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THE ICHHO TBSM3 S2.00. IK ADVANCE. Be jut aud Tear not: Let all the c-ul thou aim'i ut be tlty Couairr's thy (tod's and Truth's." D.P.HOUOWAT & CO , Publishers. RICH MONO, WAYNE COUNTY, IKD., THURSD AY, DECEMBER 27, 1855 VOL. 1.2. uVJ. J rniTEu axo rcuusHEo by .'f. lOLLCWlT.B. W. DAT1S i i. S. DRUE "" Trra wf Arrtiatas a-Mareef Si" in, Wl E"" w"M,"m, JjTTJltre ar !. r r-. 0 t'.',w".'. I'-, i (. - wm.if. l'JUS Oa " do. 60,i jll1'f'' J Hue ' Uf.VI MM". St, rjr-I.Oii.lev. and disoUysd adrertmements will be tarred price and-a -half, and lare cuts two prices rfihloe rates ..f advertisinit. Other Dot pro- liied for, chrjblo in conformity with the above rate. ova Jon m:itirnr.T, OriU, re-emly boen noted u; wita the latest stylr-.. : r toe. and we re now prepar.sl t di a 1 kin.ls tif J..D ; ZSCwU as Hks. l'.Lukuts Cimalar., liiiw. c-rd. ; Posters, rnolin il.in'i in i.iwy-o..iorj wim , BMH"' n(MJ.al;n. proontll' attfiid.-.t to. Or lcr.4 thankfully riv.wl and Addr-. llof.i.ovr AT A '. K.-r tbe 1'alladiuia IIOPKIVS 31 AUTIIA A BALLAD Of INMAXA from Ibe kitrhen, Martha Hjr.Un, a he stood therr gij,-,., to eti'ect that exclusion, are, it) my opia txhli'itkl alon, the turnpike, with her haad ion. the most important movements " wl.ich atwive her eyej; ' have enlgvd the public mind since the Kovo- ffbr alonjf the distant hill-iio her yearlinj heifer Ju;,,;, Ani W gra.i U gmwing with a mtty tigtu ot'. Th extension of Slnvery over the new Ter weei. riiories would prove f.tra! to their prosperity; All the air i full of noi-, for there i'nt any a-h.wt, And the boy with turned up paulaloooi art waiirg in the pr...; Blithely fri.lt unnumbered chicken", cackling, for thy rannot lau.Tii; Where the airy uininit brighten, nimbly U-p tbs hoi" -a!f. Gentle eye t,f Martha II ipkin-t tell mi wherefore do ye pa' 0 the land thnt being furrowed for Ihe planting of the m.'iin-r Tt'.l me tieri-foro ilown the Tiliiy, ye have tra'ed the turnpike way, far beyond the eattle-pature, and the hri"k-yrd w lU rlar ' AB: We ur.c-wpfHi Tree ni:iT oiow.ra, ma iutj iir - y i 11 mumi hi.i9 , . . ,, ,i i . i ffilh the tear oi amber dropping from the washing on ' ths lini': freckled rhrok wouhl arrest tr.e spread ol !avery, en r- Little reeketh .Martha Hopkins of ths tal-M cf enrin ; sist the power of combination now embodied the pcak. ! to make it embrace the continent from ocean Wken the numuirr'a burning oltie en tbe scanty har (0 ocean. Ph.hu'w.uTh'.dam.n on horseback riding down th.. The repealing clause of the Kansas bill is turnpik rol; ' predicated on the nullity of the clause in the Many litnM .he saw him turning, looking backward institution which ifives to Congress the pow quite forlorn, 1 ... 1 i ? .i rn m amid bw tears she left him. in tbe shadow of the er "to make regulations respecting the fern- baru. ; lories" of the United States. Yet nothing is Ere th supporting u or, ha had psod the kiln of ( clearer in the history of our Government than fcrw". , ! that this phrase, giving power to Contrress "lo Crossed the rnshinr i ollow Biver, nd had forded nuite , , . . .i n . . k 1 m.ake regulations respecting the lerritones. Aodbi Hit-boat IdaIwi taken, at the time for pork ; With the traitors of tha Wabash, to th wharf at New am Dean", Uneans. hor ha 1 h" haod Therefore watches Martha Hopkins, holding in Wk th. sound of disunt footstep, soetn, e.aotty like X-Cr.fv-pip.r.tt.Bs not a door behind her la . -.ndth0.toep,p,r.,t..,,notador beh.nd her the pans. Bat she seems to hear the rattle of his letting down tbe I Wh.oth.bu -.eyes free has btosiomrl, and your unsle plants bis corn, j bis tow. M.lltb bells of Indiaua usher iu the wedding morn. H has pictured his telatious, ea--h in Suud.iy hat aud 4k.'"i! . j . .,, , abb Bethinks he II got a carna-e, and they 11 spend a dsyiii town; will f ive, lil down to .., . "'"o". 'x " ciunori iv issildown to the first breakfast, in th cabin where I they'll Iiyo. 1. Teaderryes of Martha II jpkins, what ha got you .n such scrapi? Tis a tar that falls t i g'ittr on ths ruff! of licr cape. Ahllh.eye ol love nt.vy brighten, to b- certaiu what i; sees. Obs man looks much Pks an utie.-, whoa bull hidden bv th. tne. But her eager eyes rekindle sho forjits the pies u id ; bmd. 1 i Assh. sms a mn on hors-b.v-k. round the corner of the i w. Sow ti ..Ml... ...... . .V. U 1 v. iair: i IT:.., .. i .. . - ...... . , v ,. w j -mj j.il "ur i s.i orr. horse that cnop. ns J in Ji 'ktin"s self i :cnop. tis j ..in Ji'kson s self i s aer-i ! A- I.v r. . t s i . , - - . -' ' v. a.tvAtmi 1 in ,., . I I . .1. ... I J- i , . I "'' i.s i ;krtK. ri.. ixii iiitvt a i : : n. .an i IKjira e. .-,!. i p , ... . i- .... I... f . - .. Cochran, Missionaries of the English Mis- -ou ciHircn Society, was taken sick. c.vn.t;.; rxf" : , i j-u ii.is .....vs.! uue oi .iissloiiHries visp.eu torn, atul bservia, Rlhl., I,-; I,- ,V, n;! l.i.kii . , .,-" "'c v"it0 inei, i;e sa;j; "Jack, you have a friend there; I am glad t we that, I lH,pe To;l fiaj j.0lHi froT1 it ly by the delegations of eight States out of Ottrasees she men on horsebaek, coming down the turn- . Vgh. .twelve. Hill tiwfeouio not as John Jackson, sheransoeit well, It Was passed by the Unanimous vote of all enough; the Sutes by the Congress of 1 787, which sat wtuih knows tb sober trotting of the sorrel borsa he , . , tWjs i cotemperaneously with the Convention form- Aikcjiigt along at leisure, with bis head down, like a ing the Constitution , and that Constitution '"J"- , gave Congress the power "to make regulations Sis would know him "mid a thousand, by bis houia-madr respecting the Territories," and moreover af- Bhir,awhi;hwJrblu. woii,,n,.u,h as farmer, firm the validity of "the engagements enter wear i a' west; ed into before the adoption of the Constitu- th Vail' "f h" t"",,r4' D 1 his iJlo "hi h w j tion." by the confederation one of which By a'bUuket which was taken for that parpow from the engagements was that made by the regulation bed. . excluding Slavery from the Territories. Thus Xoneliks he the yoko of hickory on the unbroken o can the Congress of the c onfederation and the throw. Constitution united in givinga double sanction Soae amid his father's cor a 6 -Id uilitehiu the sp.