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&v 8®L": V% GIVE HOGS GOOD AIR. «c HI I t$C« Ventilation, an Important Feature of Winter Houses, Too Often ,vv bte fr iih llfc- Neglected. *"t (S. C. Miller.) Too many men who keep hogs pay no attention to the ventilation of their \J ... winter quarters, or If they attempt to hstfi-.: ventilate at all, they do little more •ysfc than leave a few cracks around the bottom through which the cold air -I can get In, but provide no way for it to get out Experience has shown that drafts are the prime promotors of colds, which develop Into pneumonia, and what is generally known as swine fever. It Is Important that the bottom boards of the hog house should be thoroughly well battened and the di visions between the pens should be .treated In the same way. Ample ventilation should be pro vided from the top of the house and not by underneath drafts. Who has sot seen hogs piled upon each other In cold weather, shivering, fighting to get Into a warm place? Under such conditions, it is Impossible for a hog to put on flesh, and there are pine chances to ten that he will take Sfe cold, which may develop into serious lung trouble. No less important than proper ven tilation is drainage, a floor that Will be absolutely impervious to dampness fcan be made or four parts gravel to one cement, making a floor of one knd a half inch thickness and top ping off with half an inch of sand and cement in the proportions of two parts sand to one of cement. This will give a two-inch floor, p^r tectly smooth and easy to sweep and iy* clean. It should have a pretty sharp fall, at least one-half inch per foot V- r~rone end to the other, in order -Vrj that the liquid manure can bo drained into a proper receptacle for distrlbu tlon to variouB parts of the farm. The floors of hog houses should be -Atii-C thoroughly cleaned every day. The 4' bedding should be kept dry, even if l| has to 1,6 spread out in another W a a BW every evening. Hogs will not thrive i$m£ £n damp, dirty, draughty quarters, and •Brisk? fci'.'. man who attempts to raise them *°r market under- these conditions is simply working against himself. He »ot only loses the greater portion of JEifit&fe bis feed, but his time and labor as WtwelL r, Overhead ventilation Is easily se ji, cured by leaving an open space of aay six Inches between the top of the outside wall and the r^of. An En ®1,sh farmer, who has had great suc cess with hogs, builds his houses with a section of the wall hung on a swivel t"s.pin in the middle, which can be flung open whenever sunlight and air is sjjrsiiv' needed. When the section is released, It swings back into an upright posi tion by gravitation. In order to let the rays of the sun Into every part of the building, the houses have been laid out north and south, so that by opening the wall shutters on the east side, the morn ing suri is let in, and by opening those on the west side, the rays of the TtlUfflfflDl N '•V. J.' Vj. tWJs* I' m- afternoon sun can penetrate to every part of the house, keeping it sweet and clean. Whitewash the hog house on some bright, warm day this fall and then it will b- light all winter, even if it does not have a large number of win dows. Plan to have the front of the house open on all nice winter days and a flood of sunlight will help to rid the place of any disease that may be lurk ing about. Dust should be avoided in the house. Keep it clean, and hoe it out Often. 'Bedding is cheap use plenty of it. Value of the Composite Heap. "'A veritable gold mine above ground Is the up-to-date composite heap. Every gardener if he be wise will have one. Lawn mowings, leaves, weeds, refuse from the house, garbage, feathers, old shoes, soap water, bones, sand, woolen rags, wood ashes, lime, plaster, sod, straw, etc., etc., begin a life of usefulness in the composite heap. The poultry yard yields its quota of rotten eggs and dead chickens, and an occasional adult fowl. Larger farm animals than the latter should be buried, but if they have died of a contagious disease burn them. .T, wv m? wnmt i^s Li WHY HORSES PULL BACK. Some Natural Laws Tliat All Horse men Ought to Know. (Dr. T. C. Currier, Minnesota.) Every horseman of experience and observation knows that whenever a horse gets his front foot over an ob struction of any kind and feels the pressure on the foot or leg—even if it is only six Inches above ground—he goes backward until he frees himself, even if he could step over the ob struction by a forward movement, and when the hind foot is fast, he goes forward. It is also well known that when the halter is put (lpon the colt's head for the first time and the "breaker" begins to pull on the halter, that the colt will invariably go backward to get out of the difficulty yet how many colt handlers ever stopped to consider for one moment why the colt goes in that direction in prefer ence to any other? And still every body knows this to be a fact. Every colt "breaker" realizes in the be ginning that it is a question of man power at one end of the halter and horse power at' the other. If there is more horse power than human strength, too often a confirmed hal ter puller follows. If the halter is broken in the struggle, a like result is quite evident. To still further illustrate this great natural law, just take up the front foot of a horse and carry it forward. Now carry the foot back under the body back of its center and a forward movement is the result. Then take up the hind foot and carry it back wards and the horse moves forward ID# City boys do not bare all the fun that is going. Damp quarters In the fall are none the best.