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MKDMID IP A E. Ei A U H UJ MI
Be jut and fear not: L.etall the ends thou aim'st at be thy country's, thy Cod's, and truth's.--. Henry f
HOLLO W A Y
l8.0 0 IX ADVANCE.
RICHMOND, IA., SATURDAY MORNING, FEBRUARY 27, 1811.
Voluem XI. No. 8.
Whole Nc.mbeu 528.
SPEECH OF MR. WHITE, OF INDIANA;
On the Lund Question.
Delivered in the Senate of the fnited States,
January VMh, IS 11.
Mr. While said: However imperfectly I feci
mvself able to discuss this subject, I nm con
scious, nevertheless, that in deciding upon it, I
occupy an impartial position. Indians, in her
progressive advance from a wilderness state to
tho dignity of tho fourth or fifth momber of the
Union, has reached thai period in her history.
when she may hold with n steady nail on equal
hand tho scales of interest
States and iho new. While,
then, I listen with
Ion w 1 1 h '
. r. . i :,u..t;n
i.n t.lr r-onnsoU i
I o ...i.Ippi i
w n n 11 rnv nun ' nniiii n i' . u u vu i '
.L.. u : vAtnleh.ps at a time, has been always rep
wnoso growing ax....u.. 'V" "
Senators wnh such apprehension ns even to I
iusiifv precipitate and
immature legi.lat.on, I f
shall endeavor so to record my votes
1 .: . 1. c . ... n a I. Dnoi irn tri I fin
new Sta es all the equity thay claim.nnd to the out
., , . . . , . 1. ... n ,u
a the right which they challenge, and to all tne
' , , r , ., i,v,,. im
States an advantage of iho most momentous im-
1 1 1 fr.i-n !
II . . 1 1
(...n'rrA,n thn nnii-Mdi of our boun-I
la our plan of Oovernmeut, sir, simple as its;
olihct ami as well defined as its p-.rposci nrc,
" . . . . ;
........ i ..:.... .' ,.. .. !.., .,....,; r.fi
r. "?...u.r .,, .1 . . ,l. . i.n ii,
,1 II vouit-iiv.i'ni.ti . ' - '
Republic in principles, our rtil.il ion.- wnh ihc In
tli in tribes. iur oarlial svslein '.I dmneslic slave
ry, and our provincial or tcrriiori.il system, are all
foil enough of perplexities to p it 1 hi experiment
of Government to its severest tri.il. Indeed, sir,
parties have tendency lo organize themselves
no! so much tipnn measures of p ilicy a? upon ab
stract (pillions f conlil ition .1 oinsiructi n .
Thi-i ten I.Micy if party is greatly mj u i.m,
bv proJ'U'liig polilic il sophism an I re!i n.- l llieo
rie, which override every practical power for
go i I co'crmd bv o.jr (J !.
The land question i-i ii 'i properly a question of
power. ;i:id ''- ia' i Iciml v it mvnlvrs co.indor
nlioiis f th it "h trader. Ocr tho publn; l m am
whifh lin within tin; limits of ha orginiZ"d
States, thj United States seem to h ive something
in n; tli tu . I simple property j irisdic t ion, or a
inert) private ownoislnp. This isprovcil by their
lii'htto make !-iws for in conveyance ari l govern
ment, and bv their power lo protect their posses
sions, and to determine all q lesu ns concerning
those lands in coorls of thr-ir own creation. S irh
powers iiro appurtenant to u species of terrirui i il
scv reig.il v
I concur fullv with Senators who have ascribed
so groat importance in the 1110:1" ire 11 nv i.ef ire
119. If we reirird it uisrelv :u i '"!""1 f fi
nance, it carries n (jrave and sen ms import.
Not Ihe least nm -ig Hie high f m'M 1 .en of G
emmont is its power lo raise an I expend 111 me v.
Next to the power lo declare war, nnd to place
under the arbitrament of 1 he sword Ihe life and
fortune of ihe citizen, ihe pawer to raise rev. nun
is iho highest prerogative of sovereignty. e-
il imtorlinee is it it wo have respect i 111c
O uesll ill ol noitulation
f io;ul.tion or seiilcmenl an.l ot s 0-
ci il org inizition. These duliculnes are laerea?
d by the modium through which Sn it ors i h e.so
I th.i snl-i-ct. While the Senttor liom
Missouri f Mr. B:u 1 couiplaias thil new
not treat the public domain as a fund lor revenue, j
the Senator Iro n Tennessee, Mr. Anders .11 con- ,
lends that it is bv no means n be eoiis-idered as a .
