession of territory should be made by such a treaty, the United. Slates .should release Mexico from, all her liabilities, and assume their payment to our own citizens. If, instead of this, the United States were to consent to a treaty by wliich Mexico should :aga,in engage to pay the heavy amount.of indebtedness which .a .just h demnity.. to oiir government and our citizens would impose on her, it is notorious that she docs not possess the- means to in'eet such an underta king. From such a treaty no result could, bean ticipated, but.the fame irritating disappointments which have: heretoforejattended the violations of similar treaty stipulations on the part of Mexico Such a treaty would be but a.temporary cessation of hostilities, without the restoration of the friend ship and good understanding ,which,should char acterize the future intercourse between the two countries. ' ' ' . '"!. That Congress: contemplated the acquisition -of territorial indemnity when that body made provis ion fb.r the prosecution of j the war, isi-obvious. Congress could, not have; meant wh,en, in May, 1846, they appropriated 4ten millions of dollars, and authorized the President to employ the mili tia and naval and military forces of the Unjted States, and to accept. .the services of .fatty -thou- sand, volen teers, to .enable, him to .prosecute the war": arid when, at the.last session, andafter, our army had invaded Mexico, they made additional appropriation and authorized .the raising of addi tional troops, for trie same purpose that no in demnity .was to, be .obtained from Mexico at the conclusion of the war; and yet it was certain that, if no Mexican territory was acquired, no indemnity could be obtained. It is further manifest that Congress contempla ted territorial indemnity, from the fact that," at their last session, an act was passed, upon the Rvpontifp. rfidnmmendation. aonrdbriatin three millions of dollars with that express object. 1 his mm w w v w - ------ 7 I 1 1 U appropriation was maue yio enaajejuie ncaiuciu tp conclude a treaty bf peace, lirfiitsand bounda ries with the Republic of Mexico, to be itsed by him in the event that said treaty, when signed by the authorized agents of the two governments, I TV ' and uulv fatineu dv iffed by Mexico, shall call for the ex- ' penditure of tne same, or any part thereof. li e V1 u?nm wa cfafnrl in flip KPViT.il mpssaaPH ori the SUDlCCt - - : --u - which I communicated to Congress. feimiJar ap- i iono l propriations made in 1803 and 1806, which were referred to, were intended to be applied in part consideration for the cession of Louisiana and the J?loridas. ... In like manner it was anticipated that, in set tling the terms of a treaty of "limits and boun daries" with Mexico, a cession of territory esti- ; muted to be of greater value than tne amount qi .our demands against her might be obtained, and mat uie prompt, payment- oi. yuis. .o.um . consideration for the territory ceded-on the con- w.-. j . I 1 ! I !4 ..4ihnntiAn nn not niPf ; ciusion oi a ueuiy,aiiu ii8uuu..iu.w . , elusion of a treaty, and its ratification on might be an inducement with her to n: ) migill UK UH UlUUUUlllliUL Willi ni w iiiwn. uu.. L .or.;,,. a(" .nrfitni-ir n c i.T-.lll(1 lip Cfl t isfil P t (T V tf the United States." And although the failure to conclude such a treaty has rendered it unneces sary to use any part of thcthree millions of dol lars appropriated by that act, and the entire sum remains in the treasury, it is still applicable to that object, should the contingency occur making such application proper. The doctrine of fib' territory is the doctrine of no indemnity ; and, if sanctioned, would be a pub lic acknowledgment that our country was wrong, aritf that the War declared by Congress with ex traordinary unanimity, was unjust, and should be abandoned ; an admission unfounded in fact, and degrading to the national character. The terms of the treaty proposed by the United States were, not only just to Mexico, but, consid ering th(k fihafnrHer and amount of our claims, the uniiifitiGable and unorovoked commencement of hostilities by hor, the expenses of the war to which we have been subjected, and the success which had attended our arms, were deemed to be of a most liberal character. . The commissioner of the United States wai authorized to agree tothe establishment of the Rio Grande as the boundaryffrom its entrance into the. r. r : vi t Girlf to its intersection with the southern boundary ofeMejeico.; is.nor.th latitudo about thirty-two dbgrees, and to obtain a cession to. the l'nited States of the provinces of New Mexico arid.tlle Californias, and the, privilege of the right of way across the isthmds of Tehuante'peq. The,b'oqnr darv of the Rio Grande, and the cession to the United States of New Mexico and Upper Califor nia, constituted an ultimatum which our commis sioner wasr under hb qircumstanc'es to,ytield. . That it might be manifest not only to Mexico, but to all other nations, that the United States were not disposed.to take advantage cf a feeble power, by insisting upon wrestirig frdrh" her all the other provinces, including many of. her prin cipal towns and cities, which we have conquered and h'eld in ouc military occupation,, but were willing to conclude a treatyin a spirit-of, liberal ity, our commissioner was authorized to stipulate for the restoration to Mexico of all our other con quests. ! t . As the territory to be acquired by the boundary proposed might be estimated to be of greater val .ue . than ax.fair equivalent.for our just demands, our commissioner was authorized to. stipulate, for the payment of such additional pecuniary considera tions, as was deemed reasonable. 