-vle , , .T,i : sad hoe. j to the exelus.on. Aaialalltho apple-cult. ns, few indeed the men are The first exerted the power of enacting ?,n . . . . . , . . . . . , i Mr. Jefferson's interdict of Slavery in the Ter- Toat ean dneo w.th bun the polka, ton -h wi'.h him the ,, , , , . , , IT . ... J , , Ti.lin. ' , ritories then htldby the L nited States, to which H.ha. ,d to Marth U ipkins and sh. thinks she hears j1 bas previously given an impressive sanction him now, i by adding. " I Ins regulation shall be an ar.i- lersh knows as well as can be. that be mjant to keep cle ot Compact." ttc: and the Cnivni ion r t.7 r: V-'S" .ff s-iow!riesw;.h his property, oi whatever Tl;i,u:.. .- . . "v.a me de -j sj- aiM. l ii imii ii st-i rv oi rv.viis i, t . IU Ills is ern iciateJ han 1. an 1 wuh miU VWit a t.; 7 r. : . mises notwunsxar.aing. can iiaruiy retuse it. 1 1 1, I C!,teu'i,,ce "J-"Th sir. It WM on a:lIieS;4 l1n of th,. Mexic in ter 'l went f . U eWVl m Wl,en we ritories that Mr. Calhoun asserted this priuci- bn'hSti'fi1 UmTUeh' a"ofteQ . beginning widi the era of the Declaration of uuntot what it told roe. Last year I went r..7 - f.. -t ..i... ;. .... Z?M ?." otr where 1 remamJed two1 "onihs. v7 t ,;-4 rT ,Jea lwo "wns. hen I was halt may back oyer the wBins, v, hen I was half may back oer th Rt. I remembered that I had left my Bib! tVihinJ me - I directly turned around, and! i Bin )... k m-J" if ... . V; ! ' v cantJ bef vrTHoul Tl th ' loaad it again, and ever since that time ' X kas be en near mv breast. An. I aht thai 1 should l,.v. ,h- Kl-. . - consutuaonal rawer of Congress to pass laws "Brie.J with m-.- K t I l j ti T. , , VT, proscribing and regulating the domestic insti- tendered Dy me Administration. I hI bX V- k t h ,f i u i 'nC f ,he . Territories of the Un- e recea! of the repealing clau of i3ditmtT., i . ,, b""" ion. A3 tne opiiiim of those eminent statesmen ! ransas met paramount in tne impending Whi'st'.rt " i S r e who hold lhat Congress is invested with no test for the Presidency, all will be re ni.t ns-akin thus h .ft..r,,;r.t,.rM- ... .. -. u ' no , .. - .- lr his cou Mr an I wl'sn Ii h 1 it i i r,-".VUl ulnorKy lo VsU;e "P"1 th subject I n been lost lo tree institutions, by nkdownurnhisp,i;owenurely.xhaus- Tion of th W. Md aooa .f er died and went to his re- M.sUur U nu ! ' e t?n f ; Ireu!. the grace of M.Zl? .blVi;mr i to make men wise unto salvation. - - - atCABLE Dtscormr v;: ct u refDs i r "rr"r,-,:i "wiAuur- w., ,"i'- ,' Ut J6"' -pe'nent- . MVi S Pho-' Proit.ce all the variety of V Z i f ! variety Ol Colors found in : ,. - . ueen enabled natnts. . , . iouoti in. L it? v'nf.n !,the most dlc iots. as well ' he brilliant lustre of rock chrv at II' " 1 1 a. "Aver and eold Pree-. TUB rjLCGLT: Of RllVEHY Letter from Franc P. Blair. Silver Spbiso, Md.. Dec. 12. 1855. To MeSSrS. DaNlfcL 11 Goodlde and Lewis Clephasx. Corresponding Committee of the Republican Association of Washingion City, D. C t Gentlemen: Having relinquished politi cal employment, and. to aroid encountering again its aiixie.ie. addieel myself loenunrv h!e, I am constrained to dec-une your invi.a- . . . . TK-Dubilcan A ssi ;:n ion of J . f . . . W ashir.g'on City, al hough temp el by tlx.' hnnor Ot lieeumm lis presiding iiiun-r. I feel it mr duty to say. that in the m:ti:i I concur in (lie aims Ol lh Asoci;i 'inti. lo exc!tile biavery from the Territories of the L'ni ed Sfa'es, and to rebuke the vi'.lition of the L'omprirnises which were ma le to stand up as covenants b t ween the Slave and Free but the greatest calamity to 'je apprehenue I from it i- the destruction of th Confederacv, on which the wtl'ire of th whole cotintiv reroses. Kerv conquest of this elmen. of d:cord, w i.h-li 1h oufr.cn threatened thedls- sohrion f the U in. increases the da:i-rcr. Kverv surrend'-r of I lie Kiee States itivite i:i- va- i.-.n. The cause which vour organization i inten ded to promote may well diaw to its support ' men of all parties. Differences on questions , of policy, on coiistru'ionai construction, of -. - . . . ... , modes ot admutistratton, may well be mcr 'ed to unite men who be!ieV that nt tiling but concert of action upon tlie j.art of tr.v.--e w 10 was meant ti give it the power to exclude ,',, -ri,' , "... .-. i . i -m c . i S there shall he neither slavery nor in- i vXntaru servitude in an ot the Sl,,te" laid .nr. .ie tier son s resolution oi o 4. nc nr. i off in the Western Territory, was subsequent- ! lv renewed in the Congress of 1785, which lhat tJlh re he KrtU:ltt itf eomnaet 1 and it was so voted unauimous- , guaranteed tins "engagement, entered into uuitT the Confederation, by declaim ' it "val- iJ," iinJ employed the same term, "regula- tion of the. Territories," to transmit the pow- er here exerted to future Con gresses. In tlie , - - face ot llus history and the letter of the Coii- s i onion granting me power ;o maue re u.a- tiotis itihemed ti. p'spec i:ig the Territories of the United S ates, the a ithors of the Kan sas Nebraska bill deny the constitutionality of nil tlie regulations which excluded Slavery from t!-.e Territories, and set at nau-dit all the precelents that con ;irm them which have fol- loweil in uninu rnip ed succeio:i. roni t fo'ind s! !on n f ihe ( i. j .-rn m,. .. t ti . .1 t lliat o'her clause pi the Constitution, em- P,,v'Vr:ng Congress tj piss huvs to I .re yen inti migra.ion or impor.a.uo ot staves alter I COS. bitows til- 1-xJd purpose uf ; -v fout. i- mvo. bi.ov s lo-.