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For METHODS OF GRAPE PRUNING No Other Tree or Vine May Be Handled So Systematically—Es sential Points Given. less ence by (By U M. BENNINGTON.) So much has Deen written on this suhject, and so many complicated methods set forth, that the essential points have been lost sight of, and those who cannot follow these methods to the letter just let the vineyard go without care. Proper pruning Is the most Impor tant item in grape culture, and there Is no tree or vine which may be handled so systematically as the grape. With fruit trees a great deal has to be left to the judgment of the operator and the condition of the trees; not so with the grape, for there are certain rules which must be adhered to, leav ing nothing to guess. It is not enough to cut away half or two-thirds of the growth, for unless you have a proper knowledge of the fruit-bearing canes you may cut away the very ones you ought to let alone. In the first place let us understand that some of the canes will produce fruit buds next year, while others will only make more wood. It is not at all difficult to determine between the two. The fruit canes have the buds close together and these buds are short and plump. Such canes usually come from wood of the previ ous season's growth, while the long jointed and unfruitful canes come from the older wood. Let us remember, however, that these long-jointed canes tu their turn produce fruit-bearing canes next yenr, and one or two bud spurs should be left on them, for the vlneyardlst must look a year ahead. The time for prun ing grapevines is any time from the falling of the leaves in the fall till tht sap rises in the spring, nnd no matter what kind of trellis you use, canopy, wire or even a single post for euch vine, the essentials are the same ; nnd these ure, that two fruitful canes he left on each vine, three or four feet long, or containing ten or fifteen buds each. has pie the Its of to ' These buds will produce fruitful vines for next year's pruning, as It is u well-established fact that canes growing out of these spurs are more apt to be vigorous and fruitful than those from canes that bore fruit this year. If this has been looked after this year, nil you will have to do next yenr is to pick out the canes from these two spurs, cut them to the desired length, removing all other wood ex cept two spurs of the long-jointed wood for the forthcoming year. GIVE BLACKBERRY GOOD CARE Provide Winter Protection Before Ground Is Frozen—Canes Should Be Bent Over. (Prepared by the United States Depart ment of Agriculture.) Before the ground is frozen solid, but after all danger of warm weather « -fcj, - - j-i ' ■ m r ;> gw Ss * Bush Fruit Growing Between Rows of Trees in Newly Set Orchard. Is past, winter protection for the black berries should be provided where It is necessary to bring them through the cold season. rfThe hardy varieties of blackberries will withstand temperatures of minus 80 degrees F., provided water does not stand In the soil about the roots and there ts no danger from severe drying winds. Many varieties are hardy enough to survive miuus 40 de grees F. without Injury. In locali ties where therif is real danger from cold, drying winds, as In the central Western states, or from too severe winter temperatures, the canes are bent over in the fall and a layer of earth, hay, straw or coarse manure is tbrovvu over them, done before the ground is frozen, yet after all danger of warm weather Is past. Few canes will break if they are bent over while the sap still circu lates. Sometimes the soil Is drawn away from one side by means of a hoe or plow and the plants inclined to that side before being covered. The canes will lie in a more nearly hori son ta! position with less danger of be ing broken when this is done, although the roots may be somewhat injured when the earth is removed. The plant» are uncovered ln Ute spring after oil of severe weather U past. i This should be A PERFECT WIRELESS TELEPHONE IS AMERICA'S GREATEST WAR SECRET * He * For Months American Airplanes Here and in Europe Have Been Equipped With Apparatus by Which Their Movements Were Directed by Voice Command—Hardest Tests Fail to Impair Its Complete Efficiency. to to It ou of C. in at WILLIAM A. WILLIS In the New York Herald. America's biggest war secret, the de velopment and perfection of the wire less telephone, is no longer a secret. Eight years of work by wizards of sci ence In the United States army, aided by civilian workers in radio problems. successful consummation last Since that time American came to February. airplanes here and In Europe have been equipped with apparatus which has made vocal communication lm tween them while Hying, ns well as communication with the earth, a sim pie matter. The secret has been well kept for Outside of members of many months, the air service few' have known it. Those few have maintained