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,*•.- gav,. Ilf. str -V. Ipjj'i^aiiipwt^ilfitii^ I#ipf^fITglf^iii!?iOTif^ The average dairyman of 20 years ago fay* the «W»*i»Fy Poor of stall Uttle consideration *h« copsfi^jctipn of his cow stable#, and VP^d §Py method of fc tiding which best suited his Indi vidual Ideas. He cared little about thjt condition of the cow at milking time so lone as she gave the milk. The most of the old brick, rtoA*. In »ome cases con WTTFU Dirt pt wwm UP. v*rr W4« «irftW« line* It »«®r4s »n evcellent iMMiWr for lw«t#n«. 'nsects and ver- ROH ^KA ©rdtr mumin »»n,t»ry M«h fl#or» m«st eliminated. W**!** Uoeri §r# »hout undeslr •W* th«M WMle of dirt, but when i.rpiiiVi:|iriini'! iWi-witv.,l.A. •fS mmtmmmim W dairy barns are so arranged that it is impossible to keep cows clean In 1th em, The llpors now commonly found are dirt, wood, either block or ptenk, WALK '&>$ WALK WALK fyy WfaJti ]l ^J. |l & A SI finra^ Wm» trPM 9t 9«tl»rf |J* opmmoh use. The term roest generally need I# show* A which li similar to JB, wider- 6 mid *w \m generally used because of the greater depth of Mir th« «M1 Mid iharp angle in the S which may, be difficult tj clean. '!.'•"!* i,,..|:^.'.lii ..' A W a Aw families to each farm la the MP* lft the. HMt*4 States today. Ope jm tM farm and two 'n town, but all Aapaadent on tho farm. Two gener sltong •fo «o«rlr everybody lived on 0O WMI U«4 WM THO LOOK-OUT it ot p«oh llHnll? h«w they worked the laad. How with tWO-thlrds of the YpMfto Iff town. It not only concerns fa mm tm ths ftn» whether the crop foo4 or not but alio the man In trwa whP dependent on thp pro* duee of the land for his living, Whether the crop be poor or good} raaTTy affects the city man mere than It AMw tho farmer who can keep out enough for himself. If there la no fursta* It la not hard see who will moat. AM industry develops we get more more dependent on each other, termer, however, remains the report Independent, and the way he earriee on his work Is of the most .Vital importance to us all. yhi soil la the source of everything th»$ oaU* forth ths efforts of Industry. The people who till the soil have ehtfi* of the source of supply and the root have to go accordingly. If we .. want more to do with the farmer must S«v« a rodqce piore, To do that he must i^ore knowledge and skli in his '-*work» As long as the land was vir- W» it would produce with any kind of husbanding. That terming is hardly on a permanent basis yet Is Shown by the abandoned terms In the and th«, decreasing values of :r WINTERING BEEB. book out for the weak colonies of and give them honey from those that have mor« than they need. Thousands of colonies starve to death •very winter. If you feed the bees syrup be sure it is not too thin or trouble will result Three parts water and four of sugar will be about the right mixture. SOME BIG CROP STORIES. J. Martin, of Glbbsland, la., raised on his farm a water melon which weighed 95 pounds. It supplied a feaat for 100 person more or less. A rabid dog bit a number of hogs OB a farm in Whlteley Co., Ind., all of whloh showed unmistakable signs of hydrpphobla later and had to be killed. J. W. Long, of Eaton, Ind., raised beans, the poda of which measured gome 0 to 38 inches in length. The editor of the local paper describes them as "a rare variety.",,. ia?2 «*•,••• 'Av i\ l,'^,:' ^Vir'1nrm THE FLOORS OF THE COW STABLES CONCRETE IS RECOGNIZED AS THE MOST ECONOMICAL AND SANITARY MATERIAL FOR. DAIRY STABLE FLOORS. BY C. A. O'COCK./ care Is exerted may be so constructed as to be fairly satisfactory. Brick or concrete a-- thp only poors one can safely say are san.'iry. Brick should be laid upon a good sub base and if this is not a good firm foundation It should be well tamped before laying the brick. The brick floor havinc been mplcted, the cracks should be filled with a mixture of cement $t}4 sand? Thi proportion which w)ll best fill requirements Is part pemeijt tp part of good •.. .:• STALL ST/ALL A & '*•T:*' at k« rr, ,T7 0 4M t:*y-fM/# '«*£:T except that the letter Is shallower and THREE FAMILIES TO EACH FARM The Soil is tho Source of Everything That Calls Forth the Bfforts of Industry Its Tilling Requires Knowledge and Skill. cle»p sand. This