- They are the cause of all winter lameness or soreness, the ex act location of which is a puzzle. Pig house floors must be dry, whether of cement or plank. I have had no experience with other than dirt and plank floors, and find the latter,' when placed ten Inches above the ground, to be easily kept dry. Clean, dry bedding Is always greatly/ appreciated by the hogs in fall and winter. for relief but carry it under the body forward of the center and the horse again attempts a backward motion to get away from its effect. Whenever a horse is seen to try the passage of a narrow doorway, gate, or between two posts, which makes pressure on both his sides, if he gets more than half way through, it is next to impossible to back him out. He seems determined to go on through, even if his hips are broken down in the attempt. As illustration of leading the dog for the first time is the same as that of the colt. He pulls back just the same, and if the leader is in a hurry he will go dragging the dog. But don't every small boy and nearly every old man know the direction a dog will take with a tin can tied to his tail? Now, should not these well known facts in relation to the natural laws make an impression on all horsemen strong enough that from this tii-.e forward they will work in conform ity with them Instead of everlast ingly opposing them for the trouble that can be so easily avoided? Leaf Mould for Plants. Leaf mould is a valuable and nec essary addition to the soil used in potting plants, In the hot bed, or for growing seedlings in the open air. It is also fine when used for a mulch on the lt,wn. It makes soil friable and aids root formation. Dig a hole large enough to accom modate the leaves you have gathered, and pack them in layers, tamping and watering each layer. Turn and water the leaves several times a year. Leaves may be piled in the fence corner, and soil and brush used to keep them from blowing away. Stir the leaves every few weeks, watering them thoroughly every tim» nii /%.' IX- kfo Iff l'*1 i' vM fpipp This sow and her twin sister took three first premiums at state fairs this tall. ..early perfect as high breeding can produce. Haul in the Fodder. It is a big waste to allow hay and fodder to stand in the field through all the fall rains and a part of the winter snows. With the present high prices for hay, enough will spoil in the stack to pay for baling the en tire amount, or even to buy a good shingle roof to cover it. Corn fod der deteriorates very rapidly when not under shelter. As soon as it is sufficiently cured, haul it in and care fully store under cover where the greatest amount of good can be had from It and where it will be on hand for bad weather. It is poor business to grow good feed and have It destroyed by field mice and rats ana the elements. Good Farm Buildings Pay. There Is no better Investment on the farm than good farm buildings. During a very rainy season, a farm will almost pay for itself in one year in the saving of feed alone, not count ing the gain in housing animals and saving of manure. It pays to builu too big a barn, rather than too small a one. It also pays to put good material into farm buildings. A good barn, built of good material, will last a lifetime and pay for itself many times over. Such substantial im provements, too, reflect the sub stantial character of the farmer, and count financially in the farm valua tion, when it is offered for sale. Facts for tlio wcatlierwiso. Dew is the moisture of the air con densed by coining in contact with bodies colder than Itself. The dew does not "fall" from the atmosphere or rise from the ground. There is never dew on a dull, cloudy night or on a windy night. It may be found on a grass plot and leave a gravel walk dry, because grass is a good radiator of heat and thus rapidly be comes cold a vapor of warm air com ing in contact with the cold grass Is instantly chilled into dew the gravel is a bad radiator and parts with its heat very slowly and therefore does not condense the warm air. Dew never falls on the human body. Riley's Ryo Patch. Whltcomb Riley was looking over a fence on his farm at a field of rye, when a neighbor who was driving by, stopped his horse and asked: "Hullo, Mr. Riley, how's your rye doing?" "Fine, fine," replied the poet. "How much do you expect to clear to the acre?" "Oh, about four gallons," answered Mr. Riley, soberly. Horses and Men. Society owes to the horse a debt of gratitude a thousand times greater than it does to thousands of men who abuse him. He has ministered to progress has made social intercourse possible when otherwise it would have been slow and occasional or altogether Impossible he has virtu ally extended the strength of man, aug mented his speed, doubled his time, decreased his burdens, and, becom ing his slave, he has relieved him from drudgery and made him free. For love's sake, for the sake of social life, for eminent moral reasons, the horse needs to be bred, trained and cared for with scrupulous care.