question of fi iat.ee. Concurring f i'ly. as I do, !
with ihe hoimr ihic Senator wh imro luced the;
bk'd now on oor lal.li-, in the projriely C a pef'
m ancnt pre cmption law, 1 protest against lite j
j 1st ire of his rem irks with which ho accompanied j
lis introduction, and to which 1 shiil lnvo 00c a - i
sion hereafter tu advert. My pnpo.-..) now, is
merely tocxres3 my regret thit a measure so
interesting, and 1 may tol l bent li n', ns ihe final
ilispnsition of our public d im kin, could not bo pre
sented to this bod v by the dominant parly, with
out a conj ir ition of mil aences well calculated to
dstorh the h irmon V of our legislation mil ien
ces which have lately been arouse 1 in iho conflict
of contending parties, nnd which hue ex;iendd
themselves in the must con lusivo demonstrations
at tho ballot-box.
To o:io nr all of those causes it is owing that
our statute book groins under tho weight of en
actment iri regir.lto the m inagem.int of our land
svstem. Since the cdinial and agrariin system
f Rome, no nation has half such a complication
of laws regulating its domain. It may well le
conceived Ifiat s extensive nnd fertile a territory
would bo a nroiilio subtect ot legislation. U ir I
"entire domain is cim;iiit'l at 1,0.".",."3J,23"2 ncres
of land, to about 4.0lOJO ,001.1 of which the Indi
an title lias been extinguished, nnd remains nnex-
tingtiished to near 700,00i),000 ol acres. Of .his
vastdom.in, about seven ninths lies ensf, nna
two-ninths west of the Rocky mountains- As
yet we have sold to individuals a little upwards!
of eighty millions of acres; and if we ndd to that,
grants and reservations lo Slates, indiv iduals,ote.
there will stiil remain more than 1 ino hundred
millior.s of acrrs in which tho United States has
a proprietary interest.
Nature stamns noon these tccmin-T acres theirl
uses tor iho abode of mm, ami for the develop j Office, arc off.-rded at fixed rates. .No part of our pregnant, that it seems alnost supcrfl ions to ao
rnenl not only of ihe physical but of the moral; revenue except from land is raised in the sham-i d.jce ihc authority of other Governments whi'h
and intellectual energies of tho Cmcasian race, i hies. Government offers none of its favors, none ( have uniformly extended lie kindest protection
Extending to the shores of th Ririfi,- mvn. iho . of its privileges, to the cuniditv of wealth save I towards their infant settlement. From the lime
retiring savngo shall give place to the Anglo-Six-i 'he domicil of the poor man, of wn.ch, bv con
on, to illustrate in the face of the wor'd, and up- quest or purchase, il has become the lord para
on tne last great drama wnre it can be seen, the1
i:iumphs of civiliz ition, of liberty, and of rch
.urtrnuy, upon a consiceranic pari oi una c.
l t.. - -l t t . -r .. . .
main, h ive theso great purpose? begin their nr.
complishmont. Of the territory above mentioned,
an area of about two hundred and fitiv millions of
acres his been organized into Republican Sutcs;
and nine more Stars of viram lustre shine resoles-
dent in the galaxy of the Union.
The bill and amendments befrf us contemolito
. . . , . ..
permanent and conclusive adjustment ol ihe in-
terest of the United States in this domain; and
from the rronoral vlour ivhik u- hovn inL-en rX
its uses nod of the nature of the tru?t with which
.urz i in..ci in .or,r.r.I to it. we
are prepared to discuss the several principles and ! from every source, including the twenty-five mil
details nvolv.d in the bill and proposed afncnd-, lns of Treasury notes wh.cn have been ..sued,
i could not stand ihe shock of yielding up its gains,
From the beginning of our land policy, settle- j derived in this very way. Is it more in ihe na
ment and occupancy seem to have been .ho ob-! lore of bounty to gi.e these lands for a fixed price
ject of the Government. It is true thai largesses i to the first nccupa,., to the most .ndustr.ous c.
have never been proposed, nor bounties awarded, ! J.zen, than to the walih.es .who may perchance
to induce ..cultivation of our wild domain. On , more than they are worth ? But ... what re
.heo.her hand the Government has, with all pos- pect this systen unjust to the people of the
silde expedition, from time to time extmguished j old States? . Certanly the lands are not a fuod
the Indian title, and thrown .he lands into mar-; for indiv.dual aggrandizement and profit. What
i . tuiui..;,.....-.,! nn ,l,nr ,.i.i.n.! e v e r relat ion the Government, as the trustee of
.-,-. 1 ,h wnv nf ,-
AC l lltUC'li i.iu.m ii.iiiwii, i.u J
- ' ;,.. ... ,v..i,.rn,;o..v.f
ta f C.t!i,r... !
compact masses, bv town-!
en always repudiated. The 1
tn" western lands in
. . .
