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if w,« fWit I IIP vtijj & Urn Mr p. £1? s}-3 MILLIONS IN SKIM MILK Dairy Products of Enormous Value, but Farmers Are Not &i.' Making Most of Them. BY W. MILTON KELLY. The value of the dairy by-products v. of the country for one year amount ®SfbSto more than $50,000,000, according to 'gj^an estimate made by the Department of Agriculture, and this is a very con servative estimate. The item of dairy ^products, you can readily see, is one jjj of vast importance and is well worthy &|j,'::Of our careful attention and study. Skim milk is by far the most impor |j «tant by-product from the dairy and the ^iibeat adapted to varied and profitable fiste uses. Skim milk as a human food is unappreciated by most farmers, but fe^it has been tested under various con SfeKdltions by food experts and has proven a useful portion of an every-day diet for many people. The use of skim milk ought to be encouraged and would ai'jf result in finding city markets for a liifei large amount of this valuable by-prod uct. A report from one of our leading col leges contains the following: Skim milk has all the protein and half of the full value of the whole milk and is in most localities the most econom ical source of animal protein. The food elements in skim milk are equal in physiological value to those of meats and are far less expensive. As an "article to substitute for water ill the preparation of various dishes, as well as for others that are made main ly of milk, there is no waste, but a decided gain in food value. In making bread skim milk will add to the weight and nutritive value of the loaf. Used in place of water sufficient flour may be saved to pay for the milk and yet produce a loaf of equal weight and of more actual food value. Milk bread is richer in fatty matter and superior in flesh-forming elements, which is sci entifically explained as being due to the casein of milk being incorporated With the fibrin of the flour. The sale of skim milk to bakers and confectioners should be encouraged and is capable of being largely increased. $ Used in this manner it may be made V- to net the consumer $1 per cwt, or more than a large per cent of the farmers and dairymen realize for their ,v, whole milk. *,/ As a food for domestic animals skim milk occupies the most conspicuous position of any foodstuff, especially as a feed for young and growing animals. The facts which seem to have been proven by the various experiments are as follows: 1. Skim milk gives the best returns when -fed to very young animals, con- stitating the larger part of their ra tions. 2. It is next best for animals making rapid growth, but which need other feed than milk, mainly of a carbona ceous nature. 3. Except for very young animals skim milk gives the best returns when used in combination with other foods, generally grains. 4. No class of live stock will give larger returns for skim milk than poultry of various kinds. At the New York experiment station chickens were grown successfully on a diet composed mainly of skim milk, although they were allowed a run of the fields during the time when they were being fed this ration. It was estimated that at the best, after al lowing from 25 to 50 cents per cwt for the skim milk and some other feed in proportion, the cost of producing one pound of live weight was less than 6 cents at the time when the birds •weighed three pounds. During this time the milk was fed sweet, but it has been found equally satisfactory when fed thick and lop pered, and the waste is less in the lat ter form. Many of the most practical feeders believe that skim milk is frorth from 50 cunts to $1 when fed to turkeys and poultry. If a premium were offered for the most rapid gains in pig feeding, my opinion would be that some man skilled In feeding skim milk with other foods would carry off the prize. Pro fessor Henry of Wisconsin, without doubt the highest living authority in America on feeding domestic animals, says the following regarding the value of skim milk as food for swine: "Skim milk has a value as a feed for stockmen that is higher than merely serving as a substitute for grain. All of the constituents of milk are digesti ble and this valuable by-product of the creamery is rich in bone and blood building constituents." The writer held experiments in which milk and other feeds were fed to pigs for the purpose of ascertaining the ef fect of these feeds on the muscle and bone of the hogs. It was found by ac tually testing the bones that milk made the strongest bones of any feed that was fed. Authorities seem to differ as to the merits of sweet and sour milk as a teed for swine, but my experience con vinces me that either is desirable, but the sudden change from sweet to sour and from sour to sweet must be avoid ed in feeding any kind of domestic ani mals. fflS Calves appear to be the next in favor as profitable consumers of skim milk, and some feeders appear to think that they can feed their skim milk to calves and" derive more profits from it than reeding it to swine, but this depends •o a large