1 he terms of a treaty proposed by the Mexican commissioners were wholly uhadmissibje, They negotiated as if Mexico were the victorious, and not the vanquished party. They must ..have known that their ultimatum could nevefc.be ac cepted. :It required the United States to dismem ber Texas, by surrendering to Mexico that part of .the territory of that State lying, between the Nueces and the Rio Grande, included within her limits by her laws when she was an independent republic, and when she was. annexed to the Uni ted States, and admitted by Congress as one of the States of our Union. ft contained no provision for the payment by Mexico of th,e just cIaims,of our citizens. It re quired indemnity to Mexican, citizens for injuries they may have sustained by our troops in tlie nmsRciition of the war. It demanded the right for Mexico to levy and collect (the Mexican tariff) bf duties on goods imported into her. ports :Vtii!e in our military .occupation during the war, and the-, owners of which Had paid to officers of the United States tbe .military contrib.utipnsj.w.hich had been levied upon them ) and it "offered to cede to.tfie-United States, for a; pecuniary considera tion, that part.of, California lying north of lati tude thirty-severi "degrees. Such were the un reasonable terms proposed by tbe Mexican com missioners. ..;.. '.:....." . . . The cession to. the United States by, Mexico; of provinces of New Mexico and the Californias, a? proposed tothe commissioner bf the United States, it was believed, would be more in accordance with tfie cdnveiiiehc'ef ,a'n.d. inte.rqstsqf, bbj.h J?ar tions', than any .other, cession of territory which it wis probabjeqsicp could tbe ind.uce,d to, make, s - It iaanifest taail who have observed the ac tual condition of the Mexican government, for some .yearg .pst, and, at present, that if these provinoes should be retained, by her, she could not .long, continue to hold and govern them..-r-Mexicols too feeble a power to govern these., pro vinces, lying as they do, at a distance of more than a thousand miles from her capital and, if at tempted to be retained by herthey, would consti tuted but for a short time, even nominally, a part of her dominions. , . , -. ?. . This would especially ..be the case with Up oer California: . The.sajracity of powerful Euro pean nations has long since directed their atten tion to the commercial importance of that prov ince, arid there carl, be little, doubt that the md ment thetJnited States fehajl relinquish their pres ent occupation of it, and their claini to it as an indemnity, an effort would be, made by some for eign Power to" possess it, either by conquest or by purchase, lr no loreign government, ,snoum j acquire it.jn. either of these mddes, an iydepeil-, dent revolutionary government would probably be established by the inhabitants, and such for eigners as rnay.rernainjn or remqve to the coun try, as soon as it shall be known that the .United States hatfe. abandoned it Suci a government would be too feeble Idiig to maintain its separate independent existence, and would finally be an nexed to', or b2 a" dcitenent colony of some more powerful State. , Should any foreign government attempt to possess it as-a colony, ot otherwise to incorporate it with itself; the principle avowed by President Monroe in 1824, and. reaffirmed in my first annual, message, that no foreign power shall, with our consent, be permitted to plant or establish 4 any new colony or dominion on.any part Of the North American continent, must be maintained. In maintaining this principle, and in resisting its invasion by any fo'reigfi' power, vve .rnight be. in volved in other wars more expensive and more difficult than that in which we are now engaged. The provinces of New Mexico and the Cali per, nro rnntiminnH to the" territories of the United States, and if brought under the govern ment of our laws, their resources mineral, ag- riculturai,manujaciui'ing uu wuhhciuhu ""'u soo'a be developed.' TJoper California is bounded on the north bv our Oregon possessions ; and if held by the United States would soon be. settled by a hardy, enter prising, and intelligent portion of our population; The bay of San Francisco, and other harbors along the California Coast would afford, shelter for our navy, for our numerous whale ships, ana nthp.r merchant vessels emnloved in the Pacific ocean, arid would, in a short period; become Vhe marts of an extensive a'fVd profitable coriimerce with China, and other countries of the. Bast. Thesa advantatres. in which the whole com mercial world would participate would at oaCq be secured to the United States by the CJVidh 0f this territory ; while it is certain that, 0g. as it remains a part of the Mexican orinriions, They can be erii ployed neither by 'leico herself noY by any other nattoh. New Mexico i", a frontier orovincei wd. has never been of foy V'Oiiderab0 value tQ ftlwio Vrnm it localitv. it is naturally connected with our westera settlements. The territorial limits of the State of Thxas, too, as defined by her jaws heforieiheradrjlission into our Union; em: brace all that portion of New Mexico lying east of the Rio Grande, while Mexico still claims to hold this territory as a part of her dominions. The adjustment of this question of boundary is important. , . 