— Henry Ward Beecher. Compensations. I may be poor but am not so poor in spirit as the parsimonious rich man. I may be lacking knowledge of tn*! niceties of social usage, but If I pos ess a kind heart I am fit for the high est plane of society. I have no grand pictures of sculp ture, but nature gives me her beauties with a lavish hand, for I understand and love her. News of the Farm. Before placing the potatoes in the cellar for the winter, let them rest in a dark, cool place for at least a month. The room in the cellar should be separated from everything else, and be .kept cool and dry. There are hundreds of thousands of acres of good farming land lyirig idle at this moment, simply because the owners have not studied drainage. A system of tiling costing $100 will often reclaim $500 worth of good land. Fixed rations are all right, if plenty of common sense is mixed with them, but it is a mistake to stick to one thing when the animal's appetite and your own good Judgment tells you something else ought to be used. The price of wire fencing has stead ily advanced, while the quality has steadily deteriorated. Some of the fencing now sold is almost worthless, and there is no redress from the trust- ., j-M i. 7js V.4 J"^" fin, Hi riHtetfwrViiT'rf'fr nth Mi* rtin 'iififtiifjv 4 Fine specimen of a Bronze Tom Turkey, bred in Massachusetts, and sold in October for $176. reasons why certain sections cannot successfully grow them. A country noted as a turkey-growing state will have its crop considerably shortened by unsettled weather after the spring rains.. Mrs., Hen Turkey needs no rain, save an occasional shower to cool off the atmosphere and freshen trees and grasses, after she has laid her eggs. She usually hides these In the brush or hay fields In turkey growing sections, for there the rais ers are not fearful of weather. In this section a rain of great force would drown all the poults hatched and flood the nests on the ground with tWo or three, inches of water. This would annihilate over 95 per cent of the first crop. The second hatches would be too late in attaining marketable size to be worthy of note. Where the climate is considered as being poor for turkeys, growers give every care to them. They never bother the, hen from the time she be gins to lay her first clutch until she begins to sit. Each day the egg laid is removed and when the time comes it is "set" in an incubator. The turkeys are hatched by a steady barn yard hen as she is given the eggs about three or four days before "due." The reason is this: Poults are hard to rear by hand and in brooders, and the tiirkey hen is robbed that she may continue to lay. A domestic hen will stand confinement well, but a turkey hen frets and tramps, about In a coop until half of .the poults are killed and she will not hover the youngsters when they need It. This is fatal. Cold and dampness are avoided with tjie use of a kind barnyard hen, as they are brooding continually, and, standing confinement, can be placed In sheltered places where dampness cannot hurt the poults. This method Is used in some places where turkeys would naturally do well because of its usefulness in raising more than the usual number. One young wo man in Texas who annually rears from 600 to 1,000 turkeys uses the methods here described. We have never known of poults being hatched by turkey or domestic hens and then She is a splendid type of Berkshire and her conformation Is as' Kentucky the Great Turkey State Thanksgiving Birds Not Easy to Raise in Matvy Sections, and Much SKill is Required. (By A. D. Burhans.) As an Item of information, will some one come forward with the num ber of city folks who know nothing of where their Thanksgiving turkeys come from? There are no statistics on this topic. Thousands of readers have an idea that Thanksgiving tur keys come from any farm, but such is not the case. Every farmer's wife cannot raise turkeys, for it requires or.e who has an abundance of pa tience and a world of persistence. Some localities are fatal to the grow ing of turkeys, while others are such that they thrive and multiply with out any considerable aid. Dampness, late springs, too short summers, and unsettled summer weather shorten the turkey crop In every locality wheja found. These are some of the being successfully reared by hand in numbers to make it a business. For late broods or poults the tur key hen does fairly well if she is tethered out in a small yard each morning until the dew Is oil the grass. Let a hen trail a dozen poults through wet grass before they are fully feathered and