absolute The war department lias re silence. gariled the solution of the problem of what now is called "voice command flying" ns one of the greatest nnd most important achievements of the uge. Its value in war was so tremendous that extraordinary precautions were taken to prevent the slightest inkling of the development reached from leuk lug out. Germans Had C'nly a Hint. that the German aviators knew American flying men hud some ad vanced method of communication but did not know exactly what it was. The French and British flying forces have dabbled with the wireless tele phone in connection with airplanes for time, the British meeting with It remained, however, some some success, for men of the American air service to perfect the radiophone. This they have done. The writer is the first civilian out side of Newton I). Baker, secretary of war; Mr. John D. Ryan, director of aircraft production, nnd one or two other highly placed government offi cials to observe this latest of great American Inventions tried out. It was on receipt of word from Mlneoiyi that the hardest tests the new wireless telephone had ever been put to had failed to impair its complete efficiency that Mr. Ryan In Washington made public the first news ever given out of the new discovery. > These tests were made at Hnzel liyrst nnd Roosevelt fields, near Min ci la, under the personal direction of Mnj. Gen. William L. Kenly, chief of the division of military aeronautics, who came over from Washington for the specific purpose of finding out If there was* any feat In aviation that could break down the "voice com mnnd" system of communication. When he quit after an afternoon of hafr-ritlflng stunts with every kind of aircraft from the slow training planes to those swift eagles of the atr the He Havilnnds, he expressed himself ns completely satisfied tlmt the wire less telephone as part of airplane equipment has come to stay and is In ( shape to meet almost any situation short of an actual smashup. ' No Need for Further Secrecy. The ending of the war has made further secrecy in connection with this amazing Invention unndeessary, In the opinion of Mr. Ryan and General Kenly. There are certain secrets In connection with the apparatus used that naturally will not he revealed. But the principles Involved were made clear without reserve by Col. Clarence C. Culver of the uviution corps, the man who has led the work of perfect ing the wireless telephone nnd who Is credited by scientists with the major -art of the credit for Its success. Those who have seen airplanes In bnttle formation many thousands of ' feet In the air have perhaps wondered how at a given moment they have all turned or looped or dived as one ma chine, maintaining the precision al most of West Point cadets on dre.-s parade. The answer Is that each man has a telephone receiver fustened Id his helmet through which he has re ceived the order of the squadron com mnnder as clearly and audibly us If he was an Infantryman on the ground being addressed by his company cap is gw Rows is FROM EAST AND WEST AND NORTH AND SOUTH mi I item I 1 JS» mi » «: III * 2*3 aft'f •»'«ft m WÊL During an entertainment at the Y. M. C. A. Eagle bo in London recently a blackboard was erected and earii aoldler and sailor present was requested to mark down the name ot hia bom# state. Within 14 — •von 1 ataM la tbs Union was represented. tain. The ronr of the motor nnd the word whir of the propeilors have no effect \ the whatever on his power of clear trans- act mission or on the ability of his men receive his words. The tremendous value ofr the Inve tlon which Colonel Culver and those associated with him have brought to perfection, is not easily understand able by civilians. But through Its o|> crations It Is now possible to sc/ul i students Into the air alone nnd di rect their daily drill from the ground, thus eliminating the necessity of en- say: dangering experienced pilots, who, as Instructors, have hitherto been obliged to go up In the air with their pupils. It also Is now possible to train avia tors in advanced flying, the Instructor ou the ground being able to see the work of his student and Instantly cor rect his faults. In training and di recting pilot gunners and bombing pilots the wireless telephone also Is of Inestlmuhle value. The tests of the new Invention were conducted in the presence of General Keuly, Colonel Culver, Col. Millard K. Harmon, Jr„ commnnder of the first provisional wing ; MaJ. commander of Roosevelt field; George C. Norton, a lawyer, and the writer. 