OCR Interpretation

Ottumwa tri-weekly courier. [volume] (Ottumwa, Iowa) 1903-1916, June 22, 1912, Image 4

Image and text provided by State Historical Society of Iowa

Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn86061215/1912-06-22/ed-1/seq-4/

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The term "set," as applied to the
onion, indicates a small, undersized
bulb which, when replanted in the
ground, will produce a large onion.
This method of producing onions is
perhaps the oldest and now the most
universally employed for the growing
of small are&s of onions in the garden
and where an early crop is desired
The common method of producing sets
is to plant a large quantity of seed on
a small area of rather rich land and
thus procure a great number of bulbs
that are undersized, owing to crowd
ing and lack of plant food. The
greater number of these bulbs do not
attain sufficient size or maturity to
produce seed the following season and
are really plants in which the process
of growth has been arrested.
In the United States the onion-set
Industry is largely confined to a few
areas. The crop is extensively grown
near Louisville, Ky., Chillicothe, Ohio,
and Chicago, 111., in the Platte River
Valley of Nebraska, In southwestern
New Jersey and in southern California.
The entire area devoted to this enter
prise in these localities is estimated at
Onion sets drying on trays piled In a
from 2,500 to 3.000 acres.. The yield
the acre varies with the locality,
1 will average about 300 bushels,
market for onion sets is found
I i"ousrhout the entire country, the
renter portion being disposed of in
tpvill quantities.
The climatic conditions governing
t1 production of onion sets are prac
t. rf'l\ the same as those for standard
dopth varying from iS inches to iO or
1, feet by limestone, and is a natural/
rature it is retentive of moisture and,ers
,easi cultivated.
The production of eggs for market
is generally considered the most profit
able branch of poultry keeping.
Under proper conditions there is no
"reason why eggs should not be pro
'auced at a price that will allow a good
.margin of profit. This should be es
pecially true of eggs produced on
farms where the fowls may find a
large part of their sustenance at no
cost to the farmer, utilizing what
would otherwise bo waste products.
With a knowledge of what is neces
sary for the best results in egg produc
tion, the farmer should be t.ble to sup
plement the natural resources of the
farm in such a way that revenue from
the hens would be largely increased
by a small extra outlay for food.
The profitable production of eggs de
pends on several different conditions,
any one of which being wrong may
seriously handicap one's efforts for
the production of eggs at a profit.
The stpfk' Which tr» Inv fVift RCTgS
r-TTl^.-.^!.' ....
"S «. VfV
By W. R. Seattle.
oniors. although it is not necessary to actual varietal names. The demand
quite so early in the spring. I for the yellow and white sets is greater
O f.ets can undoubtedly be grown than for the red, and those of the
part of the Northern States globular type are generally preferred.
uitable soil conditions can be! There is nothing difficult In the pro
rfl. The soil adapted to onion- I duction of either onion sets or seed,
ulture is. as a rule, about the: and one or both may be undertaken as
ne h.s that required for the growing'a side issue with other lines of farm-
I large onions, except that the land ing. The work of caring for the
E.inuld be so rich.
Trt the Louisville district the soil is and children where it is desirable to
'r.\ !ojm, containing plenty of lime, (provide tvork. of this nature for them.
This by the use of fertilizer, will xo large profit can be obtained from
yield ..0 to 3o0 busnels of mature the production of either onion seed or
onions and will produce an equal
In regular level beds. This soil is of a
sandy, loamy nature and is very sim
ilar to the river-boUom lands at Chil
licothe. Northwest* of Chicago the
soil Is a more gravelly loam, although
in some places it is of a river-bottom
or silts' nature.
In southwestern New Jerse^the soil
is a sandy loam, not unlike the Nor
folk sandy loam, although it contains
more or less gravel, and in places the
clay approaches the surface.
It will be seen that onion-sets can
be grown on any land that is adapted
to general truck crops, the main es
sential being freedom from weeds and
a reasonably high state of tillage.
In preparing the land for growing
onion-sets large quantities of barn
yard manure should not be applied
Immediately before planting. If barn
yard manure is to be employed, it
should be used the previous season on
some other crop, in order that it may
become fully incorporated with the
soil and in a measure subdued.
Commercial fertilizers may be used
profitably in moderate quantities—600
to 1,200 pounds to the acre—and
should be broadcasted at thj time of
fitting the land. The fertilizer should
contain about 4 or 5 per cent of nitro
gen, 6 or 8 per cent of available phos
poric acid, and 8 or 10 per cent potash.