it is fatal. In Western Kansas and Nebraska on small ranches the poults are not much In danger of this, as the sdews are very light and often fojr weeks none will be noticed. Here it is that some one member of the family makes it a business to tend the turkeys the year round. A lad of sixteen has been known to raise, from first broods only, nearly 500 turkeys, and with im proved methods he cculd have easily doubled It. This boy paid his own way through a* large state university T*r He is three years old from the proceeds of his flock of tur keys, as particular buyers knew how he got out early broods, fed bone making feeds, herded them daily in wheat fields and meadows where mil lions of grasshoppers were to be had how he fattened them wholly on old corn, and drove miles with some one to help him gather acp.rns for finish ing feed. He raised a few acres of mammoth sunflowers each year, be cause he discovered that the oil in them made a glossy feather unlike any other seed. Plumage and health are two great factors in the sale of whole flocks to large shippers. A brother has taken up the work of tur key growing where this one left off, and he, too, is succeeding. The crop of turkeys for 1905 has been estimated as being'much lighter than last year's, which will make them somewhat more expensive in price. To raise prices a trifle more, the chicken and waterfowl crop is 20 per cent less than the previous season. Possibly the crop is even lighter than this. The season in the west is unusually late' and more small turkeys will be seen as a consequence. Hence, thirty to thirty-five pounders will be in greater demand for family reunions. -But it is not the large tur "key that tastes best ty any means. Medium size is preferred by the aver age buyer. Inquiries in Wisconsin, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Nebraska, Mis souri, Tennessee, Kentucky, Ohio and Indiana all substantiate the lateness of the turkey crop again this year. This year farmers are in no need of early fall cash, as their crops are good, and they are fortunate, as every day adds to their turkeys' value. Kentucky is one of the states pro ducing good turkeys. Most of them "Just grow" there without any par ticular raising. From the single buy ing station of Lexington more than two and a half million pounds of tur key meat was shipped out last last season. This means sixty-nine car loads of turkey meat of twenty tons each. The whole number of turkeys shipped from this state is something. enormous, an re so pa in '•5»%V «•& A-Ci 4* n* that some of them might get away! Illinois Is ordinarily a damp state for turkeys, but in 1900 nearly 500,000 were raised there. Texas raised 650, 000 the same year Kansas a few thousand more than Texas New York Is credited with 140,000 turkeys in 1900, but in 1890 she managed to raise four times as many. Indiana, Ohio and Iowa raise nearly the same number each, though Iowa claims the largest number. The per cent of families where the national bird is not found on Thanks giving is very small, and in bounteous years this per cent is hard to find in deed. Years when the prices go soar ing because of the supply being so much smaller than the demand, cause the crop to be taken quite clean. Even too many are sold for the next breed ing season's good. Pet turkeys that are raised by hand by the sons or daughters of the farm are sacrificed in years when prices are good. Per sonal likes and love for the pets are not taken into consideration when the turkey buyers comes to the farm. On small farms the turkeys are hauled to market by the woman of the farm but thousands of flocks are driven into market In Texas, western Ne braska and Kansas. Buyers scour the country weeks before we begin to get ready for Thanksgiving and contract in advance for every turkey they can buy. The early buyer generally gets the birds if he is offering a good price, but many times there is a splr lted bidding for the choice flocks by as many as a dozen buyers. THE FARM VETERINARIAN. A cure that has been highly recom mended for foot-rot in sheep is a mix ture of equal parts of sulphur and salt and one-fourth part alum, all pul verized and mixed well. Dr. Law recommends the following remedy for stomach worms in sheep: Arsenious acid, 1 dram sulphate of iron, 5 drams powdered nux vomica. 