extent upon the good qual 'tles of the animals that are being fed. In feeding skim milk to calves 1 cent's worth of oilmeal will take the place of a pound of butter fat that has been removed from the milk. Be sides, when the milk Is fed warm from the separator It is better for the calves than milk that Is cold and sour. A young animal that is fed on skim milk with mill feed or grains may be made to weigh almost as much as one of similar breeding and fed on whole jnllk with tbe same kind of grains at 1 year of age. Calves for veal may be started on tatfiolo milk ani then gradually changed W... onto skim milk and fed for a while and then made ready for market by feeding for a week or two on whole milk to put on a smooth finish and improve their sale. In feeding skim milk to calves over feeding is dangerous and must be avoided. Calves arc more easily made sick by being fed poor milk than pigs. Skim milk has also been fed to lambs, horses and colts with success. Some dairymen feed it to their cows pnd find it of more or less value. We have fed it to our cows, mixed with their grain, and think it could be profitably used for that purpose if there were no other animals to which it could be fed. Buttermilk ranks close to skim milk in feeding value, but its physical con dition requires that more care be ex ercised in feeding it than required In feeding skim milk. As a stock food we have found but termilk better adapted for pigs than for any other animals, but would not advise feeding it to very young pigs. As a feed fcr swine our experience has led us to believe that it Is about the same feeding value as skim milk. We would, however, prefer skim milk on account of Its being less liable to derange the animal's digestive system. Whey is a by-.product from cheese and possesses more or less feeding value when fed to swine in a judicious manner. Most of the feeders prefer to feed it sweet. Some experiments show that it Is of about one-half the feeding value of skim milk as a feed for calves, but from our own experience we doubt the truth of such an experiment. THE FIRELESS COOKER This cooker is becoming extremely popular and they are being manufac tured and sold at $8 for a single vessel and $12 to $16 for larger sizes. They can easily be made by any handy man at practically no cost. Provide a strong wooden box and place in the center a vessel of the size desired. This vessel should hold from 2 to 3 gallons and should be of heavy block tin or good enameled ware, which is better. First cover the bottom of the box with a sheet of asbestos and on top of that place a layer of hay packed tightly. Then place the vessel in the milmii IllUidll center of the box and pack It all around closely with hay. This should then be covered with heavy cloth in order to keep the particles of hay from falling into the vessel. On top of this place a cushion 3 or 4 inches thick stuffed with hay. The lid should close tightly and be fastened with a clasp. The cooker will be Improved if the box is lined throughout with asbestos before packing with hay, although thnt is not absolutely necessary. Bring meat, vegetables, cereals or other food to a boil on the stove, then place in the cooker, closing all down tight. The food will be thoroughly cooked in from six to eight hours. Cereals placed In the cooker at night come out in the morning cooked to a turn. The govern ment is using these cookers for march ing parties. The food is placed in the vessels in the morning and when the soldiers go into camp at night the food is thoroughly cooked and can be placed before the men iu a very short time. AGRICULTURAL EDUCATORS NEWS •Sill PROFESSOR EUGENE DAVENPORT Dean College of Agriculture, Univer sity of Illinois. Thomas Edison says he has invented a dangerless electric motor which will run a hundred miles without recharge at the rate of twenty miles an hour and that farmers living near electric lines will find them better and cheaper than the old-fashioned buggy. The American Sunday School asso ciation has offered a prize for the best original article on "Christian Princi ples In Our Rural Districts: How to Make Th"» rvvrtrolllng 4* Influence." Ml AND BEE STINGS AS MEDICINE Poison Secreted by Insect Con tains Formic Acid, Which Is Useful. BY F. G. HEBMAN. To all students of the common honey bee the fact of their marvel ously varied functions is well known. The bee gathers honey, which it di gests and stores. It gathers pollen which it digests, regurgitates and feeds to the brood and also the queen and drones. They also gather propolis, by means of which they glue their combs to the hive and cover over of fensive matter in the hive. They also use this to stop up cracks and smooth over rough places. They secrete wax, which is very In teresting in its make-up, transfer it from the under side of their abdomen, where it is secreted, to the mouth, where it is kneaded and fashioned into the most wonderful mechanism known to the animal kingdom—the beautiful, matchless honeycomb. Thus we see the bees really perform a variety of operations which are hardly excelled even