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Ottumwa semi-weekly courier. (Ottumwa, Iowa) 1899-1903, September 08, 1903, Image 4

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Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn86061214/1903-09-08/ed-1/seq-4/

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TUESDAY, September 8, 1903.
'la-V7^
a*1 -t-i ij&k
the close of his address. Mayor Piclt
ler spoke in part as follows:
"Friends and fellow ciiizens, ladles
"-'and gentlement:
$ "It is with pleasure I accept your
JjjJtlnd invitation to welcome the friends
of organized labor to the city o£ Ot
.tumwa to participate in the program
outlined by your committee. 1 do not
pose as one who 1b competent to ad
--.rise organized labor as to the general
policy it should pursue to better con
ditions existing between employe and
•employer.
Should Consider Each Other.
"My observation is that more has
been accomplished by level-headed
conservative leaders, men who are
(Willing to give and take, and men who
to a certain extent consider the em
ployer's welfare and at the same time
keep in mind those things which is
best for all concerned, than by hot-
i- "I am pleased to state that during
my term of office as mayor of this city
we have made eight hours constitute
a day's work of our street laborers,
but when that privilege was granted
we expected and It was understood
that the city should receive eight
hours Of good, active work. However,
I regret to say that there are quite a
number of the street employes who do
not make the proper effort as I have
personally observed, to give value re
ceived for their pay.
"I simply say this for the good of
•organized labor that they should as
sist and appreciate the employer's ef
fort to assist them and not shirk their
duty when the head of the department
^happens to be absent.
Must Give Value Received.
"These remarks I have made, may
Hot be exactly on the line of an ad
dress of welcome, but they are simply
thoughts which came to my mind and
which may be good points for you to
consider. For I frankly say that if
your hours are cut down from 10 to 8
hours you can receive the same pay
ahd do not give -value received, or
make an effort to, that employers are
going to be slow In establishing gen
erally the eight hour labor system.
Welcomes Visitors.
"However, I will not attempt to
make you a speech on the betterments
of organized labor as you have gentle­
YOU CAN DO NO BETTER THAN ADVERTISE IN
Jlxc (kmrier lHant (Mumus
I Courier want ads are cheap but they bring results
One-half cent for each word each insertion.
THOUSANDS OF PEOPLE ENJOY
STIRRING LABOR DAY AD-
1
DRESSES.
(Conti)nued from page 1.)
WiV
the gathering. Mayor Fickler warmly
welcomed the visitors to the city. He
.• was greeted with hearty applause at
John Ott, treasurer of the Ottumwa
grades and Labor assembly and one
of the prominent men in the trades
union movement in this city.
headed leaders who would destroy the
employer's property or business sim
ply because they cannot agree on ev
ery point in dispute. At the same
time the employer should consider ,the
Welfare of the employed.
Lessen Hours of Labor.
f\ **vy«
Come in and make your SELECTION EARLY for
your new fall
Wearing Apparel
Our New Suit Department
is simply crowded with the "smartest" styles ever shown
in Ottumwa—everyone strictly high grade in every way
and all hand tailored at $
15.00 to $25.00.
New Swell Shirts
in stiff bosom, pleat boson or soft bosom—all new cat,*
terns at $1.00 and $1.50.
KNOX HATS are the best hats made to sell at $5 00
"HAWES" HATS have ail the good features
obtainable at $3.00
SOLE AGENTS FOR HANAN SHOES.
Kerfoot Clothing Co.
».— ..«•• a
men who will follow me who are more
competent to advise you on that sub
ject.
"In conclusion I will say to those
who may be visitors in our city today,
I bid you a hearty wclcome. I trust
your visit will be one of pleasure to
yourselves as well as a benefit to your
organization.
"To our locals, I am always pleased
to be with you. I am thankful we
have this beautiful park in which to
hold your exercises and carry out your
program-, and on behalf of the citizens
of Ottumwa, I bid you a hearty wel
come in all that the word implies."
C. A. Hagberg Responds.
C. A. Hagberg, late president of the
Trades and Labor assembly responded
to the address of welcome. Mr. Hag
berg is a pleasing talker and his
words made a good impression. Mr.