2 drams powdered nreca, 2 ounces common salt, 4 ounces. This is suf ficient for thirty sheep and should be fed with ground feed once or twice a week. For founder in horses, 'blister all around the top of the hoof. For this purpose, use equal parts of ammonia, turpentine and raw linseed oil. Car bollzed vaseline applied afterwards is a good thing. Pure lard and carbolic acid in the proportion of two parts lard to one part acid is an excellent remedy for abrasions or raw sores of any kind on animals. The mixture should be kept in a tightly covered Jar in a cool place. Some old-fashioned horse doctors still recommend bleeding at the jug ular vein for blind staggers. This op eration, if performed by the ordinary farmer, will result in death to the animal in nine 'cases out of ten. The disease of husk, or hoose, in cattle, which is common in the late summer and fall, is caused by a para site which gains access to the pul monary tissue and bronchial tubes Affected animals should be at once removed from the herd and treated by fumes of sulphuric acid and chlorine vwimwWm 4 ••iV-ii-ki A handy and practical corn loader. Jour men with two teams. gas. But this should be doAe under the direction of a veterinarian. BIoa.t. In sheep may sometimes be cured by.'an ounce of hypo-sulphite of soda and one dram of aromatic spir its of ammonia in a cupful of quite warm water. The dose should be re- peated every, hour unfjll relief from BIG CROPS ON A SMALL FARM My farm Is a ten-acre lot, so I nec essarily do things on a small scale. But the scr.-.o things can be repeat ed on a larger scale. In May, I sowed one and one-half acres of millet on deeply plowed ground. This •tfraB out August 2d, and removed In a few days. The ground was cultivated thoroughly. August 12th I sowed the follow ing mixture for hog pasture: En glish blue grass, ten *pounds Bro mus inermus. five pounds timothy, five pounds total, twenty pounds. A good rain in a few days gave It a good start. In October It was eight to 12 inches high. 1 pastured it lightly. Last spring it started well alfalfa, clover and blue grass racing for su premacy timothy later and Brome grass nowhere seed not good. June 1st the field was beautiful to behqld, the dark green alfalfa, the clovar coming in bloom and the English blue grass nodding above them both the whole standing about two feet high and not a weed In sight. On June 10th I cut the grass anl on the 12th put it in the barn in per fect shape. I had three loads of at least three tons of excellent hay. July 1st, after twenty days' growth, it was eighteen inches high with* al falfa well In the lead.* I cut at least three tons more of No. 1 .hay. I got six tons of hay from 1% acres, worth in the barn at least $36. I will pas ture the land with red hogs, being careful not to pasture It short. From my observation and a little experi ence, I reach the following conclUlfc' sions: From a mixed seeding one gets aV thicker and better stand of grass, Sow in August or early September on well prepared ground: there will then be no loss of one crop- and no cutting of weeds In the spring sowing. Sow plenty of seed. You will get more hay and much more pasture. JAMES McGUIRE, .. Kansas. REMEDIES FOR POULTRY ILLS. For diarrhoea, slight case*, a few drops of spirits of camphor in the drinking water, 2. A half teaspoon ful of paregoric daily. 3. Give a tea spoonful of soda •fcrater (made by us ing three teaspoonfuls of bicarbonats of soda to a pint of water). 4. Use charcoal, finely ground, In feed and water. For Indigestion, a gill of linseed meal to each dozen hens. 2. A tea spoonful of fenugreek In the mash for every ten fowls. For leg weakness, a pill composed of a half grain of quinine, one grain of sulphate of iron and five grains of phosphate of lime. 2. Ten drops of tincture of nux vomica in a quart of drinking water. For limberneck, night and morning give a pill of asafoetlda about the size of a pea. 2. Four or five drops of turpentine in a spoonful of castor oil, or make it into a pill with wheat flour. 3. Mix sweet oil and oil of turpentine, equal parts, and give from ten drops to a teaspoonful of the mixture to each afflicted bird after it has fasted for several hours. For pip, anoint the tongue with vaseline. 2. A small bit of butter the size of a nut and a bit of aloea of the size of a pea, mad4 Into a pill and put down the throat. For rattling in the throat, give grown fowls a half teaspoonful every morning of a mixture composed of equal parts of vinegar and water. Give ten "drops dally of a mixture composed of one part spirits of tur pentine with four parts of sweet oil. For scaly legs, rub with an oint ment made of equal parts of kero sene and melted lard. 2. One-third carbolic acid to two-thirds glycerine. Glycerine has a tendency to soften and bring out the color on shanks and toes that have become dry and harsh. Before using any ointment on a fowl's legs, it is best to thoroughly wash them with warm water and car bolic soap. For sore eyes nothing better than a drop of glycerine. For sore head, a little bromide of potassium in the drinking water, and then anointing with carbolized vase line.—M. IC. Boyer. Among the needed reforms on tha trotting turf none are fnore appar ent than those In connection with scoring for the word, fqr under the present system, in fast classes espe. daily, horses are put to fully as much effort before they reach the wire and before returning for another attempt as they are after the word is given. Two men with this loader can do as much work at Never buy a horse whose toes tun' out. He Is likely to Interfere, as tb« ISfe fetlocks are generally turned in.^. A blind on a bridle is an abom ination and a horse properly trained will drive better without blinds than with them. They are hot and un« comfortablo In "summer time. 'M'