OCR Interpretation

Ottumwa tri-weekly courier. [volume] (Ottumwa, Iowa) 1903-1916, May 08, 1909, Image 5

Image and text provided by State Historical Society of Iowa

Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn86061215/1909-05-08/ed-1/seq-5/

What is OCR?

Thumbnail for

Deep Cultivation Destroys Mil
.lions of Bushels of Corn
,-,'V Every Year.
•^tThe drawings from which the Illustrations In
Ibis article were made are by Professor Andrew
H. Soule, Georgia Agricultural college.]
The deep set corn plow ripping its
devastating way through the roots of
the plants, creating .havoc at every
ump, is a familiar sight in the corn
lelt and in every state where corn is
The damage to the growing corn and
the consequent loss of grain by check
ing the growth of the plant cannot,
of course, be estimated, but that the
damage runs- into millions of bushels
Is not to be doubted.
Too many farmers hava yet to learn
that deep plowing in the cornfield
should be done before planting and
not after. When it is known that corn
roots penetrate the ground—and hard
ground at that—to the depth of three
feet or more, and also spread out on
each side for an equal distance, the
-damage from deep plowing is apparent.
If corn is cultivated deeply and the
plow runs close to the plant, the lateral
roots are broken and those not dis
turbed grow deeper into the soil. But
the reduction in the number of roots,
Df course, lessens the ability of the
pianos to take up moisture and plant
mi n.«au radical* teeh*& Vtc. Z. Th* •asarw Indicate fwt
tood and the result is to dwarf the
plant and reduce the yield of corn.
If the seed bed has been put into
first-class condition the first cultivation
can be moderately deep, because the
roots will not have attained a growth
_,'»ufflcient to be much damaged, but as
the season advances cultivation should
become shallower and toward the close
of the growing period a dust mulch
can be maintained by cultivation of an
Inch in depth.
The dust mulch, by the way, is really
the right way for the conservation of
moisture. If corn can be cultivated
•lightly immediately after each rain,
weeds will not only be kept down but
moisture will be retained much longer
than if cultivation is put oft two or
three days.
As the plant takes its food in solu
tion, it i£ evident that the ground must
be kept moist all the\ime if possible.
Deep plowing, therefore, not only de
stroys the roots, but is a positive draw
back in keeping moisture in the ground.
It is a good plan to harrow the
ground lightly between the time of
planting and the appearance of the
Many farmers believe that corn should
not be cultivated more than two or
three times during the season, but we
have observed that every phenomenal
Vield of corn in prize contests was the
result of constant and frequent culti
The last cultivation of corn should
&e done in such a manner as to leave
the ground as nearly level as possible.
Early cultivation may be done by
throwing the ground slightly toward
the plant in order that the furrow may
carry off the surplus moisture after a
heavy rain, but the old-fashioned way
of throwing up a huge ridge at the
tast plowing, leaving a deep furrow in
the center, is not the best way.
Figure 1 shows a corn plant shortly
after germination (a) shows a grain
planted so shallow that If dry weather
corrtes the plant will do no good (c)
shows a grain planted so deeply that
the plant food of the sedd is exhausted
before the leaves reach the air.
Figure 2 shows a six-weeks-old plant
occupying a surface area of twelve
feet, with roots reaching down nearly
three feet.
Figure 3. The dotted lines indicate
how the plant sends down brace roots
into the soli and how the main roots
grow close to the surface as the plant
If farmers will make it a rule to send
only the best, to the market they will
1 get more irfoney for one-half of the
crop when prices arp low than for the
whole. When the markets are well
., supplied only the best will sell. Not
only should the articles be selected
but they should be uniform—of the
Zc same quality—at the bottom of the bas
ket as at the top. Instead of reducing
if the price of potatoes by sending the
very small ones to market, keep those
that are unsalable,, feed them on the
farm and they will then be more val
'j-tfmlSiM.- 'yl
The' arrangement of the flowers on
the home grounds counts for as much
as the kind and number of flowers
themselves. A yard may be full of
flowers and yet not be beautiful.
There may be a. few flowers in the
same yard, and still it may be very
beautiful. The way the flowers are
arranged makes the difference.
WhereNshall the flowers be planted?
is a question with many. The answer
is, plant them where they will show
beauty in themselves and at the same
time enhance the general beauty of the
dwelling and grounds.
To accomplish this they must not be
planted in a haphazard way—a clump
here, a bed there and a straggling mass
some place else. Also never plant so
that one, plant or mass hides another.