should be mixed thin enough to spread easil and then swept Into the cracks with a ti«e.vy bam broom or steel brush. Such ft floor will be found very sanitary and not so slippery as concrete. For driveways where loads are to be drawn or where horses are to gtand. these landa In the face of Increasing markets, As long as the termer can only make the soil produce one-third of what it is capable, so long must our manu facturing, transportation, merchan dising and banking remain at approxi mately one-third of what it would be, and largely for lack of special train ing for his work on the part of the farmer. Whi |s most Interested in the man who tills the soil being trained for hla work? Without a doubt lt*l» the man in the city. lie Is the one who should be the most Insistent on agri culture being taught in the public schools, and that the Agricultural Col leges be given liberal support. The railroads are doing a great deal In encouraging the teaching of agri culture. Many have placed trains at the services of the Agricultural Col leges that they might equip it with apparatus, appliances and Instructors and thus carry the teachings of better farming to a great many people in a short time. Bankers are also active In encouraging the spread of better farming. There are no more northwestern states to open up so that the only way to make any material Increase In production Is by making each acre, now under cultivation, produce more. Three families to the term and all de pendent on It for a living—which is the most interested in good farming, the family on the farm or the two in town NOTES OF THE HOG LOT, Don't make the mistake of allowing the young boars to run with the gilts until they are three or four months old. The development of the bone In a pig carries with it the development of the vital organs and a large in crease In the amount of lean meat In the carcass. Metal frame on which milk pails are set in stable to keep them out of the dirt. ^'1 "Mr Vr W :--MS I'vy Mi*® ~of brick will be re foundation Is not of whe driveways are base should a better grade quired.- If the g^od character desired, then a concrete be constructed. Concrete is the host and most sani tary floor that can be used In a dairy bam ai)J effort should bo made to hav® siich floors Installed when ever a barn is being constructed. They should be Isld upon good foundations !?.„ S'"d flnishod with grooves to prevent the animal slipping., upon them. The stalls should be provided with mats of lumber eo placed that they may be fr iuently removed for cleansing. All parts of the stalls which are made of wood, should be removable PO that they may be readily replaced when worn out. In making a concrete floor be sure fMt a substantial s»o-bfise is secured Upon this spread three inches of mixed concrete, consisting of one part ce ment. parts clean, coarse sand. and parts broken store or clean gra vel spread in one continuous layer. Unless there is to be excessive wear no finishing coat Is needed. If such a coat seems desirable in the drive ways It should br mixed of 1 part ce ment and 2 parts sand. The finished coat should be about three-fourths of an Inch thick and laid off in 4 Inch squares, the craves about one fourth Inch deep. Finish a floor in this way and horses pullir a load will not slln and f§ll, Stall mats should be constructed of seven-eighths inch-, lumber and so placed in the stall that they may he removed frequently to facilitate in clfeanstng the stall, since it Is quite evident1 there wil| be r, small amount of filth collecting from time to time. thus poluting the sanitary condition of the stall. In the illustration four designs of gutters are shown. The fall of a gut ter should be about one Inch in BO feet, but this may vary to meet con ditions. If a cistern Is used for re taining. the liquid manure |t may he desirable to have more fall. The liquid manure cistern should be so situated as to permit of as few angles as possible In the pipes lead ing from the gutters. Traps should be so constructed where the pipes have their beginning in the gutters as to permit of quick cleaning. Open ings should be provided In the floor at each bend of the pipes. In this way little difficulty would be experi