Hagberg's address follows:
"Mr. Mayor.—In behalf of the Ot
tumwa Trades and Labor assembly,
and the unions affiliated with the
same in behalf of the hundreds of
union men of the city and in behalf of
all the toilers of the city, union or
non-union, I wish to express our deep
appreciation for the hearty welcome
you have just extended to this large
gathering on this, our holiday.
"We are proud of our city. Proud
of our movement and its growth here,
and proud of having a mayor who is
friendly to and in sympathy with the
toiler.
The Labor Problems.
"I heartily agree with the honorable
chief executive of our great state when
in his labor day proclamation he says
this day was intended for employer
and employe to meet together and
discuss the great questions confront
ing them in what is generally known
as the labor problem.
"It is indeed a problem worthy of
the best thought of our citizens for
upon its proper solution depends the
future of our country.
The Citizen's Duty.
"This Is an era of advancement and
it will not do to stand inactive and
await results. It is every citizen's
duty to help solve the problem and to
solve it right for until it is solved
right and fairly to all it will never be
settled. That It will ever be complete
ly solved and relegated to the back
ground I do not believe or expect as
constantly changing conditions will
bring about new phases for discussion
and solution.
Condition of Toilers.
"In the hurry and rush of every day
life so few people take the time to
spend a thought on this great prob
lem. Is it then too much to try and
f!
iillfftfl
W. A. Whitney, secretary of the Ot
tumwa Trades and Labor assembly,
who took a prominent part in the ar
rangements for the Labor day celebra
tion.
secure their attention for a few mo
ments on one day of the year?
"I think the general falling of our
people outside of the toilers' ranks is
that they fail to realize the condi
tion of the working masses. They
fail to understand their position or ap
preciate their needs. And, sometimes
W- JP .~wp
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the workers fail to understand the con
ditions which compel an employer to
refuse concessions which he might be
glad to grant were it not for unfair
competition.
"It is a time for getting together
and calmly and dispassionately dis
cussing these questions. At a time
like this it is well to bear in mind the
fact that this is a progressive age
and that because certain conditions
have existed for some time is no rea
son they should always remain the
same, or that some other way would
not be better.
Results of Organization.
"I want to call your attention to a
few of the good results of trade or
ganization. Less than one hundred
years ago it was a crime to organize
to strike or demand higher wages.
"In 1850 the average wages in
manufacturing establishments of
this country were $246 per
year. Even as recently as
1880 the average wage was less
than $400 per year. In the face of an
immense influx of cheap labor from
foreign countries wages will, today,
average at least $450 per year.
Increase ihn Wages.
"Fifty years ago the cotton mills of
New England worked their employes
thirteen to fourteen hours a day. The
highest \vages for a first class weaver
were $5 or $fi per week. The trades
union movement reduced the hours to
nine and ten and wages have increas
ed 75 to 100 per cent, and what is true
in this trade is true in every other to
a greater or less degree. Not only
this but many organizations have sick
and death benefits as well as many
other features for the good of its mem
bers.
Unions Make Better World.
"The union meetings are a school
for the workingman, who in many
cases, have been deprived of an edu
cation, and our union meetings are
conducted as business-like and with
as much decorum in most cases as
any meeting of legislative bodies of
our state or nation.
"The union movement knows no
race, creed or color, its motto is 'each
for ail and all for each.'
"It makes this a better world to live
in and has more of real humanity than
any other movement. It has done all
of this in a hundred years. What
may we expect of it in another cen
tury."
J. F. Byrne's Address.
J. F. Byrne of this city, general or
ganizer for the American Federation of
Labor, delivered an aduress upon the
subject "Unionism. Mr. Byrne Is one
of the most prominent men of the state
in labor circles and his remarks were
well received. He spoke in part as
follows:
"Ladies and gentlemen:—As I look
in your faces today, my mind runs
back to the time in the history of the
world's events when to congregate for
mutual interests as we have on this
day, would be punishable by impris
onment to be marked as a traitor, to
your country or punished with death
for advocating the cause of humanity.
Mayor T. H. Pickler. who delivereu the address of welcome to the visitors
at Caldwell park this afternoon.
Christianity and Unionism.