Plant with thfe design of unity and
The best place for flowers is in bor
ders along the side of the yard or
around and close to the base of the
dwelling house. In this way they are
more out of the way, are as easily cul
tivated as otherwise, and they help to
frame and unify the setting.
A border of flowers along the base
of the house is in easy reach,for care
and cultivation, and It enhances the
appearance of the structure, broadening
its base and harmonizing it with sur
rounding natural objects.
The outer border along the side fence
or between the front and back yard
should be filled with the larger and
more showy decorative plants. It
should be planted with the larger ones
next to the fence and the smaller ones
In front of them, so that none are
hidden from view.
The flower border may be straight
or curved, according to the place it
occupies, but the best effect is pro
duced by making the margins irregu
larly curved, since natural lines of
planting are that way.
A single border may be of one kind
of plants or of many kinds. Where
different kinds of plants are used
avoid placing ^vhat will produce dis
cord of colors when the plants come
into bloom.
The mixed border is very interesting
and may be made beautiful If proper
skill is used in grouping the plants.
Many plants are effective in individual
borders, among which are asters, sal
vias, calladiums, hollyhocks, irises, can
nas, hydrangeas and the hardy peren
nial phlox.
The lawn is the principal part of the
home grounds ancf no planting, whether
of flowers, shrubs or trees, should mar
its unity or scope.
By massing the other plants In bor
ders the lawn Is unobstructed for use
and has a full chance of an abundance
of direct sunlight and air, without
which it will not thrive nor will the
soil it occupies be healthful' place
for human living.
Let the lawn be one unbroken mass
of grass plants, and mass all other
plantings in borders where they will
not interfere with it, but will be Just
as beautiful in themselves.—H. H.
Sheep must have clean water, clean
feed racks and pens and sanitary sur
roundings if they are to make profitable
The bedding should be liberal and
should be changed frequently and not
be allowed to become foul or damp, for
sheep will not thrive unless kept ab
solutely dry and afforded pure air.
The- foods best adapted for sheep
are clover and alfalfa hay. all that
will be cleaned up at a feeding corn
ensilage about four pounds to each
head, or roots when ensilage is not
available, and two parts each of wheat
bran, oats, peas or corn, and one part
oil cake, or one part wheat bran, one
part cornmeal and one part ground
oats, supplemented with about one
small handful of oilmeal to each lamb.
Many feeders prefer to feed the grain
whole, and generally it will produce
better results, although many feeders
still cling to the idea that the sheep,
as well as some other farm animals,
will derive more nutrition from ground
The choice of the grain foods will
depend to a certain extent upon what
kinds of hown-grown foods are avail
able, and the rations should be made
up with an eye to economy, as well
as to that of producing the most rapid
It is important that- those who feed
lambs should have proper accommoda
tions for them.
Our farmers are throwing away good
opportunities of making good profits
from their home-grown foods by not
feeding a few lambs.
This can easily be seen from a prac
tical and scientific point of view. Some
may argue that the farmers should
grow their own feeders, and in that
manner "make the whole profits, but to
these men I would say that such a
practice would be opposed to the sci
ence of the business of feeding lambs
for mutton.
Whether you own a small flock or
count your sheep by the hundreds, the
importance of using good rams should
not be lost sight of. He is the very
foundation of your breeding stock.
Breed straight and improve your
stock. Don't be led away by some
cross-breeding that looks good to yoli.
One cross may answer, but in the
end cross-breeding becomes a very
complicated affair and has ruined more
than one flock of sheep.
A short-sighted policy of using a
scru^ rain's
the cause
of the inferiori-
ty of the avefrage flock on our farms
Will people never realize the fact
that they cannot afford to grow scrub
.Professor F. D. Fuller of the Penn
sylvania station declares that as long
as the farmer can raise plenty of corn,
hay and oats he cannot afford to pur
chase any material containing less than
14 per cent of protein.
It Requires Some Care and At
tention, but Is Both'Humane
and Profitable.
The two great scourges in calf rear
ing are the white scours and the lung
affection, which latter has been proved
to be quite preventable. The method
requires extreme but not laborious care
in carrying out. When this care is
taken satisfactory results are obtained.
Investigation has proved, first, that
the disease is located in districts and,
second, that it is more prevalent where
sanitary conditions are not perfect
third, that the disease is contracted
through allowing the infectious matter
of the place when the calf is dropped
to come into contact with the navel of
the young calf, through which it finds
its way into the circulation of the ani
The remedy is to have the place for
the young calf carefully cleansed and
as soon as the calf comes Into the
world to dress the navel with a prepa
ration of carbolic acid that will destroy
any infectious matter that may attach
itself to the navel.