- nxeu purpose ol ti e . ... . I o 10 . ? . 1 ers cl our L aijii to itmtt ti e increase of this ers ct O'lr I tiOtl to . :i 'c evil. ine con e justice wai an iti; on. a-ini1.) r.r"Aii ij Sri ii I !.. . titia pianter, w.:o sh'.ves i i Cub.i from oringmg them t) t oii; and to remove this oh- ict.ou to the increase of Sl.svery within t. e I L mon. rt'id i'I.mi Air;.1! fo u-.r ' . . l :.e uou,i:i.i v. , i 1 maae oy tue new act, me m i l., hv t i.. rtiieru nulii tiers '. , J ." i . , i are a.reaJycaieu upon by the ou, hern a lies lend their ai and ceria. . v oSe w r.o ! embrace Mr. Calliouti'j, docttine, as stated bv Mr. Douglas, that "every ciiix-. n has an in.i- lienable right to move into any of the Teriito- k'.n t or 1 bt.s ! ,1 I !n II... I irt.'l li:i...t ...S .. .n. nn.i . . . - . -.i . ... . r . .,.ma ... ,K an d 1 So ). ilr Douglas thus sums up the posijon taken and the re- sut: r t Under this section, as in the ease j. .j - "' - rua su Mexico and Utah, it isa i, disT-J Pt whether Slavery is prohibited , -, .. tu ,i: .; ... counTv bv valid (inirme-iL , ine decision ot this question involves th.e the doctrine lhat ihe Constitution Vf r ;. S-.t- .,.- . ...... . . - - . V. " " 7 77 . nes wun nis property, oi wnaitver k description, aud to ludd and enjoy th under the sanction of the law. You. i:i. Your com- . n, ' lhc.mlves called upon to n'r ini. il, J,...... f tl,-. ( enter into the discussion of thecontruverlati . t . B q " 1 h7 lnrwi,e the- Mnle ?v sues which produced the agitaUon. the sec- . Uonal strife, and the fearful struggle of I S50." ; From ih'u it rp pears that the Cbmpromt.s- ve tutelage of she I-raoeraey of the cvan ' es uf 18J and 1S5 irirolved thequetion of trTt as ended that of Mr. Calhoun, and his j the validity of the law of Mexico excluding j proselytes, who took the peculiar charge of the Slavery from the newly -ceded Mexican, terri- j "Suite Rights" purty. it hey sank, under the tory, and the law of our own Congress exciu- ding it from that north of the line of 35 deg. j ,ij mm. Mr. Ujaglas uosnmitte-. report re-1 : commetideJ that ax j "Congress deemed it wise and prudent to i refrain from deciding the matters in cortrover-i :v, then, cither bv affirming or repealing the ! .u v.. wt.v. , ing or repealing the Mexican laws, or bv an act declaratory of the j true intent ot tlie Uousu .u l jii. a id Hie extent i ot Hie. proteu'iou atl-rdeJ oy it to slave prop-1 ertv in the Territories, so your Committee are j no', nr-'nared now to recommend a departure. irom the course pursue l on ttiat nteniurauie ; iKti-a-ion. cither by afKrmintj or repealing th ighth section of the Misu;iri Act. or by any act declaratoi-r of thf rnaninir of Constitu tion in respect to the lal points in dispute.' These prissa s are quoted to show that the sues made hv Mr. Calhoun, as to the two Compromises of 182 and 1G5. wer ex prvssjv left open for judicial decision by thty Committee, who, neverthe'ess, swept away, bv hcUu'6 subsequently aid-d to ti etr bill, not only the Missouri Compromise of tjut nit ulso th" Corr-iiroiitiss nf 1! juclsed the Mexican laws ' wli!-!) I;-!t ting ich V sia- verv i'l "h cfdI Territories, an J v s-t". Clrtv, Bntoti and all the leading lights of ti"? S"i (wt hthe exception ol Mr. V :u houii ) protiuunce.i vti'.i 1 and ati eli"vctU!l ! strict ion. This repoal was the adoption of Mr. Cal houn's iHii'tfyttig doctrine ;. fr'i'ii.t p. The power o. Congress to make laws c-x.-mdtng ; tt histe o e; 'curcau po.ttsciHtis, whos? ap ' Slavery forever fr-.-m its Ten itorv as s't-?h, ' petites are their principles. Incumbents and : was defiled, and all the Territories were open- j cxpee'auts of ofneos and digtii.ies, claim a i cd to Slavery on the ground of the "iitaliera- I sort of patent rig, it i:i tho m.tchiue of Gov :bl right" of every ci'izn'-to move into any ? eminent, to create a Democracy adapted to of the Territories w it!i his property, of what-1 their purposes. Their innovations in the t soever kind or description; aud the law ot ; or description, a:rl tl.e law 01 . -ereignv was superadded, and ; for ti.e sovereignty of the United j the public domain. Thus fell, a i 1 squatter so- substituted fo ates over the public domain. 1 t.us leti. a i ' the dictation of Mr Atchinson, supported by , skill of the operators. i the coalition effected between the Whigs and j The telegraph wires and the Cineinna'i '' Democrats of the Sntth, under the pressure Convention are to bring all the mas'crly com ' and through the intrigues of the tiu'.lif.ers, Mr. binatiotis of the Administration in con'act 1 Jefferson's noble principle, endeared to the "ith the masses at the appointed time. But 'country both for its moral grandeur and po 1 will the wires work? Undoubtedly the peo ilitical wisdom. It is the first thought uttered! pe. far and wile, will have their instructions : in the Declaration of Independence; and to j from the operators; but the response will prob ; the denunciation of the King of Great Brit-1 ably bo a thunderbolt to those who have viol.a- ; aiti for the crime of bringing Slavery to our t shores, it adds, as the deepest ngorar at! ton. : - that "hc has P" his negative for sup- PlnS evry legislative attempt to prohibit ori," etra"' vxacratMi commerce. The first legislative a- empt to restrain tl progress of the nnsidnef which the King - ie i of I (Jreat Britain visited upon tliis country, was! i Mr. Jefferson's resolution excluding slavery' I from the territory of the. United States in' J 1 784 the next was that introduced by Rufus j j King in 178o the third that of Nathan Dine ; 'in 1787 all receiving the vo'e of two-thirds j ! of the Confederacy, and the last the unani-i tnous vote. i The fourth movement was that of the Con-1 I vention, in the Coustitution itself, providing! against the importation of slaves after IGOtt, ' declaring th.e binding