Government has incurred na expend to protect,
--y " V' . V .. V ..S . I !
rnvo oepn (.'sniuusuvw upon uui in'iinui ..nu ...iv
lff In he crimn rmr ii mill tl irilL' SUM' I (it liliil-
... . . 1 , ' ,,
vid'jal resolution which d ired to encounter the;
... .1 r .
ohslac cs of nature and the terrors ot tho forest,
. . 1
to defend the pioneers against the marauding in-1
c,,rsi"9 of ,l,e,r MVS88 neighbors.
"e nlle ,
. . 1 . 1 ' . .1 .,.'11 -
. nn.t llm nxn lirive. friiii" 1 1 n n-1 ll i-r mill lh WillJr- i
' h h
" -- ,
ie "o co. cn wue. ur . P,eo, i
left the couch
tj r r iri iirtrir4 tu rt nick wimjuaiiiiMI iviu u i: i i -
over the labors ot the backwoodsman while en
ffaged in his daily and toilsome task, and to give ,
tho fi-'at alarm agan.si tho treachery m toe Ind
nn; ami tne nour 01 mtumgui repose ims ociii
rendered secure oi.ly by the guardianship of the
hunter sentinel. j
In such a way as this, sir, have your great
tramontane valleys been fettled, until now secu-1
rity h is succeeded to d inger, nnd the alarms ol !
a border war are drowned in iho noi-sy tread ol ,
rommei-ce and of speculation. The pioneer li i j
borno tho dangers of tliu ail venture ; shall lie not j
rear its honor.- and rewards? Unaided, nnregar-j
dud, i!iiiccompen?e(t, he has laid in virtue and j
in peace the foundations of several id your
m ist powerful States, strengthened tho bonds
of your (J.mfcderac v, added new inlet cms to your
. I a e I . t . . ... I I
commerce, augmented s mrcrs lo your revenues,
security to vour liberties and fresh glory to your
empire. Will yo.. now withdraw from him your
patronage when fi.'st it begins lo be valuable; or
rather, will you not confirm to htm his nnctaul
rfrirlor? Is Ihe same wise and liberal policy vet
to continue, of covering this continent with Re
publican Slates, or is the sordid gripe of avarice
to arrest this march of civil liberty towards its
utinnst destination? Is ibis p iternal Government
willing to utlopt ihe motto: 'Quacrenda pecunia
pnmurn c.st-virtus ptnummos, lo postpone the
highest interests ot Its people to a couaiuci auoi.
til .revenue; !m,l ninfi-
f . . . . . i ... l . (
14 re ma iv i wie- in 1 1 10 uh.....t. v . ,
...i,ni lioin the bia'.es. nnd .11
both the treaties
wuli France and Spain for the purchase of Liui
sini i and Florid 1, guarantees are contained, se
curing to iho people of the acquired territory ;
Il-puMican form of government, nnd free and
c 1 i.il admission into ihc Union. If, then, ev en
in nor foreign negotiations this appears lo be a
f and amcnl iT id j -ct, let us not thwart, bv our do
mestic poocy, ihe otrl est attainment of so great
an end. Let revenue be u mere incidental con
sideration, or in the expressive and simple Ian-
rr ,..c of a member of the first Congress, "let ns ;
make the best ot liberty, our popic,.mu " "
Senators object to the pre-emption policy main
ly upon ihese grounds:
1. That it injures our exchequer by diminish
ing the price received for 1 lie land?.
2. Tint, by conferring privileges ar.d bounties
upon tho people of the new Stales, it is partial
in its operation, and unjust to tho pcoplo of the
3. That it produces an unnatural and forced;
drain upon ihe population of the old St;tcs;nnd
-1. That it engenders a spirit of insubordination
to the laws, und will lead to mischievous riots and
excesses by tolerating a scramble for the public
lo the first objection I reply that, beioro the
t.tr-mnr r r . rv c I i n O I .1 W S lirili n-IPflllPi I ft .1 H V PX
ki ..vflr..ro "n. xvhi.-U tho l.m.U "havfi'l
been sold since the tTrcscnt minimum price was!
established, is about one dollar and thirty cents
..a ..rrn Thp incil n id r rn I d f Iiicq "if fl V n conlS
nor acre, does not weigh a feather in tho scale
ag.inst tho equity of pre-emption. To appease
even tho ill-founded complaints of a -single State
having public lands within its borders, you ought
not to hesitate lo make so small a sacrifice. You
have assessed tho value of the lands at 1 5
per acre. Why should you expose them to sale
at auction? Many of those lands are not worth
the minimum price, and yet you refuse, and for
. i i ti
it-ioiI reasons, tograuuate incm uown waros. ivny
! should you cradu.it; them upwards?