"The many trials, tribulations and
punishments for advocating the cause
of the common people began in the
world's history with the crucifixion of
Jesus of Nazareth, and with his mur
der, which was in the interests of the
immensely wealthy and the unscrupu
lous demons in the form of human be
ings that lived in his time, began
unionism, and in rerftonstrance against
Buch
unwarranted murder of as pure
and noble a character, one that had
sacrificed all personal interests to
save all of humanity, sprang Chris
tianity, under whose protective ban
ner countless millions have lived and
died. With the inlieritant right of
personal independence, of unionism,
other countless millions of humanity
in this broad world are living, shield
ed and protected in the virtue of their
manhood and womanhood under the
guiding star of Christianity, only to be
taken from the active work in the in
terests of that organization uplifting
human beings when death summons
them from our midst. Christianity
was the beginning of unionism and
will ultimately end in all who are
union men and women being Chris
tians and all that are Christians be
ing members of the union.
Unionism Today..
"Up to date unionism in its true defi
nition and as applied by its noble
le&d&fs of today is seeking to do only
vrtiat evapy human being that believes
in making'the world better would do
ot themselves, namely to destroy sla
very in all its formsi to better the con
ditions surrounding the homes, to edu
the children, to increase* tjjj ps{
'It ii*ffPW
£L f,
THE OTTUMWA COURIER.
of the provider, to lessen the hours of
labor and in all to make the life of the
toilers worth living. That is what
unionism is for, what it is doing and
all it asks. Is that not noble, Chris
tian, truthful, manly and humane?
And who in honor would daro falsify
J. F. Byrne, general organizer of the
American Federation of Labor, who de
livered an address upon the subject,
"Unionism."
such a statement? But we have men
and organizations in this country, who
are the remnants of ancient anarchy
that would, because of the privileges
they have enjoyed at the expense of
the whole human family, denounce
our movement and try to destroy us,
because we are only asking, in justice,
a part of what belongs to us.
Has Come to Stay.
"Those men and institutions and or
ganizations have no other object in
view than to live in the luxury of sel
fish greed and to destroy all else, in
human form who will not obey their
mandates, to work cheap, become
their slaves or in other words to live
and die without any, knowledge of the
true meaning of liberty, but forsooth,
unionism lias come to stay and in a
day not far remote through its agen
cies will wipe out, race, religions and
political prejudice and through its
good ofllces will bring about a much
happier condition of the human family
when there will be more joy and less
sorrow in the world, when true men
will be known by their worth, not their
wealth, when children of tender age
will not spend their childhood in the
factory anil when most of the wrongs
of ages against humanity will be blot
ted from future history and mankind
will look back and wonder why so
much good was not accomplished a
long while ago. Then will the world
acknowledge the true worth of what
is now termed unionism."
President Urick's Adddress.
A. L. Urick of Des Moines, president
of the State Federation of Labor, deliv-
v,At Sv
iwfarjoiB. %l
C. A. Hagberg, ex-preBident Of the
Ottumwa Trades and Labor assembly,
who responded to the address of wel
come on the part of the local and vis
iting trades unionists.
ered the address of the afternoon. Mr.
Urick has made several visits to this
city since his election to the high posi
tion of head of the Iowa unionists.
He has made many warm personal
friends here and hia appearance this
afternoon won him many more. Mr.
Urick spoke iu part as follows:
Trades Unionism—Its Object# and
Principles.
"I ptgpoge to enter into ^com­
•SF BW
parison between organized labor and
capital and to take organized capital
as the object lesson for organized la
bor. The manufacturer saw the neces
sity and advantage of combining with
others small manufacturers and the
result became a partnership. With
the development of industry and ma
chinery in particular he saw that it
was necessary for him to get the most
out of his capital, to still further com
bine and the result was the corpora
tion. Again in the line of progress h&
saw an opportunity to still further his
interests by a further combination and
the result was a combination of corpo
rations, namely trusts.
Laborer Follows Suit.
"The laborer taking this as an ob
ject lesson and seeing that the em.
ployers of labor were benefited by
combinations or organizations con
ceived the idea of allying his interests
with those of his fellow workers and
the result was the local trades union.
Not securing the full' benefits to which
he believed himself entitled through
the local trades union and profiting by
the experience of his employers he
conceived the idea of a national craft
organizations, so that greater powers
and influences could be brought to
bear upon any particular locality.
"Again it became manifest to the la
borer that no one craft could advance
the condition of that craft to any con
siderable extent beyond that of any
other crafts as to wages, hours of la
bor and sanitary conditions. They
saw the necessity of working in har
mony with other craft organizations
and the first effect was the combina
tion through federation of local craft
organization.