1.1 eut. Hudson It. Scoring look the air in a De Hnvilnud at Huzelhurst field, at an order from General Kcnly. here at see roof ed, u n was a the to of five Ami is of lag Ralph Cousins, an Looks Like Ordinary Transmitter. Colonel Culver took what looked to be an ordinary telephone transmitter in Ids hand. This transmitter was connected by u wire with u small wire less plant built on the field. Lieuten ant Seerlng had a receiver in Ills hel met hut no transmitter, so he had been instructed to Indicate "yes" by a slight forward tip of ills machine, nnd "no" by waving his plane from side to side, much the same ns u bout rocking in the water. When Seering was 2,500 fi'et tn the air and perhaps half n mile from where the party was standing Colonel Culver, speaking Into the transmitter in a tone only slightly above normal, said ( "Cnn you hear me, Seerlng?" Instantly the machine took a for ward dip. "Ho you hear me clearly?" usked Coiouel Culver. The machine took another forward dip. "Are you cold?" wus the next quos tlon. Tlie machine Instnntly began rock ing from side to side. "Well, climb a bit higher," ordered Colonel Culver. Without a second of delny Lieuten ant Seerlng started up. "That's high enough," said Colonel Culver. The machine flattened out. Then followed n bewildering series of "stunts," each In response to h vocal order from the ground, the flyer doing nothing on his own initiative. During Lleutenunt Searing's flight, he ranged from 2,500 feet to 3,500 feet altitude. At no time wus he more than three miles from where General Kenly und Colonel Culver stood. Neither his altitude nor his distance from the transmitter, however, affect ed his ability to hear whatever was said to him. * From Hozlehurgt field General Ken ly took Ills party to Roosevelt field, where the performance given was so remarkable thut It threw into the shade the test made with Lieutenant Seerlng, astonishing as that seemed lit the time. Nineteen battle planes, the swiftest of the' He Havllunds, equipped with Liberty motors, took the air at once. They were command ed by MaJ. Joseph E. Itossell, acting as squadron commander. Eighteen of the pilots were equipped with receiv ing apparatus. Major Rosseil alone hnd a transmitter equipment. This air fleet shot off into the south at a speed of 180 miles an hour, but .soon returned in a V formation. Major Rosseil flying higher and Well behind his squadron. Bussing over Roosevelt field the squadron went through sev eral maneuvers, forming right lines and left lines, breaking off In Jiffer ent directions and swluging back Into lino again. Everything xvus done with perfect precision. Colonel Culver explained that Major Bossell was giving every . order by word of inouth and that 4very man In the fleet was getting orders at the ex act Instant, i say: air "Now If you want to you can stand here on the ground nnd hear Major llossell give these orders, and you can at the same time that you hear them see them carried out," said Colonel Culver. He led us to a Rinall shack from the roof of which dwarf aerials project ed, put receivers over our ears, and u moment luter I heard a strong voice "By the right flank." Then there was a second of hesitation, followed by a stentorian, long drawn-out "Go," und uway off In the eustern heavens I saw the long line of smnll dots swing off to the right, und for the moment, out of sight. And those words enme from Major Itossell, spoken In an ordinary tone, O.tXX) feet in the air and fully five miles from where 1 was standing. Ami I was Informed that It would have been Just the same if lie had been further away, range of the new wireless telephone is one of the secrets that the division of military ueronuuties Is not reveul lag just uow. For more than an hour I heard his squadron However, the In of .Major Russell put through n drill and at the same time that I heard his orders I saw them These things took pluce executed. while these 10 airplanes were rushing along at more than u hundred miles an hour at un altitude ranging from 4,000 to 0,000 feet, und with the man giving the order fully two miles from the nearest of his men. The apparatus used for wireless telephoning Is so simple and so com pact that one either the transmitting or receiving devices on an airplane unless his at tention was called to It. consent of General Kenly', Colonel Culver gave'me a great deal of In formation about these devices nnd the following facts ure the first published about what perhaps Is the' greatest Invention of the war. Description of Device, The transmitting set consists of a power plant, a set box, a transmitter or microphone and an antenna sys The power plant consists of a would never notice With the tern. generator driven on the windmill prin ciple by tlie pussuge of the airplane It Is placed some through the utr. where In the open, usually on tlie run ning gear or on one ot the wings, and its tiny propeller blade Whirls vigor ously us the airplane travels along. The so-culleil' set box receives the from the generator, converts It h he was power and places It on the aerials la the form of sustained or undamped waves. The voice entering the transmitter varies the electric current wires, which are connected us In the In the set box on the rdlnary telephone. Hie variations received from the