enced in keeping the drains free. |fv HI4IHMDI11 H- "t I11 l"HHWW GUINEA FOWLS. -The flesh of the guinea is highl prized and brings as high a price in the city market as that of the first chickens and often more. It has a gamey flavor which most people prise. Guinea flesh is served in nearly all the large hotels and restaurants under the name of pheasants and if one is in touch with a large hotel a consider able number of the birds may be dis posed of always at prices that will be a handsome profit, even considering the care necessitated in raising them. The only use some make of their 'wealth is to boast about it, "fl' ™"1 ^"""V'l'i 'T I irnininnininrriiiMWMtriiriftiMiimitfttllilhTttpTO DAIRY COW GAINS GREATLY IN VALUE By B. TI, H*W3, Ciller r, of Dairy Division of Bureau of Anlipal Industry. 5' There been a wonderful advance in the quality of dairying cattle dur ing the last few years 4 The various breeds^ are Improving am there are more big records now than ever before. Splendid records were made during the world's fair In Chicago but the succeeding generation _of cows did much better at tho St l^ouls "exposition. We have a number of cows today that can do better than the holders of old time records that stood for years. The present system of test records Is the cause of most of the reecnt de velopment. We have the ring show, where the animals are Judged on ap ln addition there are the yearly records that tell the pro ductive capacity of the cow. The cow of toC.iy Is far superior to the animal of the same breed twenty or thirty years ago as her capacity and effec tiveness are much greater. Without the use of the accurate records many a Cairyman would be deceived regard ing the value of his cows. By means of records xve are able to weed out the poorer individuals of the different breeds and the result Is becoming ap parent with remarkable rapidity. vao „i One of the most Important features of modern dairying Is the building up of herds by crossing with highly pro ductive stock. .Grade cows, or those that are partly of high class stock, are exceedingly valuable as producers. The improvement in dairy conditions has been gradual, but not nearly as rapid as wa wish. Some of the dairy men have not taken advantage of -what is now within easy reach. There Is still much room for improvement in conditions. CARE OF A WARM HORSE. f-.- It Isn't an easy matter to heat a horse in the winter as it is during the summer, but when he once gets hdt and tired In the winter, It's a mighty .much, and a farmer's standing in the easy matter to injure rnd torture the animal by leaving him exposed to the chill air allowing him to get a stobi ach-full of ice-cold water or stuffing him full of grain before he thoroughly cools off. After giving him a few swallows of moderately cool water, he should be given a little gentle exer cise. blanketed, and placed in a close stall. At the" end of an hour, he may be given a good draught of water, followed by. plenty of grain and bright roughage. A r. A carloa'* 9f Elberta peaches grown )n Arkansas \and containing 179,000 fine specimens of fruit sold for $1,375. It was the finit carload to arrive from the Arkansa^ peach section, and brought about f»0 per cent more than the average price. HEAD OF FERRIS GOLDEN WINNIE, CHAMPION TWO-YEAR -OLD JERSEY HEIFER. WISCONSIN STATE FARM Fodder Is the best feed while the stalks are new and the leaves have not become dry and broken off. When It has been allowed to stand In the Held ar.d run the gauntlet of rains and rats half or -more of Its value has been lost. Cutting- and feeding immediately from the fields saves both feed and labor. .. ..: To produce the full development off bone the work must'be commenced before the animal is born by feed ing the dam plentifully with bone producing foods while she Is preg nant. Apples 11 inches In circumference are among those produced by E. F. (Stevens, the crchardlst qf 9?£te, 4 Ji Ijs I 1 Breakdowns, are most frequent dur ing the busy reason, and much vaiu le time may be lost driving to town 0? to the nearest shop for repairs, Tho extent to which the repair work should be done on the farm will depend entirely upon local circum stances. If there is a well-equipped shop.