"By degrees this developed the state
federation and also the American Fed
eiation of Labor, this latter being a
concentration of all of the interests
of all of the labor organizations of
the country.
No Dignity in Labor.
"There is no dignity in labor. The
only dignity that there is must come
t.rough the dignity of the laborer.
As an illustration take the slave driv
en to his labor under the lash. There
can be no dignity in that labor. The
pyramids were built by slaves owned
and controlled by their employers and
diiven to their labor under the lash
of their employer, building there a
monument not to labor but to the em
ployer alone.
"The only dignity that there can be
in labor comes through the laborer
having the right standing and dignity
to arrange the conditions under which
the labor shall be performed, having
the right as to the bargain for his
wages, the hours of labor and other
conditions under which the labor shall
be performed.
Child Labor.
"The object of the State Federa
tion being to further the interests of
the people of the state of Iowa it will
be its aim to continue in the work
heretofore undertaken, especially so in
the line of legislation, making one of
its principal efforts the elimination of
child labor from the industrial affairs
of Iowa. With the beginning ot the
factory system, greater skill, strength
and power was required on the part
of labor and as a consequence child
labor could not be used. As machin
ery developed less power was requir
ed and the employer sought the oppor
tunity of securing labor that would be
willing to work for less wages than
was necessary to the man upon whom
a family depended for the necessities
of iife.
Still Less Strength Required.
"As a result the women were first
taken from the home into the factory
and were paid wages not in accord
with services rendered but as an as
sistance to the support of the family.
As machinery again developed less
physical power again required for the
performance of the labor and the
child was taken. In the beginning of
this evil children of the most tender
years were taken from the home and
the school and placed to work in the
factories, thus depriving them of the
opportunity of full development, phys
ically, mentally and morally. In the
origin of the system of child labor,
working people were denied the right
of organization under the most string
ent laws. As a consequence the evils
of child labor were fully developed be
fore there was any one who cared to
remedy the evil.
Began in England.
"Take for instance the history of the
factory system of England. It is re
plete with the facts that emptoyers of
labor in their greed for child labor,
not being satisfied with the children of
the home went to the almshouses for
their child labor. The competition
among them becoming so strong they
even agreed to take so many imbecile
children to a certain number of able
bodied oneB.
"With the advent of the trades union
the evil was at once made apparent al
though under the ldws then exisiting
they had existed prior to this the evil
had become so thoroughly intrenched
that the factory owners had come in
control of practically all of the legis
lative functions and it required the ut
most endeavor of the working people
to even begin the eradication of It.
Dangers Became Apparent.
"But as the right of labor to or
ganize became more and more recog
nized, they were able to impress upon
a few legislators the dangers of child
labor to society and the state and a
gradual limitation of such labor was
brought about. The factory system,
having developed in England it was
there that the first effort was made by
trades unions.
Came to United States.
"With the origin of the factory sys
tem in the United States the child la
bor system was transplanted to our
shores. Unfortunately the free labor
of this time having so great an oppor
tunity for expansion when conditons
became oppressive trades unions were
slow in formation. As these howev
er developed the evil was again taken
up and as their influence became ap
parent laws were enacted against the
evil but as is always the case in the
origin of reform laws they were the
most faulty, apd were apparently en
acted by legislators for the pur
pose of quieting the so-called agitators
than as a remedy for the real evil.
Laws Became More Perfect.
"With the growth, however, of the
organizations and their Influence and
powers becoming more apparent by
degrees these laws were perfected and
the child of the Hew England states,
.jvhero our, Jl&ctorjr extern dwtal*
oped vaa given the opportunity of
physical, moral and mental develop
ment. It was but natural that the
exploiters of this particular labor up
on the perfection of the New England
laws could see new fields for such
exploitation.
Growth in Southern States.
"This was one of the great reasons
for ibc growth of the factory system
in the southern states, where statis
tics show that over fifty thousand
children between the ages of six and
twelve are at present employed work
ing twth and fourteen hours per
day for the most meagre wages and
growing up in ignorance. The labor
movement is by degrees making its
power and influence felt in these
fi^'.ds, and will within a very short
period be able to remove the child
from the factory in the school houses,
thus permitting the child the oppor
tunity of education to meet the trials
of life and to make it a more intelli
gent and higher order of citizen.