validity of the engage-; ments entered by the Congress of the Con-! i federacy on the government of the United S ates, to exclude it from the Territory, and securing to the i ivertimont tlie power of ma- ' king similar provision for f.i'ure acqusi -::s ; of territory. The fitVn reguhttioti to restrain , the progress of slavery was that of the Com-' promise of 18j the sixth that of 1 35 J. ' prom I is remarkable that although these great measures had their origin with the Democrat- ie leaders. Federal and Whig leaders of great is' renown united in their support. The con stitutiona! provisions on the subject had the unanimous suffrage of all The illustrious men in the Convention who framed the- Constitu tion of fie United S ates; and from th.? si'c ice on the subject in the Conventions called to ra ify the Constitu ion, i. may be we'll pre sumed that these also were unanimous their approval of what ha I been done under the eonreiieraev ami the new v onstitution to p strain the introduction and limit the extension ' of slavery. And mur not rnen of ail ail partie? now u :i'e to restore what l!:e p.-friots of a!l!pan.v. Slt pari es, during :1 seventy trove rn merit, contuputed to estsoiis.i? i he work of restoration is simi le and easy, if the men who abhor the late innovation on the long-sett'e 1 pcicv oi tn.; na'ion can to ces o:i iau.sed to rehmisns'i xn.iv ci.ietvr t ranil rv top: id giv e their nrd'ed vote- . iti ;l:e r.rx'. Prt-.-identia! ' ton, for some i nan vv; cat -.city, udeli y :i'l ci.'U; ag-j can issii,. wi ijii the reli-'d iiiiii t:i i-fis.. present Admii i". Th.e con":- ti a! ajiratio!i at the polls, in w ill ,-nd it. S s'.r.a ; on :;as mat t 1 a grown cut to o.mt: : Preside i he decision o; t!,-j reop.ic choositig a chief mag'e'm'.v, ritois vv.ll f i.-i'v con'.jilv when tr.e :;a. ion's dim-iti i is Pacie i by ;,.e i rt.-l iITifil l-...vcr a: r the f ti ure. wl.ic i patro'iage, a;t i hopes ot aui.ni ate tlte leading mi in bers of the body. The Administration has staked itself on the support of the party of privilege lass interest which makes iua unit. It confides in the success which lias crowned the Oiigar- ,.l,i- ; !... lO' 1 VV..l.l -. 1 ., .l ...i i.iii.. ...... ii is. iu seiuieu ls Lri- ;.o. i .rv- .m . , : ii.ip:t.s ...j iii.t miii, jiyniiie a'i'a conriuor. i ti.. v-i i j , .. .. ", xiie nigs, sua j-'emocrais oi ine . outn are a combination to carry into the next Presi dency some candidate absolute in maintaining .1 " I!. . .1 .1 . 1- ... . - ? yJT , ' c, whM; " nullifies the principle of the Ordinance, the provisions ot the Constitution made to give them ettect. ana ail the comr mmnmmiui a-l.i.l. ----- - .. s lc" maf 'n P J them w.tl, -ianv, v.a.-.B w a aia nv .-V' 11V1I3 '4 Hit? 1 1 . If the majority favorable to the policy bailt up w ith our Governmeat will unite, accept the and the con- stored that opening .172 IS 50 bein" ' rVorf f?h." -rv. on which it can legally intrude; and Mr. a , i.; ... , k r 1 , s j . 'wi,;,i, it,: ,:n tit ti. "-"."""V" " v-u-u, ,V' c- Ti s t- ii-? .' i I give effect to South Carolina nullification. b 1 paraiyxed by Uie Trown of an indignant na-. tion mi.Ut.v.ni,...l.,.i..ri; , ... Uon, maJe potent br an honest and firm Ex-: And there will end the career of these gea- tleroea who arrogate, to themseWea the excla- . universal convieuon mat ineir zeal tor b ate rights was an ardent pision lo reach political F ?r. at tne nasarj ot ex.:nguisn:ng m ts blood of the pejk the wise and free insti- tutions it had cos. so much ioes:ablih. Cur innovating Democrats, who put under a- . . , i ot the representative principle; who violate fo "e repreentati-e principle; who violate the known will of tiu-ir constituents; who worn meir instruct ions u retire tn wrong tliey have commuteJ; who reply to the suffra ges that eoii.lemu,their conduct, that thev are not Democratic saffrfig; who, in the pleni tude of their inability, read out. of the Demo cratic party Ma , New Hampshire. Connec ticut, Xv York. I'ennsv ivania, Ohio, Indi ana. Michigan, Illinois, Wisconsin an.i I.a, hec.-ni.e ti.ev will not submit to the will of ese, their representa ives, w ho have set up a test which must wer xclude Msa..-husetts. v erinont and Rhode Island tr-m its rnfks; who hav bt :err iaway rights secured to them all by compacts will soon 1,-arn t'tiat Democracy does :iv: reside in the organizt tton of iuti iguers, but in the mass of ti.e peo ple. It is the glory of our great Republic that i;s De.mocracv sprifigs up fim the soil and !hu i.vs in the fresh air of our wide spread coup : v; ana ii.nt r.s ncli r.arvet, imrmrimg ':ci!.!i. streiigth. and spirit to our whde sys tem, is gath.ercd annually at t:ie polls. The 1 .lernccracv w.'.tcti js tcd n ca icuscs and eabh.ets is a sore of . hot b-:d sjveies, M'.i'e j to- macainery are contrivances to renew their iacunery a;e rua.m auces to renew ineir privileges for new terms, and the people are tho euhjeets who are to bo used in it to pay tribute for this privilege, and take nride in the '-num.; lor tins pnvi ted their l ights, spurned their lemonstrances. and, as a consequence, have arrayed brother ... . - . from tne U.ttercnt sectionsof the L n.on to shed each odier s b.ood, in civil war, on the plains I of Kansas. Yotirs, Respectfully, F. P. BLAIR. The History ol" Table Forks. Forks as we learn from a recent article in Chamber's Journal, were first introduced in to England in IGuS, by Thomas Cor ate, a trav eler, who Lad seen them used in Italy, lie published a book in lty 1, in which he asser ted lhat the custom'was not known in France. Switzerland, or Germany. "The reason of this curiosity is, he savs, because the Ita!ian can not bv any means i ndure to have his .1 tot'e. .:ea will are not nl.i.