-near-by where the repair work can be done by a trained mechanic without loss of ttjne it may be best to carry the greater part of such work ito the shop but If the sh6p is at a distance, Is poorly equipped, or. as often the case, the mechanic in charge is incapable of turning out eood *vorkr it will then be a saving to perfopn tl work at home. Besides, there is a large argount of repair work that can not be carried to a shop and must be done on the farm If It is done at all- Much of the loss end annoyance fiom breakage may be avoided by carefully inspecting and mending weak parts of the farm equipment b.-'iro the rush of the season's work begins. The proper time for making such repairs as may be anticipated is lii the winter when there is little elst on the farm that can be done. Every farmer should.. have a work shop and a supply of tools of good quality with which he can repair im plements, harness or bul'dings. Thjs Is an ace when appearances count tor community is frequently governed by his farm equipment. -The man who spends his spare moments in the re pair of fences and gates and in main talnins a neat appearance of. the en tire farm will easily be a leader among his neighbors. Under most circumstances it will pay to secure tools of good quality, al though fine exterior finish Is not es sential. Tools of very in erlor quality are 'ered r.t low prices, but they In variably prove a disappointment to the purchaser. The name of the* manufacturer is a sufficient guaranty of the quality of many tools, and the purchaser is advised to secure only those that are sold under a guaranty from either the manufacturer or the dealer. When contemplating the pur chase of a collection, of tools, make a Any bright flfteen-year-old boy ought to raise at least 200 cockerels on the farm every year and If he studies the market conditions they ought to bring him on an average of at least 11.00 apiece, while If ha gives them extra care and attention they would probably net im even more than that. I The man who contents himself with saying "I'm not as bad off as my neighbor" will never amount to a hill of beans. Doctor Swain, of Moundsvllle, W. Va.. boasts of a tomato weighing 8 pounds which grew on a vine 8 feet Ion* y'* i-vsr -ih iH rfaS prosa^i^^KiiftwasmBsewv^1® VVi? 4« O 3. To have the. conveniences for the repair of farm equipment at hand is one of the very Important things on the farm. TOOLS FOR REPAIRS ON THE FARM TO OBTAIN THE, GREATEST EFFICENCY OF FARM MACH INE.RY AND IMPLEMENTS, REPAIRS SHOULD BE, PROMPTLY MAPf. BY W. It U\- ev Kf -u rliti'k careful study to see just what ones are needed, then purchase all at qpe time, and a liberal discount can generally be secured. The selection of the tool outflt will depend upon the scope and character of the work to he performed, A soldering iron Is very useful and saves much annoyance, both In re pairing farm machinery, and cooking utonsils. For general purposes a IV pound soldering Iron will be found satisfactory. Where continues vork Pliers. Saw t«th .4, ripping »w g, crpmnt n,w. Tory* (rpN of biKbrt. If I is bm'adapted (or nmrsi tem oat.. is to be performed two irons are neces sary^ ir order that one may be heat ing while the other is In use. Solder ing Irons should he heated* ofily in & clear charcoal lire or/ a a blue flame of -gas. gasoline, or alcohol, Before using a soldering Iron It Is essential that the tapering copper point be filed or grourid until bright, and then coat ed with solder by first dipping the brightened hot point into a little of Fresh poultry inure has approx imately twice the fertilizing valuq of cattle manure, if a. comparison of the two products is based upon their ni trogen content. The nitrogenous compounds contained in poultry ma nure, however, are very unstable, and decompose readily into ammonia and volatile ammonium compounds. Consequently, unless proper care is taken, large quantities of nitrogen, which might be used for fertilizing, are lost. Several methods have been sug gested, for retaining this nitrogen. They consist in mixing with the ex crement either an absorbing sub stance 6r an acid compound which will chemically combine with the am monia aM fats as formed. Experience has shown that