Not Developed in Iowa.
"In agi.'cultural Iowa it is but nat
ural that child labor has not yet
reached the evil so frequently reach
ed in the more highly developed fields
of the factory system. Even here,
however, at the factory system is de
veloping the employment of children
of tender years is growing. For in
stance census statistics show that
from .1870 to 1880 the total number of
employes of the state employed in
factory increased by less than 3 per
John W. Kitto, president of the
Trades and Labor assembly and chair
man of the day.
cent while child labor-under 16 years
of ago increased by more tan 127 per
cent. Eu'ing the next decade the
growth was not so rapid but from 1890
to 1900 the growth was again in ex
cess of 27 per cent. This makes it ap
parent that the evil should be eradi
cated from the state in order that its
citizenship may continue on the
same high plane so much vaunted.
Secured Legislation.
"During the last session of the leg
islature the State Federation of Labor
with the allied reform movements, se
cured a law providing that no child un
der sixteen years of age shall be em
ployed at dangerous machinery and
that children under fourteen years of
age must attend a school of a certain
standard during twelve weeks of the
school year. The law is faultily con
structed end oftentimes deprives the
child of the opportunities sought for
it by the organization instrumental in
its passage. Therefore one of the
great endeavours of the state federa
tion during the coming session of
the state legislature will be to have
a law enacted more in accord with
the most perfect laws of other states.
The state federation has placed itself
on record as favoring the abolition of
child labor for remuneration under 14
years and requiring the school at
tendance of all phyBicially able child
ren under the age of sixteen during
the entire shool year.
Convict Labor Evil.
"An effort will also be made to cor
rect the evil of our present contract
labor! system of the state. Organized
labor believes that the best interests
of the convicts require them to per
form labor, but they object that those
employed shall be employed under a
system that not only regulates the
price of the product of the free manu
facturer in like industry but also the
price of labor entering into such free
products.
"The free laborer is not injured be
cause of the labor performed because
under a perfect and well regulated
form of society all willing men should
undoubtedly have the right to labor
and society is benefited by the employ
ment of all willing labor. It would
therefore follow in a perfect system
that the amount of products of the per
fect system would not be augmented by
the labor of the convict Free manu
facturers and free labor are only injur
ed through oonvict labor by the pecul
iarities of the system giving the con
tractor unusual opportunities. For in
stance the contractor is not required to
furnish buildings, is furnished the heat
and the light, Is relieved of insurance
and other incidentals that are a con
siderable burden upon the free manu
facturer and is furnished the labor un
der the care of the state for aper diem
usually for one-third to one-fifth of that
paid by the free manufacturer.
Convict Labor Not Equal to Free.
"It is oftentimes claimed that the
labor of two or three convicts is re
quired to equal that of one free labor
er and this is urged as a reason for
the extreme low figure of the hire of
the convict. Statistics, however,
gathered by our national bureau of
statistics from all of the penal institu
tiona of the country prove that in real
ity ten convicts perform the labor of
eight free laborers under the contract
system, thus at once proving the great
advantages of the contractor in the
price of his produce over the price
of the product of the free manufac
turer.
Effect Is Injurious.
"That this competition is injurious
to th© free manufacturer is well evi
dent from the fact that ordinarily in
those lineB of goods manufactured in
penal institutions the free
manufacturer. Is driven from
Call for and insist on getting
the field. As an illustration take tM I
cooperage trade. Employers of free
labor have almost entirely' abandoned
the making- of that class of goods madtf
in the penml institutions. The same
is true in tihe manufacture of tha
grades of chialrs made in the penal in
sittutions ajod also in the manufacture
of agricultvtral implements made in
one of our state institutions. A few
years ago the button cutting industry
was introduced in one of our prisons^
but only on a small scale, being limit
ed immediately upon the advent of
this industry in our prisons. The state
federation of labor was able to use its
influence to prohibit the further enter
ing into or enlarging of contracts fn
this line. Yet it is a fact that while
the usages of 'other Industries are con
tinually advancing those in the import
ant button inidustry in the state ot
Iowa are gradually being reduced.
The state federation therefore pro
poses to use itts influence in having a
law passed slnailar to that in the state
of New York, itnder which the labor of
the convicts is* used in the making of
articles for thei state and county inst^
tutions. While- the volume of labor la
thus not decresused at the same time
the products of such labor does not
come, in competStion with the products
of free labor in. the regulation of the
product or the price of labor entering
into the product.