Inany do -
partment of business there are evils in the auc
tion system, nnd it ought tu be avoided when il is
possible lo do s a. Il is iho pirent frequently of
miiious speculation, arising from an undue com
petition which such an occasion generally arou
ses. Lpon ihe commerce ol our citizens we lav
an equal dutv, and do not sell the protection til"
our navy to the highest bidder. The facilities of
ihe public mail, and the privileges of the Patent
The second objection assumes what I cannot
grant, "that the right cf pre-emption is a lwunt
or a pnv
Metre. 1 ho nre-cmntor pavs a lair e-
quivadont fur his right, of more value in the end
'ii tne u.ivrrnnii'tit than the niftier nne wnicn
.u ..... 1 ,-.
now the orgnmentof inereasrrt resources nndang
'lie cnniln I is t imnht lint it miction. 1- ..rpfoinf
mented national wp.-.'.ih. nroduced hv ronvrvino-
f the lands to the actual occupant and cultivator. 1
' urge the consideration of enhanced value gi ven
.L. .j: . ..
n nej iceni lanus uy improvements in tneir
much the sale of this class
of lands has been hastened htr mrh ...cc it i
; impossiblo to etimat,- but I venturo the asser-
Hon that your ireasury,
enriched as it has been
. , , . 4 . . .
the lands, bears tone stairs, uV
riplesof equity, whnh I shall by and by discuss, it
un'er no obi. nation to parcel the domain
,percapUa among the md.v.duat masses ot
the V'H1- 1 he prop f the old States remain-
arnontr the individual
ing sucn, cannot complain i.i n a punm-ise is u--nied
to them fr purposesof investment nod spec
ulation, (I do not hko tha-vord,) which is allowed
to him who U willing toj in the n-w community
in the wildernesf, to lay us hearth-stone, and to
buiid his altar there. If the Government does
not hold these lands in trust; for individual advan
tage, then it has a right 10 fix what principles it
1 f .1 : 1 , T;r.citi.-n ;iAfl snriil u
ileuses mr meir sue uuu m.'.-i , ...... 7
. . . , ' . ,t.i, ,h,.. ,.r;.
1 1 0 C0 III M ! I II l Uil II IIS II V B lll'iuv '
I . .. .
.- ll.ufliic;1',l'lT'',,v,,,', ,T . .. -- 1
rn I.-,., .,,1 1 ,r In I 111 r: rllSt tie V (: lOllOtlie II I
f S()CIil, and 0ii,i..a svstem,
find to tho iii-
rrens0 of ,,ut,(bi,;n wilhin lllo imi,3 of the new
Territory. Of this I defy refutation.
I nm willing to accord a character ol piausunii-
11. 1,. tho third .d-oo-iimi 10 ure r mot ions a hove cnu- i
mnr-ito-l P.-rh.-.s i !i r t e n t e il c v ol American en-
tcror.so is loo much to a d; T.si ve population. To '
evcrv section of the Union iho Government owes 1
an equal patmnage, and no pat riot ic oil izetl of the
West would desire to seehisown suction built 00
at the expense of the sister Stales. K-mccially
would no western slatesmm coiioorJ h:...3cl( i
his conlituents by tho enaeluient of partial laws. ;
The chain of dependence is such between the most
distant port ions of our C mfedeiacy, that one can
not be irj iriuiisly afl'ected wiiiioui sensible loss
in the other. It is impossible, however, to res
train ) lie e 10 iiT rat ing spirit of our coon t ry men, nod
i no belter rule can bo adopted than to leave each
to follow Iho.e tmpulses which point to
IMS Owll PIOslOTIlv itilll It.l I lllir.ia. ..IIIH :
w:.r,U ol, ;.r,. i ill rich and fertile plains !