by man himself. Yet there is still another product which the honey bee furnishes to the commercial world of which I wish to speak particularly. As many know, the worker bees of each colony are sup plied with an organ which is of great importance—namely, the sting. For without- this weapon the hard-earned stores of the hive would soon be a prey to all manner of marauders. The sting of the be^ is connected at its base with the poison sack. Poison glands pour an acid secretion into this sack, whence it is conveyed to the tip of the sting. Chemical tests have shown that formic acid contains con siderable medical as well as antisep tic properties. That bee stings as an article of med icine are becoming more and more pop ular with each succeeding year, espe cially among homeopaths, is not to be questioned. The properties of bee poison are most wonderfully effective in the human system. I have for a number of years been called upon to furnish this article to the medical profession, and it is no doubt startling to the reader to know how bee stings can be made an article of commerce. My first order, some years ago, was for 20,000 bees to be delivered alive in a large bottle. To say that this order disturbed my sleep for a night or two is putting the matter rather mild. I wanted to fill the order, but did not know how to bottle the bees and keep them alive during transportation. I finally de cided to have made a large tin oblong funnel, with a sliding gate in the tube. The purpose of the gate is to prevent the bees from crawling out when once inside the bottle. My method is to open a hive, find the comb with the queen and set it aside, then take as many of the other combs as I desire from this particular hive, and shake the bees into the fun nel the gate is then closed while an other hive is opened. The funnel of ourse must fit into the mouth of the ,ottle and be made bee-tight to pre vent those bees which are on the in side from escaping. After the bees were safely bottled another difficulty arouse, and that was the great danger of the bees suffocat ing, for they seemed to fall to the bot tom of the bottle and lie there like so many beans, the side of the bottle being too slippery for them to cling to. I now make a post with several cross •irms for the bees to cluster upon. This permits the air to circulate all around. the cluster and the bees are able to stand a much longer period of confinement. The mouth of the bot tle is covered .with one or two thick nesses of cheese cloth and the bees de Hvered by messenger. Sometimes I am instructed to make the solution before shipping. This is done by shaking the bees violently 'for a minute or two after being bottled, which process agitates them so that they become enraged and extend their stings, when immediately a quantity of alcohol is poured over them. The bottle is then tightly corked and paraf fined and delivered. FROM THE FARMER'S WINDOW The farmer's window Is a good place from which to look over the world. The opinion we form of matter and things depends very much upon the point of view we occupy. The valley is not the best place to take far looks at the world. Often the fog hangs over everything there. Mist settles about objects, hiding the prospect. But climb the hilltop and we get a better view. Then we are above the fog and the mists everything stands out In clear outline. The farmer of the present time holds a. high position in the world. From this nositian Vi» js qjjple i««ir out VIEWS iS' 0F and see beyond the range of vision of other men. He has more time to think about what he sees, too. There Is less of noise and confusion. Estimates formed in the quiet of the farmhouse are more apt to be correct than when made in the hurry and bustle of the hot. unnatural life of the city. As the farmer turns his eyes out ward from his window he sees some things he is sorry for. Grave prob lems present themselves, and yet there are many things to make the heart glad. On the whole this is a good world. There is more of good than bad in it. And it is the work of the farmer, by every means in his power, to increase the good and do away with the bad, as far as possible, thus mak ing the world better and happier. Past the farmer's window runs a good, clean, smooth public highway. As we waich ihe procession passing over this fine thoroughfare the mind runs back to the rough corduroy roads that were the first roads of the coun try. We have outlived the day when we traveled by the mark of the ax on the trees along our route. The change has come gradually and it has been a costly thing, costly in money and cost ly in good, hard work, but the change SIX JERSEY COWS Six Jersey cows bred by the Missouri station at Columbia. These cows average 16.6 pounds of butter per week. They show enormous capacity for feed and are therefore ideal milkers. has come. But there is much we have to learn yet about roads. The wise men of the nation are beginning to pay some attention to the subject, and it is high time they did, for our laws re lating to the highways are very chao tic. In some places