poultry manute, untreated, as well as that pilxed With sawdust, lost half of Its nitrogen In the course of sl-t month*. Where the manure was stored with half of its weight of gypsum (land plaster) It lost a third, while that mixed with an equal weight of gyp sum and about one-flfth of Its weight of sawdust retained all of the original nitrogen. Equally good results were obtained by using from one-third to one-fourth of the weight -of the ma nure of either kalnite or aeld phos phate. nOG CHOLERA C^CJRE. If you will give five drops of crude carbolic acid to each hog it will pre vent the rest of the buneh from catch ing the disease. This la a remedy that has been used by our family with good results. We have never had a sick ho» after giving acid mixed with food. We don't let them have anything else until they eat up the feed with the acid In It The hoga will not eat It very readily. The same remedy will answer for chickens with cholera, only give them but two drops per chicken. —W. H. Burke, Clarksvllle, Texas. A handy kitchen cabinet POULTRY MANURE PRESERVATION On Account of the High Values of This Fertilizer Every Effort Should b? Made to Save a I the •i: Properties Contained Therein, By Rodney M. West }, $**•- it' "f, '-5 5 S .%b sSUii I the soldering aeld and afterwards rub bing over the snider. This process la known as "tinning" th« iron, and la necessary li» order to make tlM solder a,dheie to the copper and spread evAS enly. The iron tnust be retlnned often 99 the coating burns oft Sol dering irons are. sold hjr th« pound, the prlca depending upon th^ market price of copper however, the ruUnil price is about 40 cents a pound. The tpe ot too's Is of great v»lu» C1»W tw Piqaib rul* made from p|«c« ol bout The half hstcl|«| i-'-fe »rpq|l MM ta plumb "vffe education*! feat-ire, especially., when the wor Is carefully performed. The boys on the farn^ should be en ocuraged In the use of tools, but-Shoutit be held responsible both for the care of the tools and the character of the worked performed with them. The tool, outfit of the. farm is of -speetai service on stormy days -and will aid greatly in keeping the boys employed and contented to remain at home. V. a kJ" From. the standpoint of the me chanical condition, the mixture with land plaster gives the least #«slrabl» I product, although ,the addition sawdust aids materially In preventing.^ the formation of hard oakes. When the manure is to *ba kspt on'y a few days before applying! gord results may be obtained with dry loam or peat as an absorbent. The absorbent used should ha sprinkled daily, in the required quan tity, on the floor of the hen-h6use:' from which, In combination with the excrement It may. be removed .when desired. The difficulties experienced In spreading poultry manure, on account of its sticky consistency, mar be ob-^ vlated by mixing with loam, peat or' common stable manure. For eco nomical use, it should be spread in relatively smaller amounts than otheP manures. The admixture of lime-or wood ashes is not advised, since decomposi tion li sufllclently rapld without their use. It should be borne In mind tliat eaott of the absorbents suggested Is In it self of value as a fertilizer: the least valuable being sawdust Conse quently the requirements of the sotl should govern to some extant the choice of the absorbent used, FERNS FOB THE 's ROMS' If your room is heated with hot water you can grow ferns in It that would soon die if kept in a room heat ed by steam, or hot air, or a wood flre. For such a room I would advise Whitman's, one of the most beautiful varieties of recent introduction. It is a sport frota the old Boston Fern. It haa shorter fronds tlian that variety, but they are broader, and tho leaflets oh them are developed Into miniature fronds, thus making It most graceful plant, whe: well grown. Its fronds have a plume-like effect that make r. fine specimen of It one of the most ornamental of all decorative plants. Give It a soil of leaf mold, or turly matter keep It well watered, and but of the sunshine, and It will do well in rooms where the heat la not intense and dry. would not advise-trying to grow it under other conditions. Pigeons must hare clean bathing water about throe times a week.