Wh o the re-
. e . " '. ...,..;., t, ib.. !
west of tne mountains, are more templing i '"e ,
citizen than the appropriate pursuits to which
lhosc are destined who remain in the Atlantic
States, it would be wrong to cheek thai viiiuous
ambition which is emulous lo reach thern. Let it
be remembered that agriculture is almost the 11
twvnrsal nut-siii 1 of the Western cmiirrant : and the
more this proportion of our population increases,
the more our real independence is secured. I am
mH'WSnbiUh de.ii'edlhe pn'JjS-
live quality in ihc operations of commerce and to j Louisiana, in till probability, would not havo been land system, approved by ihc experience ol forty
the labors of ihe artisan. B it I do contend that ( acquired, nor ihe navigation of tho Mississippi years," as iksiroj ing that uniformity which has
the agricultural employment is best adapted lo f secure I. Wo should not now have boasted N'ew ' conlrihuted so mucli not only to the security of
the genius of our people md to the condition of j Orleans, the peerless exporting ciiy of this conii- ' tiiles, but to the value of improvements made up
our country, nnd that it ouiit, and ever will, I j ncnt, nor would our great staple-growing r"gi m j (,n tho newly purchased lands. It transfer? tho
trust, maintain a proud preponderance. Need I I of the S uth have had iho valleys of the Upper ' muniments of title from ihe archives of this Gov
remind you sir, th if i his chus, in every emergen- ! Mississippi, iho Ohio, the Illinoi, and Wabash, lo j eminent to the custody of the Executives of iho
cv. w.il be tho prop and stiv of our republic ? j pour, free of duty , t heir abu nda nt and ceaseless ! se vc ra I States, the forms of con veyanro of course
. ' . , - . .' i. -. I i- ; i i .i i t . , - i . J r- . . .
lh.it here tho virtues wiium mai: save our msaim- i
ions will find their true nhding place, and that
sedition and misrule nevertnter tho peaceful do
micil of the husbandman?
B it there is a view of llis sul ject which takes
(iff the edge of tne objection vo aie discussing. I
is, that, although emigratim may be 100 rapid
from the old States to the tew, the nature of our
i pursuits is such that there is a constant tircul 1- j pecuniary patronage of the Government is limited with the world, their plighted faith will bo a suffi
j tion of our population. Tbmgh, in the process of u tho seaboard. In proportion 10 its number.-1, the ' cient guarantee for ihc redemption of any pecun
i ibis mu'htv provincial accretion w hi'-h has so a 3- j West is the largest lux-paving section of our : iarv obligation . But here Ihe case is very dif-
tonished us with its growth. ihe blood mav be for-
' ced through tho arteries in uiusual currents to Ihe
extremities, yet Ihe sett rcsnring ettort 01 .aiure
shall return it through a ibmsand veins lo the
! on-i lift. rim travel erfrnm lh old Slates.
nfier manydavs, will returnwiih ihe spoils of in-
l dustry, and pour the gralelu offering into the ma
A single word or two, s.", shall suffice in reply
to the fourth objection. t is in effect a beg-
ging of the quesllon;,1 for i on invito iho occu
pant i,ke possession of yaur land;, he ceases
o he a tresspasser
Your act of 1S07, forbade
passes upon the public Inds, and vet how - !
I I ' -
tie has tho moral sense of he enmmunil V been
shocked by .he frequent an.honstan.lv recurring :
violations of thai act whicl we have witnessed,
vi.iaii"ii3 . in". " ... v.
n nni,.,! c t n 1 1 m f n t r. i b n n i r . n h n s nr..- :
nounccdil a dead letter. Jan he who seeks
he who seeks a
home and a domic.il for
offend acainst nnv rule
r i i i -u :
s v lie anu ins ciiiior en
leofucietv In va n do
t, ot i't-ietj . in v.iui ...
you set up .he artificial nlhori.y nf any law
- pprobiumrest upon your, ithority from any of
the acts which ymi lear. I hat there win ue no
siriie or vioieni cmi ic n m aunniL' pc ..
. r . .1,- .nu.r,
beneficiaries of the prc-emrion law, .he expert-
ence of the past sutneienc. proves. Tho north
west corner of Indiana (willin my own observa
tion) has been settled bv pe-cmptors. A more
ordertv, industrious, or betsr regulated commu
nity is not to be found.
Tna argument in fivnrof pre-empiion is so
ivlmn the. wanoerinT Srvtlian roamed irom one
la ii ii . i(T frrooml or in?l-inf! to nii"iner, as
i.- rT I . l l .I,.;,.. from tho fieri-
Oflfi. Hllllltl. I. .11111 ..'Jill .('. ' "-- - - -
. . .u -.7r......-r .. i.i.i,..,nf,l, nncien.