the expense of building and maintaining a public thoroughfare is borne by farmers grouped in districts. Some states have made it possible for the work to be done by money tax. Instead of by days' work, as in the beginning. Some other states are assuming part of the ex pense in constructing the highways. None of these ways are satisfactory, and surely the lack of uniformity is highly undesirable. There is a grow ing feeling that our highways are more than neighborhood lines of travel that they are national thoroughfares and as such should be built and main tained by the general government. Those who hold this opinion point to the millions on the back of millions which have been spent to Improve the rivers and harbors of the country. If the waterways of the United States are charged upon the public treasury, why not the great highways that run across the country, a mighty network for the country to do its business over? The question is a fair one and w-ill have to be answered soon. Congress has al ready studied the problem a little and will think about it still further when pressed to do It by public sentiment. Still another system of travel sweeps past the farmer's window, and this time it is the great Iron highway, with its breath of fire and its noise of thun der. Following it the eye turns away to the great Northwest Territory, where lines are projected to the far Pacific coast and northward as far as Hudson's bay. What a change the building of these lines will work for the farmers not only of Canada but of the whole world! The farmers of the United States have been feeling the impulse of the drift toward the north west for a couple of years. But this will only be a drop in the bucket com pared to the exodus which will in all likelihood take place when these new lines of railway' have opened up the great reaches of good farming lands that lie in the direction traversed by them. How will that influx of popula tion affect the production of wheat and other grains? Will it bring the price of those crops down? Will our own vast grainlands In the west be aban doned? This question may be answered in part by the figures sent out by the immigration bureau from day to day. As long as thousands upon thousands are hurrying westward in search of homes, there Is no need for us to wor ry about the grain-growing capacity of the United States. Sometimes we have been afraid that the mighty influx of immigration into this country would sweep our nation away from its moorings. Past the farmer's window in an endless stream they go—men from the north of Eu rope, men from the troubled homes of Russia, men of dark faces from the hot countries of southern Europe. What will become of us If this tide keeps up? We ask the question and find no answer. There can be none until time has worked out the problem. But if we keep close watch upon the character of the men who come, shutting out every one who does not come with honest purpose, we need not be dis turbed over the result. We can take care of every man and woman who really wants to make a home with us. All th* rest ought to be sent back. No, what would be better—they should be kept back on the other side of the sea. This we are trying to do. We are suc ceeding more and more. The broomcorn harvest of central Illinois last year produced material for about 18,000,000 brooms. Oklahoma turned out about 25,000,000 of a coars er quality and Kansas about 5,000,000. The latter state raises nearly all the broomcorn u§ed in whisk brooms. ?i -a-'-v ,(,j FARMERS ADVICE IS 35 YEARS OLD What a Writer in the Early Days Thought About Poul try Raising. The writer has been more or less interested .« poultry for the past thir ty-flve years, and has in his possession literature that dates back to that time. It is indeed interesting to know, in these times of changes and Improve ments, that the advice given at that early date was generally very sensible, and much of it has not been changed at the present day. Here are a few extracts from a jour nal long since defunct: Farmers who cannot by any of the means adopted prevail upon their hens to lay in the winter seasQn, when eggs are generally scarce and command high prices, are advised to try what virtue there is in milk. The experiment has been successfully tried in Connecti cut, and if successful there why not in Pennsylvania or any other state? After all is said and done in regard to fattening fowls, it is doubtful whether there is any better food for this purpose than sweet cornmeal. Feed it frequently during the day, not less than four or five times, begin ning early in the morning and giving the last as near roosting time as pos sible. Give only as much as the fowls will eat with a relish. Feed it raw, not ground too fine, and moistened with a little water. Brahmas are hardy, stand the cold well, are remarkably exempt from dis eases at all ages, are good winter lay ers, and, what Is of the utmost Im portance, their chickens can be raised with a less percentage of loss from sickness or feebleness than any other blooded breed whatever. The droppings of the