Naturally failures have been reported
even when precautions have been taken
and doubts cast on the theory of infec
Still, seeing that infection of diseases
similar to this may be carried on the
point of a line needle, how can we say
with confidence that the disease white
scours occurs through any other cause
than infection in places where the in
fective matter has been known almost
with Certainty to exist?
There are districts where this scourge
is unknown. Let a diseased calf be
brought in and the disease at once ap
All houses in which young calves are
reared should be made thoroughly
clean a large application of disinfect
ants should be made until the place is
made free, and all calves should be
liberally supplied with clean, dry straw
for bedding.
Another disease appears to be a form
of contagious bronchitis. It is gener
ally fatal if it is allowed to run un
checked for some time.
It is possible that this very seijious
disease may be caused by allowing
calves to remain out in the fields too
long in cold, wet weather.
Provide good, comfortable, dry quar
ters for calves while they are young.
Let them have sufficient ventilation in
their houses without drafts. Allow
them open-air exercise only on warm
days, and not until they are sufficiently
strong to withstand even moderately
cold weather. Never allow a young
calf to have its coat saturated with
cold rain watert
The principal matter to be borne in
mind is that all young animals taken
from their natural conditions of life
and living must have thoughtful care,
and it should not be necessary to ob
serve that in the management of
calves we are dealing with a valuable
farm asset that will repay considerable
With over seventy distinct breeds of
fowls to select from it always seemed
curious to me why some people in
sisted upon keeping scrub hens.
When poultry is being cross-bred for
special purposes, such as roasters,
broilers, etc., I believe that better re
sults will come when we use a male of
the smaller breed and hens of the
larger breed of fowls.
Incubator chicks should be fed with
more caution than those hatched with
hens. Their artificial condition makes
them more delicate and more suscepti
ble to changes of food and tempera
With'poultry there is greater oppor
tunity for choice among a long list of
breeds than among any other kir}ds
of stock. We can select color accord
ing to our taste we can breed for eggs
or for flesh, for sitters or non-sitters,
for large or small fowls.
We may choose a breed whose eggs
are either white, buff, brown, large or
small, and can be certain that the
offspring will resemble their ances-
If the farmers appreciate the rural
free delivery they must give more at
tention to the subject of good roads.
The Postoffi'ce Department is sending
Inspectors over the country, and it is
probable that some routes will be aban
doned because the farmers living aiong
them do not use the road drags, a, -x
oio^ijjhc ttiuu AhsoviHtcil i'uriu iTt'Sri. clmyiijuj
Where I plant potatoes on corn stub
ble I give the land a good coating of
manure as soon as the ground is suffi
ciently dry to haul over, and cut the
manure into the soil with a disk har
row. This ground is then plowed and
rolled, and the disk and spring tooth
harrow and roller used to make line and
mellow. This gives me practically a
pulverized seed bed to the bottom of
the furrow and eliminates the risk of
having a seed potato in an air space
made by two clods not meeting and
not able to make any start at growing.
Where potatoes are plowed in—that
is, dropped in every other, or every
third, furrow as the. ground is plowed—
the disking of the surface of the land
is especially advantageous, for as the
covering furrow is turned the fine mel
low soil Crops upon and settles in
around the seed and creates conditions
favorable to early and rapid growth.
Where the seed is dropped by hand
and very thorough subsequent cultiva
tion given this method of planting on
"stalk" land is probably more satis
factory than any other.
In addition to the animal manure
cut in as described, I make an applica
tion of 400 lbs of phosphorus and
75 to 100 lbs of muriate of potassium
per acre.—W. F. McSparran, Pennsyl
The use of the manure spreader saves time, distributes the manure evenly, thereby making a ton cover
much more ground than if dumped out by a fork. It is, next to the plow and the reaper, the most valuable im
plement on the farm.
In calf feeding, at the end of four
or five months is the parting of the
ways for the steer and heifer calf.
If the heifer is to be reared with the
view of making her a dairy cow of
greater value than her mother, then
she must be fed for mjlk production.
This is an important item if farmers
are to produce their own, cows, which
Is the cheapest and best way known
to me for securing a dairy herd.