-; .t i- f igers seeing a:i rneii s fingers ean." Corvate had at fsrt but few discijiles, and received th.e s'juhriquet cf Furcifer, or Fork B j uer. The custom work ed its way very slowly into genera! u ?. In iovj2. forty i.a: s i i . f.c. L.s uo-r - sd a com parative rarity. ilavliti, i.i his Cosmogiaphv '--itig o. toe v. .oii-.-e. uec:;te.i tt:a manner in which they used chop sticks, and said; f I e.,, ....... .1 t lie use oi surer torks w.th us by some of our spruce up ot 1 re, came from hence into Itnlv and thence into Em Tliis s'ory is devoid of probability. In Fiance, at the close of the sixteenth cen tury, forks were used at Court, but they were entirely new, and had not found their way in to Sweden. In Italy, th y were first known ab v.t: the end of the fif cnth century. It ij be'ieved that the ancient Greeks and Romans used their fingers in ihe transit of food from plate to mouth, all articles of food being cut into small bits before thev were served nn. Dr. Johnson says that thirty years before his visi:to Scotiau I, when a highland com- to ntc-it, t! ie men out the ties! i into sniaii pieces tor ti.e wontea, w!io with titeir lingers c-siivercd it to -ir niout.is. Lieu en ant General G. R. Ainsiie, who lived much in Franc' after the peace of 1315, as ser'i j that l e r.atl stcu it e iittro.iuedoa of knives and f.rks r.j that ciuntry. Market Piiick fc-. f.v-tD-jMX' .p. Uishop Timo.v. of Dtiffid . e f'la'i inven" 1 by Fore Lko g I, RED ! is adoj,', , for in-' : v ing the fin mm v:v:?s Bi-hop Tim Church, y ; ok :td to ii e pe, .tp Pi: r b; ve 1 ..Ti- Oik, T; . and ! l-'-enrsi I Is t. nui-ctl from stn the pe. r vvillin: b it the tl at the Ch'iich retrain .-b -it cares mo; mo::i v an n s ab tit their ri!.!v, an d bishop l imc n. it: i,r t" name o! tt.e CI uirch. is frvv t consvnt that ti.e pei i may sin, ptovi i the cas.nis o-i'v furtt.eomin ' in a recent pastora; icier ins pas proc.a.rn -d as foil w st 'On Sunday nr-xt. or any day mrire appro priate for that purpose, each pastor shall re- i . .. ii..i 1 eei v. donations eith liecttou in the i i i. - -. i.i . church, or by vi-ra'iMi. .as might he consid i ereu r. lost proper. And accoram" to the power invested in us, we grant absolution for forty days to any one, who from zeal for th.e holy Catholic unity, and for the embellish ment of the house of God, and to the honor of the holy St. Joseph, will contribute one shilling or more." For the exceeding'y moderate snm of one shilling, it seems that the pious ehristian mem b -rs of Bishop T's. diocese, are graciously permitted to sin to their heart's content du ring the space of forty days. Is'nt it cheap dog cheap? Who would not purchase per mission to indulge his rassions or appetites to saliet". for that contemD'iblv small Sum and then to feel that all ihe sin attaching thereto was forgiven even before the offences j "t "c??,"ed7 Murdor' !"7 shlIiD! ! ?' y", of,1frn,s for ; U.. teedsngij uberai in ti.ese ia.ter days, to have icuuixu mc iiisikct i'l t ivri ciu iu SUCH JOW . .rates: v e do not know now much crime . . , - 7. s v,lu.0 ? u' may or cover, according to the tariff fixed by ihi mntk .kn-h- hn?Af v; " c ineed that lhe w an who put forth tbe . . . r . "n i u . u.. - i , virjc ufw.aiuaftiju 9 a u uijjuaiririii s C na ri- tan, and for every shUling that be pockets in this enterprise, deserves to be indicted for awitallnl rr the Fa:u.iim. Home Si.tca'V. 3- You will spend this evening with me. will you not?" said Mrs. A., to her husband, as she looked pleadingly iuto his face, am so loutly ; when you aie gone the house seems so tirtary, ana the hours tall so slowly away w hen you ar-gone." Wfll, now, Clara, this is always ihe way, always complaining ever hunting up some j -? " - t excuse. I wish you would not always excuse. I wih You would not aiwavs be a child. 1 I av c business down town that must b'! attended to," rf:urred Mr. A., sharply, as he hastily closed tl- door alter him, leaving his young wile alone with her owu sad thoughts. Always bu-iness, business r.ver a mo ment to sp:ii- for me, and the big t-ars cours ed ejch other down her cheek, as she thought of the joyous time when he she so fondiv loved, and to whom she. had given all the i to him that a protiacd sourse in that dirvc wcalth of lur young aud loving heart, was turn will uhima idy tesult in the loss of both never better content than when by her side. fame and funds. The propriety of this pre listt riiiig to her gentle voice, or breatl.ing into caution) y suggestion, is two obvious to re lief willing ear sweet words of love and ten- qui;e c xpUna ion. derness. Bat. a!a! how changed! A few fleet Who nhi ll J.lt rrtcuncies occurrirp in tke ing months have passed, and now, instead ol Dix'ri.t dire.tcrx.'.ij t seeking I.Hppttiess in tie sooie'v of the gca le In t'A. ab-ence of all specific Provi.-ion in being Wiiom Ice has taketi to travel wi h i nn through life's pilgrimage, or around hN o n fireside. On any little pretext of husine-s, l.e sp"n Is his evenings talking po!i ies, passing rude jokes, or perchance a game of chess with his friends. With a crushing weight fell the hitter words on the heart of the voting wii'e. from htm she Iovd a.i a woman s U!lll ad Sid'v site thought of her childhood's lionn l ow tenderly si c had been loved how kind !y cared for. joyous as a bird, light hearted, and free from care, lie found her. wooed and won her l,e, and now the first harsh words tL.at fell itpon her heart, was from the hps of her husband. Ye who would crush the young and gentle, go down in'o ihe dep'hs of her breaking In art, and learn hs agony. Try the magic of kind words, and exercise that care for her comfort and happiness which you did in days of yore treat her as a companion and equal, not merely ns a servant to cook vour meals, mend your clothes, or darn the holes in your ' stocking, and see if the light does pot return 1 to her eye, elasticity to her step, and the joy ' oasness that won your you'hful heart. A vir tuous woman is a ciown to her husband th.