S.r.,n.her hi, beer, nomercenarv legisla-ion
' ix n
Ph f., r.m.J Atrranan aws nl
Rome were designed to nidind protect the colo-
n.t. j tie states ot our ows vjhhh-'hiv ...... (
, . . .. .. i . . i a ,
; nil tier an rrenrtererl 1 hei r la nS to se 1 1 m 1 a ui a-jiu
i them at a nominal price. Vc arc all conversant
with that f..rr of nublie onition which constrain-
j ed Massachusetts to piss lavs requiring tho sue-
! cessful pi aintiff in rjectmert t? piv the occcu-
! r . - J . . . j i-rtt...
j pying claimant tor what the ifrmeu m - uener-
ments,'" answering to the
!....! ii,. iTmnrnvoments of the Western
j squatter.' A rig'To-i? po'icy against the settler
would be alike in violation of contemporary set
tlement and of all the lights of experience.
But Senators say that the new States, not
content with bearing tbe palm of successful ri
valry from ihe.r older sisters, have reailv out-
stripped themselves, and have asserted the rights
01 majority betore they have attained tno nee
oft went? -one. Grant that this is true, sir. Wc
have at least the proud satisfaction of knowing
that our greatness has not "been thrust upon us. '
It is a trophy of our 011 achieving. We glo
ry in tho fact thai, in our infancy, in our wil-
derness state, wo have earned the honors of man- j bio to my constituents, but they like no ihe Hug
hood. We boast not strength nlono, but wisdom, j under which she sails. In a word, sir, it cannot
In the ordinance ot 17S7, before the birth of j be concealed that this measure is intended lo over
your Constitution, we taught you the principles , reach the action of tho coming Administration,
of civil liberty. Il is a singular fact iha, in ; nnd either to force that administration ininnn nn
an ordinance creating a Government designed ; 1 .agonist position, or obnubilate its glories bv ih'"
10 be temporary, those great principles should ! f..r.-.i - -. ..-iuoii ma policy lor
be laid down . k o ru,.j...nentHl bisis of our so-. which ihe country was ns ripe eight years ngo as
cieiv, nnd expressed to be forever binding and ir- ' now. It matters not lo me, however, whether
revocable upon the people nnd Sta'es ihereaiier , this consummation lie achieved under ihe star of
to arise. Like Hannibal, wo were consecrated j Gen. II 11 risen, w hether it lie the concomitant of
to liberty in our infancy, anil now that our noon- that series of conservative and patriotic measures
day sun is culminating upon the continent, we J which arc to restore the character of the ngennd
conjure yon to apprehend no evil, nor to fear in- j to idcvalc our institutions, or whether, now urged
fluences. however powerful, which are tlms be-j on by influences no longer 10 bo resisted, the
nign. Lut Senators remember, when they are measure lias been precipitated upon 119 by iho
disposed to mete out iheir favors wiih a sparing ' stem virtue hich is te!i and appreciated, nnd, I
hand, under what (lifficuluef, under wh it discour- may add, feared in the character of Gen. Ilarri
ai'ements, and under what painful perils our ear- , son, i.nd by that powerful voice of the peoplo
ly seiilemenis were effected. Let them remcni- ; which Ins pronounced his election,
lier how, even in later limes, il has cost us all ' Connected with tho subject of a final fettle-
' . ..t. I .. .. . , . ...... ..- ...mil I ll.t
our resources 10 seme oow 11 a? .:. a Ur,. v
irowinug loresi. iiiu oi.nu o. .1.0..1.. . ..a- .... -
rea of op wa re's of t wen.y -t wo mill.ons of acres, nd
her citizens have already cool nlni led lo tho .Na
tional Treasury, ns the price of iheir demenses,
more thin tweniy millions of th. liars. Indiana
has barely passed her minority I I..w, uficr .-u. h
exhaustion, h is Ih. ir industry been taxed to cul
livate and stock their farms to procure that boun
tiful subsistence which an Amcricaii citizen de
mands! You have ' con reminded, sir, by way of check
ing too gratuitous a spirit towards the new Stales,
1, fine hoiintv and munificence, or ns the Sen lnr
from South Carolina Mr. rrestcnj eloquently
.. . - .- .- .. I. . 1 K... ....... I.
expresses it, nt tuejusncc ..or ...... ..oc,
.1. ........ iint. 7l .0
Virginia nnd the other conceding States ... ur-
mo can he ciannec i'i inesu .' .-ui.i .uu y
renderni"- iheir rich r.ossesioii lo the Union,
reiiui.rius, ""-n ....)