To the unobservlng it would seem
incredible that a heifer calf could be
ruined for future usefulness in the
dairy by the manner in which she is
handled the first few months of her
We know that tho heifer calf can be
ruined. She can be stunted and made
an animal of small capacity.
Her digestive apparatus can be
ruined and she can be made a finicky
feeder, one of those animals not eating
abundantly and never finding that
which is good enough. to eat.
The heifer calf, while feeding, should
not be allowed to become fat. She
should be kept slick and glossy, full
of vitality and muscular.
If you educate the heifer calf to put
her food on her back in the shape of
fat she will then have {hat tendency
when she becomes a cow. Therefore
she should not' be fed too much corn.
She should be fed the flesh-forming
She should be fed large quantities
of the best roughage that her stomach
may distend so she may handle large
quantities of fat when she is required
to do so, as she will when she be-'
comes a milch cow.
If there is a surplus of skim milk
on the farm the heifer can utilize this
to exceptionally good advantage.
I have reared calves which had a drink
of skim milk twice per day from the
day they were born and continuing un
til they became mothers and were
belng*milked, and I consider that such
skim milk was never fed to greater
These calves were growthy, in the
best of health and excellent feeders.
It is wonderful what a pail of skim
milk night and morning will do for
the cow which is producing milk.
A, closed B, open.
President W. D. Love of the Con
necticut Humane society estimates that
the value of 50,000 horses in that state
woitld increase by nearly $2,000,000 if
all were to receive humane treatment.J ment on the heifer.
SSff V.'SfiTO" *9 t?|P3£ i- ''-,
Education of the Young Horse
Should Begin Early and
Gentleness Be Exercised.
It requires patience and judgment to
prevent the ruin of a colt in the first
month's handling. On many large
farms ..where the owners trust the or
dinary laborer to break and work the
colts numbers of them are m£de vicious
and balky by rough and Ignorant han
It is no unusual sight to see a well
bred, high-strung colt "taften up" to be
broken in his third year which never
even had a halter on him. The process
is to get the "hands" together at the
stable, hustle the colt Into a corner,
throw a noose over his head and drag
him near enough to get a blind bridle
on him.
By this time he is sweating like a
bull from fear. Next comes the har
nessing or "gearing up." Collar, har
ness and traces are put on him by
hands who are only used to working
their counterpart, the mule or scrub
Should the colt cut up much, which
he usually does, one or two kicks in
his belly and several jerks on his ten
der mouth will be the next lesson.
Then he is dragged, led, backed or
pushed to the off wheel of a wagon, to
the furrow side of a plow or the oft
side of a harrow, as the case may be.
His two companions are probably old
horses who have gained wisdom and
experience with increasing years and
look on with mild indifference while
the youngster, held by a couple of
strong men and hitched up by a third,
trembles and snorts In impotent rage.
Tied back, reined up tight and with
a heavy outside line in the hands of
some ignorant half-grown boy—he be
gins his real life on the farm as a
bread producer.
By the second day, If the weather Is
warm and the work heavy, his mouth
will be sore at the corners, his shoul
ders galled, and, if working on a plow
or harrow, his legs around the hocks
will be pretty well cleared of hair by
the chafing of the iron in traces. He
will in two weeks have lost a hundred
pounds of flesh and it will take several
months of rest to get him in good
shape again.
Of course this Is one of the many ex
treme cases, but this system of break
ing colts ruins many of the best horses
every year and will continue do so
as long as this way of handling them
continues in practice.
In spite of the thousands of men who
are driving horses all over the country
and to every kind of known vehicle and
farm implement, comparatively few
understand tho gentleness andvfirmness
combined necessary in the proper han
dling of green colts.
It would be well if all colts could be
halter broken by weaning time, and
used to harness, saddle and bridle as
yearlings. They will soon learn driv
ing by being used only enough to ren
der them gentle.
Then, as 3-year-olds, when they are
expected to help earn their living on
the farm, there will be none of the
rough style of breaking them in, with
the inevitable fever-sore mouth, galled
shoulders, nervous kickers and runa
Every dairyman should raise the
heifer calves of his best cows and not
depend on anybody's offerings to re
plenish his herd. It is absurd to sup
pose that he can buy cows as reasona
bly as he can raise them.
If the milker's hands and clothes are
filthy germs are sure to get into the
milk pails.
As the calf Is so is the cow. Poor
care in calfhood means a poor cow
when she comes to maturity.
The real butter-maker of our coun
try is the farm cow whose milk never
goes to the creamery.
The Iowa state dairy law forbids
selling milk from cows within two
weeks of calving and five days after.