-trly she woos him with b!is in her smile. To cease from his toil, and be hapoy aw hi! . . . wuispenng wooingiy come 10 my Power go solely to .Va'e and 1 ownsmp elections, which not in search of the phantom of power hon- seems to be the most natural construction, or and wealth are illusory happiness dwells then the people of a district legitimately ex in the temple of hom . Home should be t!.6 , press their pieference in the claim of said offi E len around which the beautiful flowers of Ccr, either by ballot or a va wee vote, and affection should ever entwine, and out of the validkyof said election cannot be success whieh should bo cast every root of bitterness ; fully q.jvhmfcd. on lhat ground, other pro She may have faults, and serious ones, loo, ' ccedings?,b4tn rf'gular. That either of these but how much better wh re two are joined in ' modes of voting would bo considered legal marriage, that, in all tenderness and affection and in no way impairing the lawfulness of they strive to corn ct each other's faults, and a mutual solicitude for each otlur'S happiness will ensure success. MINNIE. Girls! Read this. Men who are worth having, want real, substantia! women for their wives. A bundle of gewgaws, bound with a string of lla's and quavers, sprinkled wi ll cologne and set in a carmine sauctr this is no he!p for a man who expects to laise a i'am i'y of bovs and girls on vegetables, bp-ad and meat. Ti.e p: t:.o and lace frame are good m their places; and ribbands, fiills and tinsel mav be allowed under proper circumstances, but they are not digestible as a diet, nor will thev answer as a covering in the place of bed blankets. ,wiut as the i.ica may sc. m to Ma, both dinner and be I blankets a'e t.eces- s.irv to domestic hupiiaess. Life has i s realities as well as fane;..-; bat you make it ail a matter of decoration psrncmbeiing the tassels and curtains, bat forgetting t.i lied-, st ad. Suppose a young man of goo 1 sense, and of cour?e good prospects, to be Ixking for a wire, what chance have you to be cho sen? You may cap him or Iran him or catch him: but how unci belter to make it an ob- ject for him to ea ch you. Render yourself worthy of catching, and you will need no shrewd mother or managing brothers lo help , you find a markt-1 From t!i hiii.ma K"pablican. DfiPABTMEXT OF PfBLIC 1 SSl'RVCrlON, I lsPIANAl'oLlS. DeC. 11. ) Gtntirmcn rf the Tr-diara Pre.: Will you do me the kindness, and the peo ple ti.e favor to publish the decisions and , comments on the following questions that have been submitvd to this Department from . various port ions cf ti.e S"a'e for soluioi:? Toev 1 ave been so frequen ly repca'ed tl at it seems desirsbh that the answers should be more gener.-.i'v knows, and thus forestall a . repvti ion of l.e inquiries: Can tcrj'tfrs tj'iolijird to instru-t only in crtiftijranhy. re dire, teritirj and arithmetic ? l-tfitUj emjliyd' Toe frame rs of t!ie law evidently con'em- rl.a'ci c.i-es in which it would be desirable nay, even necessary, if there be a school for last preparaiions before attempting to pene the season, to emp!.iv teachers with les liter a- trate ihe interminable fioxen North. These ry qualifications than section 147 specifies. arrangements completed, the party started It less qualifications will meet the present wants of a given Cistnc: (the pupil- being young or l.lUe advance i in their studies, and they request the township trustees, in the manner prescribed in the ICo.h section of the Revised tx;riool Law, to employ for said (lis trict a teacher competent to teach only the aforesaid lew branches, and if, with a full knowledge of that deficiency, the people still press their suit, then the end of tbe law for ' them is met, and their wishes may be legally gratified, in accordance with ihe spirit and let- ter of section 105 and 107 of the aforesaid ; law. 1 The State Standard of the literary qualif- ! cations of teachers is fully and distinctly va- ted in section 1 49, but sections 105 and 107 ; were intended to give the people of a district 1 ' .t ro-i V "l i P ort rvf s te vsl'l n ir tr dnrMiin tf t ' suit ihe ex?wnoi. of th.?r in sn.'r.n ' !. - 3 - . - . . ' 6 year. It i occasionally desiraUe on account of the advanced progress of pupils in some Cities, to have iosUneUo n in supple- menury stads not embraced m said F- gramme, so, also, n is equally important that 1 1 . a people in other districts, wishing, for ob- ' Vioas reasoos, only the Srt firur branches lo TIOBi reasons, obit tue Drt ' De taug Uught in their school for airiven rear UhouU have their rru-rsne rafied. when i' . . Slatu.e. nown in the way indicated in tbe I consider sections 105 and 107 as a sliding scale, authorized to fc j used by parties desir-' ing it, on presentation of a petition ia the manner aforesaid Howerer undesirable the' sliding uiftca process may be, vet 1 see noth- i:, tI,e SAij scr'ions limning the directum t..j U.e course. The petv.ioners themselves must be the judges of what will best uit their circumsLa:icrs at U;e iime. The quesiiou is therefore answered in the af firmauve. It may be proper t add. by way of pracli- ohI emmen'arv. let the Examiner s'a e dis- tincilv in the certificate the specific studios. and that it i granted on ratition of the people of the district, and therefore exonera:es the Ti ustt es and the Commonwealth from all ctn- Ure in the premises, nd consequently is valid only for one term and in that loealhv.