hen roost are among the best fertilizers that ac cumulate on the farm. They are fully equal to the best Peruvian guano. Be ing too powerful to be used alone, they should be composed in the proportion of two parts of good soil or mulch to one of the droppings. Thus prepared it will be found almost invaluable for any crop, especially strawberries. We would therefore ask the farmer who permits his fowls to roost on trees, fences, plow handles, wagons, etc., sub jecting them to accident and disease, and of course wasting their valuable droppings! whether it would not be a profitable investment to build a com fortable henhouse? Think the matter over, at your leisure. We sold this day sixteen dozen eggs for $8. These eggs were from forty five laying hens in the last week. These were hatched out last March their quarters are above ground, light, dry and airy, sheltered by houj/e, barn and high board fence, from all winds except south and southwest. Their food is a variety at break of day a warm mess of five parts shorts, one part meal at noon meat of any kind, with a little tallow of some kind chopped fine at night corn, no more at either meal than they will eat greedily. We keep by them all the time pure water (warm very cold mornings), slaked lime, ground oyster shells, oats, cabbage, wood ashes, dry sand and gravel. We don't believe in keeping hens over, except a few choice fowls to breed from. We dqn't believe in hens hatched after April we believe in having plen ty of eggs from the middle of October during the months following when eggs are high. We are not particular as to breed, cxcept that we want large, lively hens. We change cocks every year and look for good-sized, smart fellows. We love our hens, keep their houses clean, and save their droppings as the best fertilizer on the farm. ART IN CULTIVATING CORN I think not many farmers realize the value of the main roots of corn or the nature of the growth. One summer discovered that the roots of some of my corn six weeks old were as long as the stalks, and they spread out five or six inches in all directions beneath the surface. In the first cultivation I hold the shovels as closely as possible to the young hills of corn and allow them to go down five inches or more in order to loosen the dirt and permit the air to freely circulate in the soil. After the first plowing I use my sur face riding cultivators with four blades, two on each side of the row, about twenty inches long and three inches wide, that skim under the surface about two Inches, and behind the blades is a drag which Is held at a proper angle by a stiff spring. This drag should be so set as to level the ground and at the .same..time..It., will, pull to t.. •"i.-'i the surface and leave exposed to the sun all weeds that been cut oft by the knives two inches below. The cut ting of the weeds below the surface will destroy the roots and the tops be ing left on the surface will soon dry out and die. I don't believe any general rule can be drawn as to how many times corn should be cultivated other than to say again good judgment should- be used, according to condition of season and soil. Sometimes it is only necessary to cultivate three times at other times we must go through the fourth, and In extreme cases I put men into the field with single horse and a small five to eight toothed surface cultivator after the corn is well in the tassel. This latter would occur during an extreme ly dry year. I am not favor of ridging corn with our central Illinois prairie soil when laying corn by. Instead prefer to have my surface plow blades set at an angle so they will barely throw a light covering into the hills, which may cover up any small weeds, but not to make what one would call a ridge. I can see no object in ridging, for at laying-by time th^ corn roots form a complete network from one row to the other and the center of the rows needs protection as well as the hill.—Eugene Funk, Bloomington, 111. SELECTING A GOOD FEEDER A great deal of good corn is wasted In feeding leggy steers. In selecting feeders pick out the animal whose body Is close to the ground. He should be as nearly as possible in the shape of an oblong block. If he is narrow in front and wide behind it shows that he is of a dairy breed and will not take on flesh rapidly. The picture here with is that of a steer fed with twenty 'five others last year and was the only one in the lot which made no profit for the owner. Observe his long legs and narrow hindquarters. Avoid all such animals. A GREAT WEED KILLER This harrow is designed for cultivat ing corn and other crops just before the plants are up, or while they are young. By removing the center teeth it will straddle a corn row and cover every inch of the ground thoroughly. £cv} }e A,Uimto The material used should be 3x3 inches and the teeth should be set to stand backward at an angle of about 45 de grees. They should be square and set diagonally so that the sharp edge will come in front. The real Irish shamrock has been discovered growing in its native con dition within the limits of New York. Many