We believe that every dairy cow
should have at least one month's va
cation during the year.
The cow Is doing her best for you
and you can afford to pamper her
whims. They are usually pretty good
Some of the world's most noted milk
ers gave a small quantity of milk with
their first calves. Don't pass judg-
The commission on country life ap
pointed by President Roosevelt has
been sending out blanks to farmers,
editors of agricultural papers and oth
ers In close touch with farming, OOD
'alnlng some very Interesting ques
The commission desires Immediate
answers, but says the names of corre
spondents will not be used.
After each question the correspond
ent is asked "Why?" and also to sug
gest a remedy.
The questions folio#:
1. Are the farm homes in your neigh
borhood as good as they should be undet
existing conditions?
2. Are the schools of your neighbor
hood training boys and girls satis
factorily for life on the farm?
3. Do the farmers in your neighbor
hood get the returns they reasona
bly should from the sale of their prod
4. Do the farmers In your neighbor
hood receive from the railroads, high
roads, trolley lines, etc., the service
they reasonably should have?
5. Do the farmers in your neighbor
hood receive from the United States
postal service, rural telephone, etc.,
the service they reasonably should ex
6. Are the farmers and their wives
in your neighborhood satisfactorily or
ganized to promote their mutual buy
ing and selling interests?
7. Are the renters of farms in your
neighborhood making a satisfactory
8. Is the supply of farm labor ii
your neighborhood satisfactory?
9. Are the conditions surrounding
hired labor on the farms in your neigh
borhood satisfactory to the hired men?
10. Have the farmers in your neigh
borhood satisfactory facilities for do
ing their business in banking, credit,
Insurance, etc.?
11. Are the sanitary conditions of
the farms in your neighborhood satis
12. Do the farmers and their wlvep
and families in your neighborhood get
together for mutual improvement, en
tertainment and social intercourse as
much as they should?
What, in your judgment, is the most
Important single thing to be done for
the general betterment of country
Address all letters to Commission on
Country Life, Washington, D. C.
John Connors of Chicago was killed
by a pigeon. While standing in front
of a building he was struck on top
of the head by a brick, Pasoersby saw
the brick dislodged from the coping
by a pigeon, and rushed to his as
sistance." He died in their arms.
William H. Dunn says that oil keeps
the macadam driveways and roads in
good condition and lessens the wear,
and that it Is 34 per cent cheaper than
Tho Santa Fe Hallway company has
bought 10,000 acVes of land lh San
Diego county, California, and Is plant
ing it as fast as possible to youfog
eucalyptus trees. These trees grow
to be of great size: some have been
known to attain a height of 300 feet.
At eighteen years of age one tree will
cut at least 200 railroad lies.
In Paris peddlers go from house to
house carrying tubs and hot water for
bath purposes. They carry the tub
to the patron's room and furnish two
patls of hot water for 35 cents.
Mrs. Wilcox, who lives in the sub
urbs of Lincoln, Neb., is following the
vocation of a blacksmith, after being
a school teacher for five years. She
does all kinds of work, forging Iron,
repairing wagons and shoeing horses.
According to the last census Uncle
Sam has in his domains 193 woman
While grading a street in Manassas,
Va., the workmen discovered that their
picks went to a depth that Indicated
a subterranean cavity.^ Upon Inves
tigation they found a trench three feet
deep had been dug and several barrels
of flour put therein and concealed—
probably from the4 enemy on the evac
uation of Manassas by the confederate
Good butter should be composed of
the following points:
Flavor, 45 points grain, 25 points
color, 15 points salt, 10 points pack
age. 5 points.
You will notice that flavor gets 4S
points, being nearly half the 100 pplnts.
We want our butter to have a sweet
flavor that makes us want to eat
butter and bread instead of bread and
Perfect grain gets 25 points. It
should have a waxy softness, yet not
salvy or greasy. It must be solid in
body and -have no excess of casein or
The color should be uniform and
bright, not too pale, yet not too highly
colored, while the salt should be evenly
distributed and thoroughly dissolved.
The package should be neat and
clean, using a good grade of paper for
We should cater to the trade. If we
are making for a certain market, make
what that market demands.
If making for special customers, en
deavor to suit their tastes in every par
This is important, for while one cus
tomer likes a full-flavored butter, an
other likes a mild one.
One likes the butter pale another
highly colored one likes very little salt
another quite a quantity.
