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TUESDAY, August 11, 1909.
#i. *-U 1 4 T&B-, Sjf: M&i 81 iiste? On October 2, 1895, being the senior major general, he was assigned by President Cleveland, under existing law to tbe command of the United States army. On June 6, 1900, an act of con gress conferred upon him the rank of lieutenant general, and on February 2, 1801, he was, by virtue of the army reorganization act, appointed by Presi dent McKinley and commissioned as the lieutenant general of the army. No officer has participated in more battles and received more wounds than General Miles, and his career has been most distinguished and successful, On bis first appearance in battle he great ly distinguished himself, not only in the eyes of the men, but in those of his superior officers. Every battle in which he took part added to the luster of his reputation, and, despite his youth, the great leaders of the army of the Potomac, who have made the or ganization immortal, all urged his pro motion. Among them were Sumner, Richardson, Howard, Barlow, McClel lan, Kearney, Caldwell, Couch, Han cock, 'Burnslde, Hooker, Meade and Grant, all these men being eye witness es of his services. He emerged from the "greatest war of modern times a major general of volunteers with the rank of colonel and brevet rank of ma jor general in the regular army, In Many Battles. In four years he rose from a lieuten ant to the high rank of major general, commanding the first division of the second corps of the famous army of the Potomac, having participated in all the battles in which that army has engag ed except one, and his absence then was- due to a wound received at Chan cellorsville. Among those battles are names well known throughout the land, as York town, Williamsburg, Seven Pines, Fair Oaks, Peach Orchard, Savage Station, White Oak Swamp, Nelson's Farms, or Glendale, Malvern Hill, Antietajn, Snicker's GftP, Fredericksburg, Chan oellorsviUe, Bristow Station, Auburn ,Hil}, Mine Run, the Wilderness, Po River, Spottsylvania," Tolopotamy, North Anna, Cold Herbor, Petersburg, Peep BottoUjj, Peter's Mine, Ream's Station, Hatcher's Run, Five Forks, Sutherland Station* Amelia Springs, Sailor's Creek, High Bridge, Farmville, and Appamattox fcourtliouse, besides many other engagements in which ar tillery, cavalry and infantry participat ed. He was wounded at Fair Oaks, Fred ericksburg, Chancellorsville'and Pet ersburg. At. Fredericksburg he won two g»lden opinions, and at Chancel lorsville, although desperately, and it was thought mortally, wounded, he beld a vitally important line on the extreme left flank of the army and re pulsed the repeated assaults of the en «my, with p, tenacity which won tor LIEUT., GEN: MILES Commander of United States .... Army Reaches Age Limit and Leaves Service. ROSE FROM THE KA^KS K.,d5®vn Though Originally Expecting to B* come a Merchant He Indulged a Liking for .Military Affairs and Ffcariy Became the Head pf Army. Nelson Appleton Miles, lieutenant general commanding tbe United States army, retires today, having reached the age limit of 64 years and is suc ceeded in that office by Major Gen eral^ 6. M, B. Young, General Young will occupy that position but one week as on August 15 the office, of com manding general will be abolished and the general staff will be inaugurat ed. General Miles is the sixteenth general officer to command the army, though there have been several others of lesser rank who have commanded' when the strength of the forces of the army called for no higher officer. In 1895 General Miles as the senior major general, assumed command- of the federal forces. In 1900 he was raised to the rank of lieutenant gen-' eral, which office he today vacates. Rose From the Ranks. Lieutenant General Miles, unlike his immediate predecessors, worked his way up from the lowest rank in the volunteer army- He was born In Westminster, Mass., and received both a district school and academic education. In 1856 he went to Boston, expecting to become a merchant, although his early incli nations were for a military life. He attended a course of military instruc tion In Boston under the direction of H. Salignae, a French colonel, and at the outbreak of the civil war he helped to raise a company of volun teers, and offered his services to his company. He was chosen captain of the Twenty-second Massachusetts vol unteers, but was considered too young for so responsible a command and was required to accept the commission of first lieutenant. His ability was soon recognized and his promotion rapidly followed. On May 31, 1862, he was commissioned by Governor Morgan lieutenant colonel of the Sixty-first New York volunteers, and colonel Sep tember 30 of the same year. He was promoted to brigadier gen eral May 12, 1864 brevet major gen eral August, 1864, and major general October 21, 1865. When the regular army was reorganized he was appoint ed colonel of the Fortieth United States Infantry, March 1$. 