As the essential feature of growing
onion-sets is the crowding together of
the plants in the rows, a large quan
tity of seed is required to plant an
acre. The quantity of seed required
varies with the different localities. In
the vicinity of Louisville, Ky., from 55
to 60 pounds to the acre are sown
Chillicothe, Ohio, 40 to 50 pounds!
Chicago. 55 to 120 pounds while in
New Jersey as low as 25 pounds to the
acre are used.
Seed of almost any variety of onion
may be used for the production of
sets, but a greater demand exists for
the distinctly yellow, white and red
colors. In the trade the sets are recog
nized by their color rather than by
crops may be done largely by women
quantit of sets, but the fertilizer re- obtainable from comparatively small
rurements for the latter are not so plantings. On a considerable por
r.eat. This land is underlain at a
and the greater profits are
tion of the
86t raiBing
uesrnss soil, retentive of moisture. Allowing for the cost of seed, fertil
comparatively free from weeds. i^ers, cultivation, harvesting and han
In the vicinity of Chillicothe, Ohio, dling, the net returns are not large,
the soil is a river-bottom loam, being especially when sets bring only 50 or
principally the washings from the hills. 60 cents a bushel.
This soil contains occasional small! The method of growing white onion
of gravel, but owing to its silty
lor leeaing dry mash.
After all that may be said in favor
of other pastures, clover stands at the
head when it comes to the right thing
for pigs.
A great many farmers do not realize
that grass supplies a feed entirely dif
ferent from corn and that it is a bad
practice to* change entirely and sud
denly from one to the other.
When the pigs are taken out of the
pasture this fall they should not be
turned suddenly into the corn fields or
fed all the new cprn they can eat.
Make the change gradually.
jand devoted to olnon-
the yield is less than
hundred bushels to the acre,
followed by the New Jersey grow-
to be the most profitable, as
the gctg are simpiy a
In the Chicago area we find a vari- onion crop, the main object being to
a tion in soil texture. In the vicinity secure a large yield of small, white
_of South Chicago, the area devoted to onions, known as "picklers," which
onion-set growing was formerly a bring a high price in most of our
sewage-disposal farm and is laid off markets.
by-product of the
By J. S. Jeffrey.
must be of the right kind and of suit
able age. Comfortable houses must be
I provided to protect the stock from the
wet and wind.
Proper food must be supplied in
some way that is suited to the needs
I of the hens, and which does not call
for too much labor on the part of the
poultryman in its preparation and
All of these are important and nec
essary if the best results are to be ob
tained, but they will not bring success
unless the houses are kept clean and
free from mites.
It has been demonstrated that fowls
do better where they have part of
I their ration of grains, either whole or
cracked, and part of it of ground
products or what is commonly called
a mash. Until within the last few
years, it has been the custom to feed
this mash wet. This necessitated "the
mixing of the mash fresh for each
feeding and required a great deal of
extra work in mixing and feeding. On
this account the farmer has never
taken to the feeding of mash. With
the introduction of the feeding of this
part of the ration dry, from hoppers
or feed boxes, the objection to it has
been largely done away with, and It
can notf-be fed with less labor than
can grain. Enough mash can be mixed
and put in the feed boxes to last for a
week or ten days with no more work
than was necessary for the feeding of
the day's ration under the old method.
Not only is there this great saving In
Many growers say that weeds are as
valuable as fertilizers as clover and
cow peas if they are turned under
every year.
The grower who will sort his appleB
into two or more grades, packed well,
will get more money for his fruit than
the one who throws all kinds together
in a barrel and places a layer of the
best ones on top.
The city dealer profits by the lazi
ness of the grower by grading and re
packing his badly assorted fruit.
A \v «wv .1%-^^"
*£5 £^5 V^»SWI!S
-I' (J*W
The raising of geese is necessarily
conducted for the most part on a
small scale. This is due to the re
quirements of the birds with regard to
range and also to their breeding habits
and, the expense connected with main
taining a large establishment for rear
ing them.
turkeys, and as a result they require
more soft feed, and food should be
given at more frequent intervals.
Geese do not become fully mature
until the second or third season, and
It will be cheaper to have one of the
boys help a day or two with the
house-cleaning than to pay the doc
tor's bill for mother after it is over—
to say nothing of the decency and
If you believe that you have scale
in your orchard, do not wait a day to
have an expert examine the trees, and
then fight for their lives.
labor, but it has been shown that hens
return a greater profit on the dry
mash-hopper feeding system than on
the wet mash, without taking into ac
count the labor in either case.
A home-made box for feeding dry
mash serves the purpose very well.
It may be improved by putting the
slats on the inside of the front and
having a wire screen to cover the front
at night to keep out rats.