Ifie new States congratulate incmteives ui m ot out nircauy accrued id nuy done ; uuu iiicautu
this result. Thev congratulate the Union. II id . States shall be exclusivtd' liable lor all charges
the States retained this territory wc f-iiauld not tint may hereafter arise from the surveys, sales,
now perhaps have been in the hands of a pater- and management of iho public lands and exlin
nal Government, boasting its redeemed guaran- goishmtnl of the Indian 1 1 tie within tho limits of
tee for our admission into tho Union. Wiskon-' sn id States respectively.'" It also provides ihat
san, Iowa, Florida, would not have held that guar-; t,c Slates may pass pre-emption and graduation
unico yet lo lis faithfully nnd speedily performed. ; laws. I shall first consider iho amendment of iho
This territory Northwest of the Ohio river would Senator from South Carolina,
i . .,,,,,,. ,k, ri.4 v..:--''n-i I object to this schento ns unsettling iho whole
supplies iiiu ner iiusou.; nms gionS 0.111011,10 oc ceviscci ny tne nutiioriues 01 these Estates.
eight?' millions of exports one-third of the cle
ment of their value.
As a representative of Western interests, I do
not complain of partial or unequal laws; but it
1 cannot be forgot ten 1 ha t commerce has its costly
(defences, and manufactures a protection ppiing -
! iniT from vour laws. Ot" necessity, almost, the
couniry, for the simple reason that not an article
of imnort is nroduced there. These drains upon
our industry we submit to with nn uncomplain- ; dissimilar to those which existed under tho old
ing temper. But we cannot forget the equity ! articles of Confederation. A principal induce
which such considerations rise when you are mcnt for abolishing the old Confederacy, was bc
called to pass laws upon subjects peculiarly nf- j cause reqnisii ions for money, (even for so serious
fectinf our interest . Our staples are the agri- j a consideration as the payment of the Iievolu
culturTil products which seem to be placed beyond lionnry debt,) made bv Congress upon the States,
the pale of constitutional protection. Compared were not regarded. The failure of a single debt
with the rragnitude of the agricultural interest, j or Siato to meet engagements imposed by lhis
all the other products of labor in this country , measure, would produce dissatisfaction, and justly
sink into utter insignificance. Commerce ha its a like remissness on the part of otheis. In every
one hundred millions of exports, and an tqual a- aspect of the case, the relation of debtor and c.red-
mount of imports, and our m .nuf, Cures doubtless
. . ..I
transccnu iiitse sums in amount ; ii.M.,.u.rl....u.uir.. -----
towering above all, ascends to two thousand mtl- upon to supply a considerable Pl.on of our cu .
.ions per annum. No nation can be pe, fec.ly in- rent revenue, it can result o..l .. d.sas.er and
,... ...,...,.mr,..t until tho crnu of i.lilnrnlirin hiill
dependent which noes noi rose ,.a .,,......-
n'.stufls; and the highest condition of social happi
'stuffs; and the highest condition 01 social nappi-
t-o ...,ri nr,,co,iiv is attained where other inte -
.c. 3 -. .. -
, : Ll . ... ...I . U
rests, to he sure, are iiourisnmg. oui worn .. ..,
. . ...... I
; 'f reriiiAn
-n - ru ney cef - ,nP
-n. ... ' "'""". . f. .
i unnri in v e i i inns in iiiu .uw., ......
bandman.'nnd our barns and granaries to furni-h to belong lo the resources ol the federal Uov
perpetual resources f-.r the life of man. No event eminent, and he who .would treat il as such, sub-
if to iho i jst animadversion of every
I n tlisior V is assoc.a i eo w 1 1 u si., u . .....- -
,v.. kim.!.icc nrcucnt nnd nrosPCCl I V. i
settlement of our Western coun'rv, bv tnuIlipK
i : .Ur.....l ....m. .ih.r-h m-in i.h-
,ng a no cneaj,,..... "l
P. .t I i!l not nress ibis topic further.
! Thr. .,r.,.nlr. f the West, exulting in their grow-
) I I . . I
I ,ng s'treng.h. expect from O-ngrcss j.st and con-
J i?k .iiiu eon-
. . . . ... .. r In
i,U, ,t ! nvt not so much rorn their power to
eniorce mem, as .mm c..oS,. ........ .
c . U .ni.niiAnnt nTinmrn.
imnm which their claims must be held by the
,ll?1eni. re Union.
i It IS m
Uter of regret ihat Ihe dignity nt these
i , . . i
claims should be disparaged, or suspicion be thrown
! upon them bv the manner ... which the present
mil wis iniriKiucni ,.....,......
emption laws become me mere .om-uau ua..,.
or are converted into nn engine for political war
. .-. i.ti . r .
fare, it is no wonder that they fail to command
.. . - .