1866, and transferred to the Fifth infantry March 15, 1869. He was made briga dier general United States army De cember 15, 1880, and major general April 15, 1890. Placed in command. &Uai* *r him great praise for superb service on that field. At Spottsylvania Col. Miles led his brigade in that deadly assault, breaking the intrenched line of the enemy at what is known as the "bloody angle" where at the .close of the battle the ground was actually cov ered with dead bodies. For this act he was promoted to brigadier general. Had Responsible Task. In many cases Gen. Miles was in trusted with a command superior to his rank. At one time he was in com mand of the second army- corps, when it numbered 26,000 men, though rank ing only as a brigadier general and but 25 years of age. In the campaign from I He also received a medal of honor "for distinguished gallantry in the battle of' Chancellorsville, Va., March 3 1863, while holding with his com mand a line of abbatis and rifle pits against a strong force of the enemy until severely wounded, while colonel 61st New York volunteers, commanding the line of skirmishers iiv-front of the First division of the second7 artnv corps." Administrative Ability His fame, does not* rest ajone upon his military achievements, but he has displayed qualities of administrative character qt a."high order. While in trusted with Important responsibility in the great work pf reconstruction as commander of the district of North Carolina he established prder firmly maintaining authority without fric tion and greatly aideil in: reestablish ing the state government. tfe was al- istfy?'"*' *s\ V* I $• 4 -V 5 p2^ v^t* lv -IS? -s »"$Kf -"v1" V*§ f, so assigned to and in command of the military district of eastern Maryland and Virginia. His services in the far west after the conclusion of the civil war are no less remarkable and successful. He was constantly in command of troops in campaigns against Indians on the fron tieV and defeated the Clieyennes, Klo was and Comanohes in the Indian Ter ritory and Texas in 1874-75 and in 1876 the hostile Sioux in Montana, Dakota and Wyoming. He drove Sitting Bull's tribe across the Canadian frontier arid forced the surrender of the strong tribes led by Crazy Horse, Lame Deer, Spotted Eagle, Broad Road, anil other chiefs well known in Indian history. September 1877 when the Nez Per ces Indians under Chief Joseph, went on the warpath he intercepted and de feated and captured them after a most remarkable march from the canton ment on the Yellowstone nearly to the Canadian frontier. In 1.878. he cap tured: the hostile Bannocks near the Yellowstone park. /One of his most successful and difficult campaigns was that agalpst the Apache chief Ger onlmo and his bloodthirsty, and cruel tribe. The Apaches were ceaselessly ABlSm A..M/JUE& COMMANDING OFFICERS OF THE ARMIE8 OF THE UNITED STATES. A list of the commanding officers of the continental and United States armies follows: George Washington, general commander in chief of.the continental army from 1776 to 1783. Maj Gen. Knox, December 23,1783, to June 50, 1784. Ca.pt. John Doughty, June 20, 1784, to August 12, 1784. Lieut. Col. Josiah Harmer. August 12, 1784, to March 4, 1791. Maj. Gen: Arthur St. Clair, March 4, 1791, to March 5, 1792. Maj. Geo. Anthony Wayne, April 13, 1792, to December 15, 1796 Brig. Gen. James Wilkinson, December 15, 1796, to July 13, 1798. Lieut. Gen. George Washington, July 13, 1798, to December 14 1799. Maj Gen. Alexander Hamilton December 14 1799, to June 15,1800 Brig. Gen James Wilkinson, June 15,- 1800, to January "27, 1812 Maj. Gen. Henry Dearborn, January 27, 1812, to June 15, 1815/ a a 1 5 1 8 1 5 to a 2 4 1 8 2 8 & Maj. Gen. Alexander Macomb, May 29, 182S, to Juno 25, 1841. Maj. Gen. Winfleld Scott, June 5, 1841, to 1855, and as brevet lieutenant general to November 1 1861. Maj. Gen. G. B. McClellan, from November 1, 1861, to March 11 1862 Maj. Gen. H. W. Halleck, July 23, 1862, to March 9, 1864. Lieut. Gen. U. S. Grant, March 12, 1861, to July 25, 1866, and as general from July 26, 1866, to March 4, 1869." ... Gen. William T. Sherman, March 8, 1869, to November 1,18S3V Lieut. Gen. P. H. Sheridan, November 1, 1883, to June 1,. 