A good style of galvanized feed box
is covered by a grating of expanded
metal. The hens get their food
through this grating and are thus pre
vented from pulling apart of the mash
out of the hopper in their search for
the ingredients they like best. By
hooking the lower end of the grating
up at night, the hopper is made rat
Galvanized Iron
Geese are the most monogamous of
all domestic fowls, so that it follows
that a large number of expensive gan
ders would be necessary for conduct- Two common breeds of geese, the
ing the business on any extensive Embden and Toulouse, are descended
scale. As a rule ganders mate with from the Graylag goose of Europe,
only two or three, rarely four geese. and the brown and white China geese
tor ury masii.
Do not sow oats or any grain that
has not been cleaned and recleaned in
the fanning mill. Then go a step
further and trtfat for smut. These
are little things, but they are import
ant, and mean a good many more
bushels at harvest time.
Be sure to plant a succession of all
the vegetables best liked by the fam
ily as well as those intended for mar
ket, thus prolonging the season when
they may be enjoyed at home or sold,
the colt to eat grain and
Geese require extensive range. They are thought to have descended from absolutely essential tojtru®
Be sure to mulch the newly planted
trees. The hot, dry days will come
and these cost the lives of many
young fruit trees that are not so pro
Mass the flowers and plants around
the house and along the edges of the
lawns and walks. They make a most
Most people buy any kind of sweet
corn seed that comes handy, put it
into the ground indifferently, hoe it
occasionally and "let it go at that."
The result of this sort of planting
and cultivation is naturally not the
best. There are many varieties of
sweet corn seed to select from and the
best for one's own garden can only be
told by observing the results of other
There is great strife among seed
dealers to produce the earliest varie
ties, but this development is resulting
in a great deal of seed that is subject
to smut.
There are some varieties which will
produce ripe corn in fifty-five days,
but, as a rule, two months is as early
as one should expect good corn from
the time of planting.
Next to the seed, the preparation of
the ground is of the greatest impor
tance. The ground should be plowed
deeply and should have had a coat of
well-rotted manure the previous fall.
It will not do to simply smooth over
the top of the soil. It should be thor
oughly pulverized to the depth of five
or six inches. To do this requires a
great deal of spading and raking.
When the soil is in the condition of
the finest portion of your garden, then
plant your seed in rows thirty inches
apart, one seed in a place, and cover
Then it is necessary to keep the
surface of the soil very fine all
through the growing season in order
to keep the moisture from evaporat
Do ijot wait until the weeds grow
higher than the corn before taking
them up. Use the rake as soon as
they make their flrst appearance, and
then keep after them wit" the rake
and hoe and hands until the corn ma
If this practice Is carefully followed
one may be agreeably surprised in the
improvement of his crop, even from
seed that has hitherto proven disap
To Jerk the horse is not a very nice
way for the hired man to get even
with his "Boss."
It is a slow- process grading up
horses, and the best way is to buy a
pure bred mare and breed to a Dure
bred stallion. *.
.T&i*mr, ,r_, a-r^T
thrive on green pasturage and -water, the wild goose of Asia. successful geese raising. Where avail- ,',TV,V
even without the addition of other A great improvement in weight has I
food to their diet. It is practically im- been accomplished during domestlca-1 be had the birds must be fed on cut
possible to rear goslings without a tion, the wild geese of Europe weigh- green vegetable food of various sorts.
liberal supply of green vegetable food,' ing usually about 10 pounds, while the! The presence of running water is also
such as clover, roots, cabbage, etc. I weight of 35 pounds has been attained considered necessary by many breed
Geese have no crops, like hens and by domestic geese. ers. and plenty of clean drinking water
delightful setting for the rich, green! open lot with a shed for shelter is
lawn. better.
good results of breeding should not be! prized in the market and bring larger
expected from younger birds. prices than any other geese. The
Under favorable conditions they live rearing of the wild Canada goose or
to an extremely old age, frequently 'ts
ranging from 50 to 75 years, and in
stances are recorded where they have
exceeded 100 years of age. Good
geese may be profitably kept for
breeding purposes until 25 years of
age, but ganders should not be kept
past 8 years. They sh.ould then be Srels are best fattened during .cool
4t« IM 1 A 4 A A ntai
replaced by younger birds.
breeding goose, win De seen
these figures that
abje space
The wild Canada goose 1s easily do-1 Is essential under all conditions.
mesticated and the ganders mate White geese are most desirable for
with domestic geese. The crosses thus market, the meat of such birds being
obtained are known as mongrels and! whiter and jnaking a better appear
are sterile. They are very highly I ance.