It is by catering to these likes and
dislikes that our butter will b« in de
mand and we shall receive a gdod price
fcr it.—Belle Miller, Ontario.
In the United States no picture of a
President appears on a stamp until
he is dead. In England it is ju^t the
reverse. As soon as the ruler dies the
stamps are recalled. Queen. Victoria
had more stamps issued with her pic
ture on them than any other sover
Feeding Floors Which Are Kepf
Free From Dust or Mud
Are Indispensable.
The hog responds as quickly to
cleanliness and care as any farm ani
mal. Not long since I was greatly
impressed with the lack of sanitary
conditions around the yards and houses
of a man who had been growing hogs
more or less successfully tor ten years.
His feeding troughs were foul with
decayed food, The floors were damp
and Ill-smelling and the yards were
damp and full of mud holes that good
drainage would have prevented.
All fixtures In a hog house should
be movable. It is advantageous to
have the troughs where they may b«
washed or scalded out twice each week,
at least. Foul troughs are good breed
ing places for parasites that may
taken into the stomach and converted'
into worms.
Damp floors may be overcome if the
house is well aired and wlhdowa
enough are in It to let the sunshin
In on the floors.
Do not slop the swill into the bed
ding or on the floors at feeding time
Shake the bedding up In each pen
dally and toss out the dampest of It.
Never allow dust to accumulate on
the partitions and pens used for feed.
It is always injurlbus to the hogs'
health. If you are In the hnblt of
feeding hogs corn scattered In the mud
or dust of a dry yard, build a small
feeding floor and use It.
Go Into any herd that Is fed In the
dust from thrown-down corn and you
will hear much wheezing and cough
ing. This is bad on all hogs and espe
cially those kept for breeding pv.r
Set your feeding floor oft the ground
four to six Inches and build it solidly
of good timber. Around the whole edge
nail a 2x4, as shown In the illustration
This prevents lots of shelled or car
corn -being pushed oft Into the dirt and
Sweep off the floor before feeding.
Never overlook this, A floor of this
kind can be used' for feeding alfalfa or
clover as hay or steamed.
The herd of Berkshlres on the floot
In the picture are eating chopped al
falfa that has been steamed somewhat
and sparsely sprinkled with chopped
corn and oats. The alfalfa Is cut four
inch lengths and soaked in a barrel
or tank which has a«jet of steam in it
shooting up from the bottom.
This does not boll the alfalfa, bul
Just heats it enough, to make the coars«
stems tender and tne tender ones mor«
It is lifted from the tank on a fori
and allowed to drain well, when It l!
thrown upon the feeding flbor. Plgi
never, leave much of it, For hrooi
sows it makes an ideal feed, keeping
them In good flesh but not fat enough
to hurt their breeding proclivities 01
Injure their ease of farrowing. Br
sure to feed it to them on clean floors
Cheap seed is often the most expen.
Peas will sprout at 45 degrees.
Always plant the best seed you cai
get for every crop.
The garden should be near the hous
and surrounded with a good woven
wire netting fence to keep out fowl!
and other garden pests.
If the garden must of necessity b«
on a stiff, clayey soli mix alt the ashes
and sand obtainable with it they will
mellow It up wonderfully.
A hard crust over the soil prevents
the rain and heat frqm entering. Al
ways keep the surface of the soil loose
Soot is a good and safe fertilizer foi
nearly everything, and scattered around
the stems of plants, making the soil
black, acts in the first place as a slug
antidote and in the next as a plant
Probably no class of people suffei
more from rheumatism than farmers,
and yet the remedy for this dreadfu!
disease is, or should be, right at hand.
If celery were eaten freely suftereri
from rheumatism would be compara
tively few.
As soon as a crop appears above
ground it needs cultivation, both to
kill the weeds and to admit the air to
the roots of the plants.
It is useless to plant beans until t}i«
ground becomes warm. If they come
up and then are chilled, they turn
yellow and never amount to anything.
Lima beans, melons and other ten
der vegetables may be advanced two
or three weeks by starting then! 1b
pots or bits of inverted sod in a hot
bed. When the weather becomes warm
enough transplant without disturbing
fiie roots.
In transplanting cabbages tTet the
plants in the ground up to the first
leaf, no matter how long the stem is,
and press the earth firmly about It.
In transplanting any vegetable plants
let it be done in the evening if possi
ble. Press the soil firmly about the
roots and water well. If after the
water disappears dry earth is covered
over the wet It will prevent baking of
the soil about the roots when the sua
p.nmM out next

xml | txt