1888, and as gen eral to August 5, 1888. Lieut. Gen. J. M. Schofield, August 5, 1S88, to September 29, 1895. Lieut. Gen. Nelsw A. Miles,. October 6, 1895, to August 8, 1903. Richmond to Appamattox courthouse his division was always on the front line. He received many brevets that of brigadier general, United States volun teers: "for gallant and meritorious services in the battle of Chancellors ville major general United States vol unteers on August 25, 1864 "for highly meritorious and distinguished conduct throughout the campaign and particu larly for gallantry and valuable servic es in the battle at Ream's Station, Va." and also major general United States army "for gallant and meritorious ser vices in the battle of Spottsylvania." '•$§$ #1 Kfttr 6 followed and given no rest until their endurance was exhausted and they were forced to surrender. The great value of these services was so much appreciated that he received the thanks of the legislatures of Kansas, Montaua, New Mexico Dakota, and Arizona, the citizens of the latter ter ritory also presenting hi'm with- a sword of honor in November 1887. In 1890-1 General Miles was called again Into the field in the Dakotas to suppress the general uprising of the Indians in that country and after a comparatively short campaign practic ally ended the last uprising of hostile Indians. In Command Here. He was in command of the depart ment of.the Columbia from 1881-S5 the department of the Missouri from July 1885, to Aprjl 1886 the depart ment of Arizona from east from 1894 to October, 1895, when he became the commanding general of the army with headquarters at Wash, ington, D. C. He has also been designated to per form several important missions abroad,, being detailed by the Presi dent in 1897 to visit the seat of war between Turkey and Greece, to rep resent the United States at the jubi lee, of her la.te majesty, Queen Victo ria, and also to witness the nmneuv res of the armies of Russia, Germany and France. During that year he vis ited nearly every European capital. mi* if TILE OTTTJMVA COURIER inspected the principal gun foundries and military camps and made valuable reports to the government ot tola ob servation. In 1903, after visiting the Philip pine Islands in his official capacity he returned through Japan, China and over the great trans-Siberian railroad back to the United States, thus hav ing made the tour of the world by this comparatively new and untraveled route. When the war with Spain broke out General Miles made many Important recommendations, which, if followed, would have greatly reduced the cost and increased the efficiency of the army. He did not believe in the as sembling of an Immense army, Ill-clad and imperfectly equipped, nor did he see the necessity therefor. He re garded the war as mainly a naval problem and realized that the destruc tion of the Spanish fleet would leave the Spanish army in Cuba cut oft from all supplies and communication with the home government and that its capture would be rendered an easy matter. He urged the immediate cap ture of Porto Rico and was strongly in favor of aiding the Cubans with arms, ammunition and necessary sup plies- Army In His Care. Before war was declared, under his direction the effective force of the reg ular army was mobilized at Chicka mauga. New Orleans, Mobile and Tam pa, and considerable quantities of war material were sent to the Cuban army. At the breaking out of tbe war the regular army, although consisting of only 25,000 men, was well equipped, organized and disciplined and prepar ed for immediate service. There were only equipments for about 10,0u0 addi tional men, and he urged, therefore, that the volunteer troops called Into service be kept in their respective states until they, could be properly equipped and organized. He took steps to obtain the co-operation of the Cuban forces in eastern Cuba, and by his direction they were so disposed by their commanders that they aided greatly in the capture of Santiago. Ordered to Washington. While at Tampa', organizing the first expedition for Santiago, he requested authority to accompany that expedition, or to organize