4. There is another consideration Which' induced the belief that the. Mexican government t rnight even desire to place this, province under tlie pro tection ot the government of the United States. Numerous bands of fierce and warlike savages wander over it, and Upon its .borders ; Mexico ha been, and mqst cqntinue to be, too feeble to re strain them from committing depredations, rob beries, and murders, not only upon the inhabit tants of, New Mexico itself, but. upon those of the other.. Northern States and Mexico. It would be a ble'siiig Vo all these Northern Slates to have their citizens; protected against them by the pow er of the United States. At this moment, many Mexicans,, principally feniales and children', are iju .'captivity among them. If New Mexico were held and governed by the United States, We could effectually prevent these tribes from committing such outrages, and.conipelt them to release these "captives; arid restore theni to their families arid friends. ... In proposing to acquire New Mexico and tne Californias, it was known that but an incorisideri able portion bf- trie Mexican people would be transferred with them, the country embraced within these provinces being chiefly ari uriirihal) iteU region. These were the leading considerations which induced me to authorize the terms of peace which were proposed, to Mexico. They were rejected ; and', negotiations being at ari end, hostilities were renewed An assault was made by our gallant army upon tlie strgngly-fbrtiried plates near thd gates of the city of Mexico, and upon the city jtself ; and after several days of severe conflict; the Mexican forCes, vastly superior in numbers to" our own, were uriven irom uie uitjr uu i. wuo occupied by our troops. . Immediately after information was received UF the unfavorable result of the negotiatia'tiori's", ue li,evip.that his continued presence with lite ar--my could be produbtive of ho good, 1 detenhined to recall our commissioner. A despatch to thi3 effect was transmitted to him on the sixth of Oc tober .last. Trie Mexican government will bo informed df his recall ; & that i.nthe existing state of things, I shall not deem it prpper to make any further overtures .'of peace, but shall be at all times ready to receive and consider any proposal which may be made by Mexico. Since the libera,! proposition of the United S.tates was authorized to be made in April last large expenditures have been incurred, and the precious blood of many of tiur patriotic fellow "pitizeha his. been shed in the prosecution of the1 jwar. This, consideration,. and the obstinate per severance of Mexico in-protracting the war, must influence,.. the tennis, bfpeace which it may be deemed proper hereafter to accept. Our arms having.been everywhere victorious haying subjected to our military occupation a large portion of the. enemy's country, including his capital! and negotiations for peace having fail ed, the important questions arise in what mati- her' tll'e war ought to be prosecuted 1 And what, should be our future policy 1 I cannot boubt that we should secure and renderavauaoie tne conquest which we have already made ; and thatj with thia viewi ye should hold and occupy, by bur naval and military forces, all the ports; towns, cities, and provinces now in our occupation, or which may hereafter fall into our possession ; that we should push forward our military occupations and lew such military contributions on the ehemy as may, as far as practicable, defray the fbtu-re ex penses of the Svaf." , . . - Had the government of Mexico acceded to tho. equitable and liberal terms proposed, that mode: of adjustment would have been preferred. - Mex ico having declined to do this and failed to offer any other terms which could be accepted by the Uriited States, the natidnal honor, no less than the public interests, requires that the war should be prosecuted with' increased energy and power un til a just and satisfactory peace can be obtained. In the moan time," as Mexico refuses all indemni ty, we should adopt measures to indemnify our selves, by appropriating, permanently, a portion of her territory. Early after the commencement of .tlie war, New Mexico and tire Californias were tak'eri possession of by our forces. Our military arid naval commanders were- ordered to conquer and hold them, subject to be disposed of by a ifeaty ot peace. These provinces are now in our undisputed occupation, and have beefn so for many montlia; all resistance on the part of Mexico having ceas ed within their limits. I am satisfied clp.t ihev should never be surrendered to Mexico. Should Congress coricdr with me in. this opinion, and that they should be tetaice'by tlie United Stales as indemnity, I Can perceive ',io good reason why the civil jurisdiction ami laws of the United States? should not a on,ce be extended over them. To' wait for a treaty 0f peace, such as vve are willing to make., Dy wnieh our relations toward them wouM , e changed, cannot be good policy ; whilst op-f own inteest, and that of the people inhali'.Vmg them, require that a stablej responsible, &nd free government undar our authority should, Cts soon as possible, be established over them. Should 'Congress, therefor determine to hold these provinces permanently, and that they shall hereafter be considered as constituent parts of our f'uuntrv.tlie early establishment of territorial gov- ernments over tnem win u milium. more.perfect protection of persons and property ; and I recommend that Buch territorial govern- ments be established. It will promote peace and tranquility among the inhabitants, by allaying all apprehension that they WstiU entertain ,of be ing again bjectwI U the juriadiction of Mexico. tZii .fpobtcd on lA ft of Mexico, to meo tbe co. 1 I!