Recognizing the fact that America
produces the best horses in the world
the Japanese government has re
cently sent a special agent to this
country for the purpose of buying a
number of breeding horses.
A mule should never be kept in a
stall but in a large roomy pen. An
Recent developments In dairying
have caused a large demand for a dairy
house which will fulfill sanitary re
quirements and at the same time be
practical and inexpensive. For those
who are striving to improve the qual
ity of their products, such a building
is an absolute necessity. Milk which
is poured or strained in the barn, or
allowed to stand there, is apt to be
contaminated by germs and to absorb
stable odors. The best practice Is to
remove the milk to the dairy house as
soon as each cow is milked. Milk
should be cooled immediately, so the
dairy house should be provided with
proper facilities for this purpose.
While the dairy house should be
conveniently located so that the milk
ers do not have a long walk from the
barn, it must be so placed that it is
free from contaminating surround-
4 4
*s accomplished with con­
siderable difficulty, and can only be
accomplished after some experience,
In breeding mongrels, one wild
gander should be mated with a single
African or Toulouse goose. The gan
der should be 2 or 3 years old. Mon-
weather In late autumn.
Experienced geese raisers realize
from $2 to $7 per year
It will be seen from! .......
for free pasturage is not to
Inexpensive, sanitary dairy house.
A Western farmer who was kicked
over a milking stool by a heifer 28
years ago has never used a stool since.
He squats down, holds the pall be
tween his legs and milks 17 cows twice
a day. During the 28 years of this
kind of exercise the farmer nas uevel
oped a pair of bow legs which are
something of a drawback when he
tries to stop a runaway pig, for the
animal dashes between his legs, and
he finds himself absolutely helpleas.
of today and then as now the
fit to
ought to grow them in abundance, for
never have roses been so cheap and
beautiful as now. Moreover, the culti
vation of the flower is so simple that
no excuse can be offered for its neglect.
The first requisite for success in rose
growing is the selection of good
healthy plants. Weak, sickly roses
are dear at any price. Many of these
plants lack vigor because they are
stunted by remaining too long in the
cutting-bed or in small pots, before
they are set out. In order to obtain
the best results, therefore, it is advis
able to restrict one's patronage to flrst
claes nurserymen only, Arms that are
prepared to furnish strong, well
rooted plants, such as will make a
showing the flrst season and develop
into vigorous specimens.
In selecting roses for the garden, it
is well to know that these plants are
grown in two ways, that is to say o.n
their own roots or budded low on the
Manetti, a brier-rose that has largely
superseded the Dog-rose and other
stocks in this country.
Experts are divided on the question
as to whrtch should receive the prefer
ence, and the beginner Is liable to be
in a quandary because growers are apt
to argue for their own method of
propagation. But of late years many
eminent rosarians have pronounced
themselves in favor of budded plants.
A prominent firm of rose-growers at
Rochester, N. Y., that is known the
world over for the excellence of Its
roses, concretely expressed this con
viction as follows:
We find many varieties of rores
grown on this stock (Manetti) adapt
themselves to a greater range of til
mate and soil, bloom more profusely,
endure better the heat of the summer
and make far stronger plants than if
grown from their own roots. Many
object to budded roses on account of
the suckers they sometimes throw out
but if proper attention is paid to the
planting, this will rarely be an annoy
ance. Budded roses should be planted
sufficiently deep, so that the junction
of the bud with the stock is from two
to three inches below the surface of
the earth. If despite this precaution,
a wild shoot should happen to start
from the base, the growth and foliage
of the stock are so distinct that it is
readily recognized by the most inex
perienced amateur and is easily re
By E. Kelly-K. E. Parks.
lngs. It should be built on a well
drained spot, and the drainage of the
dairy house itself should be carried
well away from the building. If pos
sible the ground should slope from the
dairy house toward the barn, rather
than from the barn toward the dairy
The principal purpose in building a
dairy house is to provide a place where
dairy products may be handled apart
from everything else. To carry out
this idea it is necessary to divide the
interior of the building so that utensils
will not have to be washed in the same
room where the milk is handled.
Thorough cleanliness must always be
kept in mind therefore there should
be no unnecessary ledges or rough sur
faces inside the building, so that it can
be quickly and thoroughly cfeaned.
Ventilators are necessary to keep the
air in the milk room fresh and free
from musty and undesirable odors,
and to carry off steam from the wash
room. Windows are of prime im
portance, as they let in fresh air and
sunlight, and facilitate work. In
summer the doors and windows should
be screened to keep out flies and other
It Is imperative that there should be
a plentiful supply of cold, running
water at the dairy house. If it is not
possible to have a regular water sys­
One sign of an overfed sheep is the
frequent stretching and spreading out
of the legs. When these symptoms are
observed give a bran mash and an
ounce of linseed oil.