immediate ly another and join the first and after wards go to Porto Rico, but this re quest was not granted, and instead he was directed by telegraph to return to Washington. Later, when the army before Santiago was seriously involv ed, he was authorized to go there at once with re-inforcements, and arrived on July li. On July 13 he met General Toral the Spanish commander, in con ference, under a flag of truce, and de manded the surrender of the Spanish forces at noon on the following day. In the meantime be had arranged for a combined attack ,-of all the naval and military forces. The Spanish commander was notified that hostilities wpuld commence at that time should,,jie not surrender. Before the hour ^ryived on the morn ing of July 14, General Toral agreed to surrender, riot only., the garrison of Santiago, but all'the troops in his de partment. The commissioners to ar range the detailsrof capitulation hav ing been, apppointed General .Miles proceeded to Guantanamo bay to orga nize the expedition for the capture of Porto Rico. On July 21 he sailed with 3314 men althourh there was a force of 17,000 Spanish regulars and Porto Ric an volunteers on that lsiand at the time. The objective point selected for landing, Point Fajardo, on the north east coast of the island, was charged by the general while eHroute to Guan ica, on the south coast, In considera tion of subsequent information and for other reasons. A landing was made there on July 25, and after two engagements with the Spanish troops, Ponce was occupied July 27. The landing of our troops at an unexpected point took the enemy completely by surprise. The campaign was admirably planned and executed— the lBland was practically taken by strategy. In consequence of the care ful disposition of the troops there was but small loss of life. The series of general orders he has issued during the years which he has been in command of the army, as well as the recommendations contained In his annual reports, best illustrate his solicitude in promoting the welfare, ef ficiency and patriotism of the army. Maids and married women dress for the envy of other women widows for the temptation of men. Bronchitis for Twenty Years. Mrs. Minerva Smith of Danville, 111., writes: "I had bronchitis" for twenty years and never got relief until I used Foley's Honey and Tar which is a sure cure." For sale by W. D. Elliott, cor ner Main and Court streets. IOWA SPECIAL To G. A. P. National Encampment at San Francisco. A special train carrying Col. Ray mond and staff, will leave via Burling ton Houte August 8 in charge of an ex perienced excursion manager. The train will be composed of Pullman tour ist cars. Special train will stop at Denver, Colorado Springs and Salt Ltke Parties desiring to join this special train should leave Ottumwa 3:25 p. m. August 8. Round trip tickets $49.50 price of sleeping berth, $5.00 from Omaha, with slight addition al cost of stopping which will not ex ceed $2.25 a double berth accommo dating two 1888-90 the di vision and department of Missouri from 1890-94 tlie -department of the people. For full and com- r'.fete information call on or address W. S. Parker. G. A. R. Excursion to California- For the National encampment, Grand Army Of the Republic, the Burlington Rpute will sell round trip tickets to San Francisco ?nd Los Angeles, Aug. 1 to 14, 1903, at the low rate of $4S.25. Through tourist sleepers will leave Qt tumwa daily on these dates at 7:45 a. m., for San Francisco and Los Angeles price of double berth is $5.50. These through trains pass through Denver, Colorado Springs and gajj Lake gity. Parties contemplating this trip should make reservations enrly and call or send to the undersigned fop circular and books of information, •W. 8. PferHer. Agt. Union Depot. '•O'. •»l I INprobability April, 1002, when tbe late Pope Leo XIII. was In practically per fect health and there was no that his brilliant reign would be so soon cut short by the grim reaper, the pontiff remarked in a seri ous conversation with Father Perosi, tbe Italian priest whose musical com positions have made him famous the World over, that he was convinced that bis successor would be Cardinal Sarto, the patriarch of Venico. When the recent conclave went into session there seemed little probability that Leo's prophecy would be fulfilled, for Ram polla seemed to have an almost com manding lead among the members of the college of cardinals, with Oreglla, Gotti