- I'his wdi operate as a stimulant to their am bition to reach tin- S a e standard, for the in dhi lual can teach only in O've place, and that "o , lor one single sessjou, without fresh ex amination and renewal fee, it will readily seem ;l.e t'a ue in run' of u failure to elect, or fill vacancies ocea-ioned by death, removal or re signa ion. w e are left eutiiely to inferential tight. On ti e principle that a vacancy occur ring in an infi rior ofliee, is filled by the prox imate superior in its appropriate department, we should conclude that the Township Trus tees possessed the auihorhy lo till all vacan cies in the oftice of District Director. They are aathoi itced by the Revised Siatutes, Vol. I. Chp. HO. Sec 8. to fill all vacancies, however oecuriing, in the office of Township Cit-rk and Ti asurer, and it would be but a I iair and legit itr.a'e ini'eience that it would al- so be their province to do the like in "refer- en co to the said director, lie oeing a mere mitiis'eiial officer, a local assistant in the edu cational department of their township duties. The uppropria'.e reply, therefore, to the afore otid enquiry, seems to be, the Township Trustees. dj a district director Le choten by ballot? The proper olu'iou of this question in- volves the inquiry whether a district, as de- j i;ne-t oy llie school law, is a corporation in such a tense as to bring the claim of its only officer, as to the mode of election, under the provision of the Constitution that declares ' all elections by the people shall be by ballot." If that Provision of the Constitution refers the election, is a natural and legitimate deduc tion from the fact lhat the statute itself ex pressly tolerates some irregularity in the no tice required to be giveu of a meeting in ihe absence ol frau 1; see sec. 1U-J. If the fra mers of the Constitution did not embrace a School District in th 3 scope of their vision, when they prescribed to ihe peop.le and their Legislative Representatives their respective modes of vo ing, then we may conclude that the will of the sovereigns in their primary ime'ings. cani.o' be thwarted by the mere circtinis ance that said wdl was expressed by a viva v ice v o.e. and not by ballot. The conclusion, therefore, is that either measure is htwtnl. and that the validity of the , j.(..tion d.s not d. peud on the exclusive use . t , ,.,'., Your, truly. CALEB MILLS, Superintendent. The Dfatii or Sir Jons Fkasklin Ascer tai.nku We find it. ihe Minnesota Pioneer and Deniociat a report ot the discoveries of an exploring party sent out by li e Brit sh Gov- emment, to obtain additional information, if possible, of the fate of Sir John Franklin's party , to that brought back by Dr. Hae. The pany was under ihe charge of James Green tewart, a chtet tiader ol ine nuason I5av . . , .-.it r Company, and Mr. James Anderson, another employee of ihe Company. The party start from tne Carhon House, in 54 deg. North lat itude, on the 7ih of February, 1U55. and pro ceeded to Fort Chippewa, at the head of Lake Athabasen, in U i u-Je 50 degree, where ihey arrived intlte 5 h of March. Here they re mained until the 26. h of May. making boats nd preparing to go to the Arctic sea by wa ter, wien i hey resumed Ineir journey down the Peie river, and on the 3U-.1 of May arri ved at Fort Resolution, which is situated on an island ia Slave Lake, about latitude 61 deg. North. At Fort Resolution, the party was joined by Mr. Anderson, who. with Mr. Sewart, had been nppoin'ed to the command of the expe di ion. Here another delay was made for the purpose of re-orgat.izat on, and making the out on tie 22d day of June for the heal of Great Fish liver, or as it is known on the map, Black river, in lat rude about 6 1 deg. North. Thence they followed the eour of ihe stream to the Arctic ocean. Mr. Stewart represents the navigation of this river asex- ceedingly dangerous toeing obstructed by over luU difficult rapids. Over all these, however, wiih nt!iing more substantial than birch bark canoes, they passed in safety and arrived at its mouth.on the 3Jih of July, Here they met with Esquimaux, who cor- rtborated the reports of Dr. Rae. and direct- ed them to Montreal Island, a short distance from the mouth of Black river, as .tie spot where, according to their instruct -as, they were to commence minute exploration. From this time until the 9ib of August, the party immvo in.dii.ttnj.ai!v Kn ir .rH in fcS-are.heS on tb isUnrl th ma n Und. between 67 detr. . . - ., . .-. j. .- and 63 deg. North latitude. We ci,otr- capital peril, escaped, and privations enSured by the brave band while seeking to b..J . .P" ished oo those desolate shores. Three tiroes they provkdentiahy -escaped being nipped, as Mr. Stewart expressed it. or crushed be- 'tween moving mountains of ice. At last on Montreal Island, where tnair explorations t-ommeooaa. tney Ioand snow- .. shoes, known to be of English make, with tbe name of Dr. Stanley, who was surgeon of Sir John Franklin's ship, the Erubus,cul in them by a knife. Afterwards they found on tbe same Island a boat belonging to the Franklin expedition." with the name Terror" still dis- tinctly vifible. A piece of this boat contain- ing this name was brought along with him by ; Mr. Stewart. Among the Esquimaux were found iron kettles, corresponding in shape and isixe with those furnished the Franklin expedi ! tion. and bearing the mark of the British Gov ernment, Other articles known to have be ; longed to the expedition, were obtained from , the Esquimaux, and brought by the party for j deposit with the British Government. JSo ; todies, however, were found, or traces of a.-:y. The report of the Esquimaux ss, that one man died on Montreal IsUnd.and that the balance of the party wandered on the be.