people are sure that the sham rock is the wood sorrel, while many others claim that it Is white clover. There are those who deny that St. Patrick used the shamrock as the sym bol of the Trinity, and declare that the watercress is the real thing. The little town of Cannon City, Col., shipped over $500,000 worth of apples last year. The fruit growers of that section supplied the market with strawberries all through September and October and In some cases ship ments were made for the Thanksgiving trade. A company of New Orleans men has been formed for the development of 18,000 acres of land In the lower coast section. It will all be planted in oranges and garden truck. Each student leaving the Northern Minnesota School of Agriculture will be given a quart of No. 13 red corn and one apple, tree, GET BETTER THINGS TO EAT Uncle Sam is Forcing Manty facturers to Live Up to De mands of Food Law. It is good news that Dr. Wiley *1 the Agricultural Department is send ing out regarding the operations of the pure food law. .He declares that per cent of all manufacturers of and dealers In foods, drinks and drugs are supplying pure goods to their cus tomers and labeling them correctly. When the pure food law was pro posed dishonest manufacturers sent up a pitiful wall that the business would be destroyed, but Dr. Wiley insists that this was pure buncombe and that no disturbance has resulted. On the con trary, In many cases where manufac turers have been compelled to label their products to show exactly what they are the volume of business has .In creased amazingly. People who wero afraid to eat stuff that was shrouded in mystery now buy It because the label shows exactly what It Is. The great majority of manufactur ers and dealers are absolutely honest, and therefore the law did not affect them at all, so it has proved to be a good thing all around. The only people who are really try ing to oppose the law are the meb who make rectified whisky and thosa who use chemical preservatives in the preparation of foods and the makers of artificial or imitation flavors and colors. As nobody Is obliged to drink whisky there is really no need for alarm In that quarter, but the government is prosecuting the dishonest manufac turers with such vigor that there is good reason for the hope that we may in time even get pure whisky—if we want it. The government has been extremely active in prosecuting drug manufac-, turers, and the mails have been re fused to a large number of fake prep arations. It has been found that in many cases the percentage of alcohol,' cocaine or opium stated on the label does not correspond with the quantity: found in the preparations, and hun dreds of cases have been prosecuted. Dr. Wiley is confident that the year: 1908 will witness very few violations of the law because manufacturers and dealers now understand that the gov-i ernment is in deadly earnest in this matter, and that if they offer for sale! products harmful to health or incor rectly labeled, even if they are not harmful, they must suffer the pen alty. For all of this the great American people are thankful. 4 NUBBINS OF FAflM NEWS Samuel and David Lynn, father and son, farmers of Buchanan county, Mis souri, are accused of having shot out the eyes of Mrs. Mollie Seamour, the daughter of Samuel Lynn, in la, quar rel. The blind woman made a pitiful spectacle in court, but her father and brother seemed unmoved. The honey produced in the United States last year would load a string of freight cars from Chicago to New York. "This is certainly sweetness long drawn out." Boy hunters in Lee county, Illinois, turned in 512 crows in one month and' received a bounty of 10 cents' for each head. They also produced the scalps of 142 ground hogs at the same time. At a rabbit hunt between the town'? and country boys at Stafford, Kan, the town boys got 445 and the country| boys 458. There were twenty guns on each side and the wager was a suppei for the entire crowd. So many citizens of Chicago have, gone into the chicken business that an ordinance has been recently passed by. the city council forbidding the fowls to be rstls&d within fifty feet of a dwelling and providing for the licens ing of fowl raising and the sanitarj inspection of coops, roosts and nests. Boston bean lovers will be interested to know that the Michigan crop was BfL per cent of a full yield last year, but there are still about 4,000,000 bushels available for consumption. This will be sufficient to hold us all- for a while, The Chicago butter and egg board" la now undertaking to educate house wives so they may tell the difference between real butter and butterine. This is believed to be in the interest of pure butter producers. Charles H. Easily has 160 acres 61'* fruit near Golden, Col., and has real ized over $60,000 from cherries along^ during the past fifteen years. ?f.' It is estimated that 1.500.000 fruit trees will be set out in the Yakima valley next spring. ft? •Am PRUNING STRAWBERRY PLANTS 1 When you receive your strawberrj plants prune the roots as shown In tha picture before setting out.