Free From f.abor Disputes.
"The state of'IcS wa has been unusual-*
ly free from labir disputes. Employ
ers as a rule ha-wla been broad enough
to concede to laijbor the right to or
ganize and bargain for the price of
their labor and the conditions under
which it shall lie performed. Our
labor organizations haive been con
servative and intelligent enough not
to make any unusual demands upon
employers with title result that our
state has been unusually free from la
bor disturbances.
A Disturbance Probably.
"This condition of things is appar
ently to be disturbed through the In
fluences of the mamufacturers associa
tion headed by D. M. Parry, whose
agents have been through the state
agitating the formation of associations
of employers with the object of not
conferring and entejring Into contracts
with labor unions and to gradually
discourage and eliminate the labor
movement from this industrial fleld.
The labor organizations have no objec
tion to the formation of organizations
of employers. In Uact they prefer to
deal with such organizations when
formed for reasonable purposes deny
ing to no man the .right accorded to
him by law and public sentiment. The
object of this association, however,
appears on its face ito be the denying
ot such rights to labor and placing it
in the condition of the feudal period.
We believe that thfe good sense oI
the general public will condemn and
drive out of existence any movement
having for its objecst discord, strife
and a desire to deny'the rights given
by law. It should therefore be tha
policy of organized laior and undoubt
edly will be to go on to the even tenor
of its way, never seeking or welcom
ing trouble with this organization,
but on the contrary wlhenever a quar
rel is forced upon it to take care of
itself in the same effective way that
has been promotive of the best inter
ests of the laboring classes hereto
fore.
CANAL FATE IS IN DOUBT.
Situation Between U. S. and Colombia
Said to be Strained.
Washington, D. C., Se?pt. 5.—The sit
uation regarding the canal negotla
tions between the United States and
Colombia have reached an acute stage,
according to the information given out
and the outcome of thle. affair is be
lieved to be in doubt.
"If Colombia neglects to ratify tha
treaty unamended, the United Statea
will be forced to take measures that
will be a source of regret to all friends
of Colombia."
This is the final wordSng of a long
cablegram of instructions to Minister
Beaupre at Bogota, sent in the lattel
part of July and just announced. The
sting in the final words rankles deep
in the breast of Colombia and has led
to such friction that the ratification of
the treaty is now conceded to be
practically impossible, even should.
there be an extension of time.
Dr. Herran Is in Disfavor.
Dr. Herran, Colombian charge d'af
faires, was shown the instructions to
Minister Beaupre the day they were
cabled. Herran was asked to notify
his government to the same purport.
He declined to do so.
O'MALLEY'S KI-KI 5° CIGAR
Since then the relations of Dr. Her
ran and the state department have
been somewhat strained and the critl
clsm passed upon the department's ac
tlon by Dr. Herran has not mended
matters.
Secretary Hay has asked Dr. Herran
whether or not the words attributed
to him in the interview are correct If
Herran admits their authenticity Sec
retary Hay intends to call Dr. Herraq
somewhat sharply to account.
IS
*1
•it' &
Hi-^
'•'iM
IT
"I
1
•T
4
I *lM
-um
1
Mb'--
State Department Responsible. 1
The state department, while it 14
reported, despite denials, to be impa«
tient with Minister Beaupre over hi(
failure to report promptly the proceed*
ings at Bogota does not for a moment
falter in its support of Beaupre so taw
as his official communications to Co
lombia are concerned. He has acted
strictly according to instructions, and
if there Is to be any blame for the bj-ua-:
que and coercive tone of American
notes the state department will shoul*
der it.
The department, however, is begin
ning to see that the treaty is probably
lost. Minister Herran said yesterday
he had about given up hope.
We are going to close out our depart*1 'V
ment of children's clothing and substl»
tute the finest lines oft men's cloth jng If
money will buy. Everything in boys
The Rock Island has reinstated the
Wilton and Muscatine train, ait
nulled by the recent retrmcbBMnt
orders.
.fHf.
"5 *11
J.i
A
it
1
and children's Clothing below age ot
16 will be closed oat at cost bon't a
rod
pay a profit when yon
save it for yourself.
can just as welt
The Hub.
J"

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