It is a mistake to send the buck
lambs to market as they are never de
sirable an£ bring down the average of
the shipment.
When a buck lamb Is about three
months old it begins to develop coarse
ness and a disposition to fight.
A farmer from Maitland, Mo.,
writes: "Will dipping sheep affect the
quality of the wool?" Perhaps not If
the sheep is not clipped for two or
three months afterward, but why dip
when the wool is long? This should
always be done immediately after
By H. Edichgen,
Nothing can be said in praise of the Another authority on this subject
rose that has not been said before, goes even further and contend* that
Universally recognized as the most many fine varieties of the queenly
beautiful flower, it is the one child of flower are utterly worthless unleM
Flora around which a wealth of senti-, they are budded. My own eXperleno*
ment, history and poetry clusters. The coincides with that referred to abov*..
maidens of ancient Greece and Rome Moreover, I found that It Is possible,
adorned themselves with "chaplets and as a rule, to replace budded rosea mo
garlands of roses, as does the maiden cheaply than those grown on their oW'
^*T"^7T -1'iiji^i)' 'li'ii' I'iuii] Mini) ijii l1iii'^*wyi*Wjp!ip^i"jii^)fej{
-V .. ,.. vrr--.?i*«v«- 'i- f3
£$•**••, Tla
'.•,' ... V,6 £S$$
rnn»c rht»v,
regarded as the emblem of beauty and favor, particularly in localities wher*
wonder, then, that it is so highly es- killed.
teemed that even the orchid, so often Roses may be grown to perfection to
regarded as its rival, will never super- ordinary garden soil, provided they
sede it in popular estimation. jare planted in a sonny, sheltered loea«
Of late the beauty of the rose^has tion, away from the roots of large
been so widely appreciated that the trees, for these will absorb all the life
popularity it now enjoys and the de- sustaining nutrition of the soil, where*
mand for hardy garden roses are an-
-5a-,,, anf^.vorv fnmMv
This conglomeration should be thor
oughly mixed by being apaded to a
depth of a foot, and la then ready for
the reception of Her Majesty, Queen
Rosa, as she was termed by Dean
Role, the man who had roeee la hie
heart as well as in hla garden. Rose
roots penetrate deeply when they have
a chance, but it should be remembered
that they will not thrive In stagnant
soil, hence good drainage la saaentlel
The question naturally presents' tt
self as to which is the best time to
plant roses, but the broad extent of
our country precludes a definite reply.
Generally speaking, however, mid
spring should receive the preference
and it is better to be a little too early
than too late.
tem, the supply may be piped from an
ejevated tank fed by a .hydraulic ram,
engine, windmill or hand pump.
For the proper sterilization of uten
sils an abundance of steam or hot
water is needed. A pail or can may
be clean to the eye and yet may carry
numberless germs which will hasten
the souring of the Tnllk, cause bad
flavor in butter or cheese, or spread
contagion. After utensils are washed
clean they should be either scalded
with boiling water or steamed./
The dairy house should be ao built
that labor is economized to the great
est extent. To do this the building
must be arranged ao that unneceaeary
steps will be avoided.
Floor, plans of sanitary dairy honest
showing general
If other remedies fail, spray the
cucumber vines with arsenate of lead.
It destroys the yellow striped beetle,
which Is the most dangerous enemy of
the cucumber and requires the most
vigilant watching.
Arsenate of lead will not destroy
the black squash bug and other suck
ing insects. They must be picked off
by hand and squashed.
The best garden seed are not always
found in t}ie packages on whicji are
found the prettiest pictures.
Coal ashes contain no fertilizing
value and our experience is that they
only serve to pack the soil Instead of
making it friable.'StWood ashes are
-.'j, vV (H-V
4. .n
rose was roots, which is another point in their
crown a queen. No many roses are liable to be winter*
as young trees and dwarf shrubbery
do no harm. If the soil la naturally
poor, however, it is advisable to lav
For cut flowers nothing can rival tbo
beauty of the rose.
substantial foundation for future good
results, by substituting a quantity of
loam, sand and fertiliser, in the fol
lowing proportions:
To each wheelbarrow load of loam—
which, by the way, may be readily
obtained under the sod of the field or
by the roadside—add one-third of Ita
bulk of well-rotted stable manure and
some sand. If that constituent should
be lacking.

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