and Seraflno Vannutelli as strong possibilities. Besides these, there were several others who were thought to be likely candidates in case the rivalry among the leaders should become so Intense as to make the election of any one of them impossible. But Sarto'a name was scarcely mentioned except among the most reverent who remem bered the prediction of Pope Leo and those who were mindful of the popu larity in the Catholic church of Cardi nal Sarto, which by many was regard ed as beipg second not even to th^t of Leo himself. Cardinal Sarto. now Pope Plus X., evidently did not seriously consider himself as one of the papabili, for the evening before his election he declared, in speaking to a friend who bad suggested that he might be th£ next pope, that when he started for Rome from Venice be had 5p®93 bought a return ticket. But the unex pected has happened, and Leo's pre diction has been fulfilled—Cardinal •arto is Pope Pius X., and the Roman Catholic church is satisfied that tbe progress made daring the reign of Leo XIII. is to be continued and per haps amplified under tbe administra tion of the present pontiff. Pope Leo's prediction was considered remarkable by reason of the fact that because of Sarto's position with refer once to a modus vivendi between the Church and the state he seemed to be on that important point directly op posed to Leo. For instance, Cardinal Bar to publicly announced his joy when there were strong probabilities of a anion between church and state, and Ms accession to the pontificate has long been regarded in certain quarters as the solution of tbe Roman problem so long unsolved and so long a cause of dissension over all Italy, to say nothing of its bearing upon the attitude of oth er Catholic countries. Cardinal Sarto is noted for bis prudence, having never meddled with politics, and for extreme Independence. He is also a patron of the arts, and launched Father Lorenzo Perosi, the celebrated priest composer. The cardinal is recognized as one of tbe most learned men in tbe church. He is a stickler for the exact truth as between the church and the people, and won much renown some years ago by destroying certain relics of doubtful authenticity. He brings to bis high office a character of most attractive modesty, unusual energy in the diree tion of matters large and small, the talents of a fine administrative officer and the first qualities of an organizer. In addition tp bis abilities and bis un doubted Christian character, tbe car dinal is, froOL tbe sweetness of his '•\yr.V5Wr !1®1 '"t 1#^' -M m. V3C O I I I I I l|IM4»H PIUS X. THE NEW POPE nature, beloved by many millions of people. It. is certain that no prelate would have a more enthusiastic sanc tion from the laity. Pope Pius X. is sixty-eight years old. He was born at Riese, in tbe prov ince of Venice, and was educated in the Salesian institute at Cottolengo, founded by the famous Dom Bosco. He was always of a serious turn of tmind and when a young man his rector said to him that he had "never been a child." Cardinal Sarto was not "discovered" until he had reached middle age. He was a parish priest in tbe province of Venice for the most of bis years and finally became a bishop. His high ex ecutive qualities and unexcelled learn ing became known soon after bis ele vation and were recognized by the au thorities of the church. It was not until 1893 that he was created a cardi nal, at which time be was also named as patriarch of Venice. Thus the modest but able parish priest became the head of the province in which be had served so many years In a lowly position. His selection was made by the consistory of 1893, which was com pelled to sue the throne for the privi lege ot installing him as patriarch of Venice. In return for this 'concession, which was made through Premier Crispi, the church appointed an ecclesi astical vicar apostolic in northeastern Africa to assist the premier in his pet scheme of extending the African colo nies. Cardinal Sarto had not been in office POPE PITTS X., FORMERLY CARDINAL SARTO. more than a year before he publicly de clared for a union between church and state, speaking in no uncertain way. His utterances created a great sensa tion, and it was felt that be might have offended the holy father by the fervor of his words. Apparently he received the silent approbation of the pope, in whose estimation he ever held a firm place. It was said at the time that Cardinal Sarto made bis