'hit genera assent to which I hey are -
i 1 ne honorable m.m.r r- ,.,t
; remarked upon it injroductiors a Wbi(r plrtv)
j party (as he was la,e e, M11V.,, hown so
!h-rl in iho rereni Presidential canvas, so '
, f , b n, and their inmites,
. .. r.:.J,
I he was fearful they woai
; of the Administration m pre.
f a permanent pre-emptfen, and he therefore has
tened to submit the proposed measure. Sir, the
significant title prefixed to this bill, if it shall
not bo interpreted as ironical upon its) worthy
beneficiaries, has at least thai aspect i:i reference
to one of the great parlies engaged in the recent
j Presidential struggle. Certainlv, sir, either the
; bill or its title, or some other association, have
produced, in this oebatc, not a litilo rallery n
gainst the emblems adopted for pood cau.-c by the
Whigs in tho late contest. The freight with
j w hich this pre-emption vessel is laden, is acrrnta-
mn.it ,.f tl. I .1 1 j I (tli - . a .-iki-Cli Ik tl I It
..,,.. ... t,,v .a..u "WMU"i i""i" -"
Kmiim ...u-u. to ..... ...,i.. f
cd lo ihe Senate. That contained in ihe amend
ment of the honorable Senator from Kentucky,
Mr. Crittenden proposes to grant to iho nrtuul
settler, whose tsi.itf whnll not exceed the value
ot $1000, iho right of pre-emption to any quan
, lity of land not exceeding 300 acres, nnd lo dis
tribute iho proceeds of the sales of the public
lands among the several Slates or the Union in
. j 1st nnd equitablo proportions. The tuber, pro
! posed by the honorable member from South Caro
lina, Mr. Calhunn contemplates a cession of the
; publn: lands lo tho several Siatc3 within whose
, limits they lie, upon conditions, tne principal 01
...I -U .. . .1,... .1 O . .. . r. ,l. .ll i..n..tH.-
"ui.u a.e, .no ....... ....u....7 ...
; .1.. r.n..r..l f r r m o n e ir lii.fiiA nnr ri.nl nt
. . ..... ti 1 1 1 I
. Ihe gross procccos, and that the cession "shall be
mi; -j.;u'-iai v.o. i.nn. v.. . t c.
in full of tho five per cent, fund r on v part there-
( . i j
It creates new responsibilities unknown to tho
Constitution, and dangerous to our revenues.
Who can believe that tho States will meet pecun
iary engagements of this kind with promptitude?
1 our laws cannot enforce Iheir collection, nnd
j our only reliance is upon the lailh of the Stales,
; In original engagements of the several Stales
I ferent. 1 his proposition creates relations between
1 the Slates and the Federal Government, not very
; .tor between the Slates and .his uove n men , ,
I.i l.n . onrnKitlrr till I Ulllfn thai TV In t IOII IS rd I fill
. ...................... - -r - -
uiumiieiv oe ui..v...
. ..: I., t.- I t I? n..vr min!..rih
.Uinil has hem made Since ine era 01 ur onsn-
Bni - ,.,
' t..l...n nr.. I .1.4, . v. 0 (U It... fl I fhf I M.l I. tlf 1101..
,....... ..o ....... - - r -
I...... ..!!., ...a ,.f nnr BiirntiK ipvriiilr! with
e State s. From the tn'imei' t ,ha, this act was
! ' al,a ot ft oepo8ife 'cl. That Tin, (or
, M m,H:h of ., n9 wa3 d.ositc has csed
- - - - , .
i - - -
15 jt it, for any purpose, and particularly ir re
i ia ui.wi-e anil hazaraotiB
- - , . ,S ...dhtcdnCri
IllVt! "Ill ObMtO III VUllUl'l'u
' to the Union, how is ttic orgumen.
, ...... ... - K - r- . "
: ! .1.,.
i and the danger '
; ano toe uh.ikc
. . C I h t I .rirlf'tl.
oi inn i.iutuu-unc ...v ,
of ihe States have already asserted
. - r ,hi, i;nvrnmi.nt
: m.n.?' Unfile
,ha he propria eyn.
; .iri.,n,,encc thereof, is in dcrogat.on of
,,,,.;., have been held. I be
hove nt least in Alabama nnd Missouri. They
have'been advocated by prominent member, Imih
upon this floor and in ihe other branch of Con
gress. I can regard this amendment in no o;her
licrht than as an entering wedgo for the surrender
nf all the public domain to the States where it lies.
What, sir, arc the principles of the contemplated
cession. Not, surely, the employment cf the
States as agents merely of this Government for
ihe rale of ihe lands; but a transfer to them in
iheir own right, by virtue of a contract of pur.
chase. It was bo treated by the Committee on
Public Lands et the last session who were fnepdlj