-vc'u of the main lnd opposite, until, worn out by fatigue and starvation, they, one by one, laid themselves down and died too. The Esquimaux reported further that In d'ans far to the nouh of them who had seen the ships of Franklin's party, and visited them, slated that they had both been crushed between the icebergs. Mr. S.ewart took es pecial pains to ascertain whether the partv had come to their death by fair means or foul. But to every inquiry, the Esquimaux protest ed that they had died of starvation. Tlie party began their return journey on the S h of Augnst. and reached St. Paul on the 1 Hh inst.. which place Mr. Stewart left ou the !2ih for the Hudson Biy head quarters at Lucheve. Canada, to make his report. The Pioneer says no traces were found by the Esquimaux lo indicate thai even iu their last extremity they had forgotten their man hood, and preyed on one anotheo." CiMviriONsiiir or . Woman's! Kioiits First, h mever, let us copy funny story of a bride's re penting at the altar, on rvahiing accidentally that she was about to make over all hr money, as well as her loveliness to her bridegroom: In the parish of Blackawton, Devonshire, lives i a thrifty widow, who carries on a farm sucoessful ; ly, and who, although nearly fifty, is not yet invin , cib'.e to Ihe arrows of Cupid. She has been ! wood and won by a stalwart yeoman, a widower named Not lie. and one day last week the happy I couple repaired to Blackawton churck, for the pnr j pose of hein joined together in holv matrimony, j The ofTici&tiiifr elertryman iuformed the worthy pair that he desired to say a fer words to tbeni before he tied the indissoluble knot which wonlJ bind them together for better or for worse, so Ion": as they live. With much eloquence he discoursed on the solemnity and the deep import of the mar riage state of its duties ami privileges and of its vast influence tor good or for evil en the future career of those vko entered into holy bonds, and ihen he ven tared to inquire if the brida had had the worldly wisdom to secure nnto herself, or her children, what she possessed of world's jroods, be cause, if she had not, the performance of the mar riage ceremony would make both her and all she possessed, tbe lawful property of her wedded hus band! He counselled her to reflect on this, and pause ere too late. Whether the bridegroom's tongue was stilted by the surprise consequent on tliis lawyer-like conduct of the parson, is tot known, but certain it is that bis intended wife re fused to lieeome his bride, and they returned to the farmstead as they left it not man and wife. The affair bas created quite an excitement in thn neighborhood. A nd here is what the Hon. Mrs. Norton, the handsomest woman in England (we used to spree with most men in thinking, twenty years ago,) says on another branch of the subject: "And thus it is thnt this legal fiction of the non existencj of married women sits as a enrso npnn married and single alike. It taints from firxt to lust, the stream of their life, and Heaven only knows what a crop of misery is the rank result As society is at present constituted, women are educated not to do, but to suffer. In some classes self-support is a reproach, not only to the self-sustaining worker herself, but to all who belong to her. Society decrees that she shall be non-exint-eut that she shall depeud, perhaps iipon"charity jrmdjringly bestowed that she shall live in a state of penurivus idleness, useless, querulous, anhap Vi And from red miming to the dewy fall. Folding her lift less hands, pursue no kirn at all. But outwardly be what tbe world is pleased to call a ludy. lu other classes tbe curse works more grievously. O.ir peasant girls are not trained for labor. Suciety does not encourage them to labor. Tticy reach the dangerous age of incipient woman hood, ill educated, unskilled, aimless, useless fir, indeed, for notbirg, and if Ct, seeing nothing to employ their fitness. They are not trained to make good wives they are not trained for inde pendent employment, and there ia little indepea. dent employment for them, if tbey were. There is nothing sadder in human life than this. And 'here is no greater question than that of Woman's Work.' Dimkxsiosi or tub America Lakes The la est measurement of our fresh water eas is as follows! Tne greatest lengtli of Lake Superior is 435 miles; the greatest breadth, 16J mites; mean depth 933 feet; elevation 6 19 feet; area 1 32.000 square miles. The greatest length of Lake Michigan is 30" mites; its greatest brealth 103 miles; i mean depth DDO feet; elevation 537 feet; area J 23.000 rquare miles. The greatest length of Lake Huron is 300 j miles; its greatest breadth 169 miles; mean ideplh 8 JO feet; elevation 574 feet; area 20, i 00U square miles. i The grea'est length of Lake Erie is 250 I miles; its greatest breadth is 80 miles; iu I mean depth is 284 feet; elevation 555 feet; i area 6,iXK square miles. j The length of Lake Ontario is 180 miles; tits greatest breadth is 5 miles; its mean i depth is 573 feet; elevation 2GS feet; aea6; ;000 square miles. j The total length of all five lakes is 1,545 j miles, covering an area altogether of upward i of 90,hOO square miles. 1 A MiLt.ro or lies r.f mr. Field Tho pres nt struggle between Russia and her en emies, has drawn off a millioa of men from the avocations and pastimes of peace, who .are now engaged in tbe bloody business of , butchering each other, A circular printed Jat Vienna, estimates the Allied forces at 333, ! OOO men, end this does not include the naval forces of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azaff. I which will probably fooi up another item of i at least fifty thousand men. j On the other hand, liassia has about 233, : 000 men the Crimea, and 470.000 stationed 1 at other points within its vast Empire, which, j together with tbe allied foiee. make over a j million of men employed in the fisn dish 1 business of destroying human life! What a j horrible scene for a phUanidaropist to eonte-n- plate! """ - . ' i .' M " - j irlt a father in Turkey refuses his daugh ter to a lover, and tbe lover kills himself in consequence, the father is liable to the charge of murder! j 9It was a pertinent and forcible saying of i Nap!oen, that a handsome woman pleaaes the eye, bat a good woman pleases tbe heart. Ta ' on is a jewel tbe other a treasure.