public announcement that the Austrian and Prussian ambaS-. sadors at the Vatican were endeavor ing to induce the papal authorities to agree to a modus vivendi. Emperor Francis Joseph is reported to have written several letters to the pope with this end in view, and Emperor William of Germany is said to have been equal ly anxious tq bring about an under standing between tbe Vatican and the Italian government. For more than three decades a gulf has yawned between the rival palaces of king and pope, a gulf material and political. For thirty-five years—since the Italians battered down the massive walls near the old Porta Pis—earnest men and noble women of all parties have been dreaming p.ud hoping that the mighty breach between victors and vanquished might in some way be closed. It was said of Pope Leo that in 1878, when he had just succeeded Pope Pius IX he longed for some amicable ar rangement with the Italians, but if he did reasons of state outweighed his private wish. He was silent, and thus pledged himself to tbe no compromise party. It is strange that while. Sarto was never seriously considered by the pub lla at large or by the ordinary press correspondents as a pfpgl probability. I lift/ #f4 I I I W I I I 'Oppr^-ipf IIMIl'l his availability was commented upon by the really thoughtfsf writers more frequently than that of any other car* dinal. As an example, a special cor respondent of a prominent American daily last April wrote as folbrws to his paper concerning Cardinal Sarto and the papacy: "It is Cardinal Guiseppe Sarto, tbo patriarch of Venice, the friend and patron of Abbe Perosi, the composer, 'who is at the present moment regard ed not only throughout Italy, but Mho wise in the principal capital* of Bhv rope, as destined to become tbe next pope. So little has been beard of him until now in connection with tbe papal succession that he may be regarded in the Hgbt of dark horse h} the race, which is perhaps due to the fact that he rarely goes to Rome, that he bo0 never been a resident of the Sternal City, and that from tbe time of' his be lng appointed vicar general of the dio cese of Treviso until now he has held steadily aloof from all the projects of the curia. "The vast majority of the Italian car dinals, and especially those who, fttEM lng part of tbe curia, are estabtfc&ea) in the Eternal City, have won promotion to the sacred college members of the diplomatic service the papacy rather than as priests. An when a prelate has spent tbe portion of his life in diplomacy, antf has found it the stepping stone to Mghl honors, it naturally leaves him at tb« close of his career as representative of the Vatican abroad, with a greater^ leaning toward statecraft than towar# the administrative and doctrinal duties of his office at Rome. Many persons declare that it is imperative that the next pontiff should be a prelate who would devote his entire energies to re« forms of an administrative and eco nomic character, and likewise to th*' more rigid enforcement of the doe* trlnes and discipline of the church. most agreeable choice as 'pope. 4 "Cardinal Sarto, the patriarch of Vej* ice, is the man of all others wbo fill* these requirements. He is probably the most able adminstrator of the Ital ian episcopacy, combines firmness and determination with abundant tact apt common sense, and has managed to in stitute a number of very practical re- 1 forms in his archdiocese of Venlcot without giving offense either to the cler gy or to the laity. He avoids all new**/ paper notoriety. Indeed, his name i» rarely mentioned in tbe press. Be ban always understood how to maintain fen agreeable yet dignified modus vl-t .,/!v, vendl with the Italian authorities,,^ from whom he derives his stipend, an^ has shown his enlightenment by thelAlj vigorous campaign which be has car-afw ried on against tbe veneration of relie»i£ of questionable authenticity. He is on.»M' friendly terms with the members of'ty^t the reigning house of Italy, during tbe late reign took, part with King Hum bflrt and Queen Margherita in tbe launching of a man-of-war at Ven-^ ice, as well as in other ceremonies at which they present, and would certainly stated? were|gij be a "•*»,'' the preafent ruler of Italy. He la Just sixty-eight years old, which vfill be liv his favor in the eyes of tbe conclave, sipce, as a general rule, that number of years constitutes a guarantee tbit the PVfltificate will not be of undve ^ogtb.'* toT4-IU."