trans mitter, are converted und act to effect modulation of the continuous or un dumped waves already referred to. The antenna system consists of au aerial of one or two trailing wires of approximately L50 feet strung out from the wing tips. Is counterpoised by the wires nml oth metalllc parts of the nlrplunes all These two elements ■ a In length, This er bonded together, of the antenna system are analogous overhead wires und to the so the took of but to large "ground" of u iund wireless station. The receiving set consists of u re ceiving set box, it head receiver, 8 of power and an antenna sys The lutter 1» the same as the source tem. antenna system In the transmitting The source of power is u small The head receiver Is set. storage battery, built Into the aviator's helmet In such manner us to exclude sounds from the motor reaching the pilot's ear and Interfering with tils hearing, box proper contains apparatus quite similar to the receiving apparatus of How ever, It possesses a number of refine ments over these which Increase th« audibility of Incoming signals, with stand vibration and minimize weight. h Tlie set first-class wireless station. HOME TOWN tlELPS^ SPEND YOUR MONEY ON HOME Outlay Surely Worth While, Since It la the Grandest Institution Con ceived by Man. Life Is short, yes, by comparison with what lies beyond, but since Its birth this smnll atom In a universe of worlds has been for millions, aye for billions of men a workshop and a play ground. They have bought and sold, they have tolled nnd reaped, they have harnessed the lightning, conquered the air and established lanes of traffic They have even across the raging sea. tunneled beneath wide rivers, hanging safe highways of steel for travel far under the pulsing tides' ebb and flow. As the nice has progressed from its earliest beginnings .more and more firmly has u fitting Idea of home be come fixed In men's hearts. Time wns when a home mount a rudo hut With out windows and with a hole In the roof for a chimney. Now everyone realizes that a home is the grandest institution yet conceived by man, a place not alone In which to sleep nnd cat but a very shrine of shrines, a sanctuary of loving hearts, u well spring of Inspiration and peuoe. A tender sentiment attaches to the Image of the little thatched cottage But with the passing of In the lane, the unsanitary thatched roof lias come the bigger, hotter Idea of the home as place for which no modern Invention for comfort, even for luxury, is too good. I'late-glnss windows, yes, if we can afford them ! fountain around which birds shall gather and beside which young lovers slmll dream—why not? If the dread of the proverbial rainy dny Is past why not lavish upon the home In unstinted measure not only love but money—so that when wo come to It at the close of day it shall give hack to us glow for heart throb, smile for smile, ease and refreshment for every need of body To build and worthily A garden with a ' and of soul, equip the home Is a sacred task, a blessed privilege. In Ills heart of his home—so Is he. As a man thlnketh People's Home Journal. It.i AUSTRALIA AWAKE TO NEEDS People Beginning to Realize Necessity for Changed Condition» for the Dwellers In Cities. In his presidential address to the Australian town planning conference held In Brisbane Mr. J. D. Fitzgerald, minister for locul government and health and for town planning, New South Wales, said: "We have assem lilcd to plan out the destinies of Aus tralian city dwellers, lengeahle fact that our movement will change the destiny of tlie urban pop ulations, tlmt our propaganda will muko our olvte conditions better, our city plans nobler, our citizens happier nnd comfortuble beyond the dreams ot today; that our town planners' de vices will save millions to the nation which would otherwise he poured out In sheer and wicked economic wusle— ■ wicked hqcuuse preventable. "We Australians are only lit the be ginning of the great campaign which we must fight before we create ideal conditions for our city dwellers," con tinued the New South Wales minister. "Our parliaments must hasten to the aid of the pioneers. Already several of the states have general town-plun nlng Mils prepared. Four years ot wur have changed the face of tilings as regards housing us well as every thing else. Britain hits leaped for ward 100 years In methods, In organi zations, In plunulng In advunce, In housing and, above all, In outlook." it. Is an unclml Wage War on Dirt. Dirt Is sin, und It takes a buctorlolo between Bo we eun Unless we gist to tell the difference clean dirt and dirty dirt, afford to take no chances, cnlttvute cleanliness of mind and body, cleanliness of home, of city und country, cellar and garret, wharf and shop, markets and roads, of tlie ulr we breathe, of the mHk and water we drink, und the food we ent, all the serums and regulations of preventive medicines will not sa v e us. For health, like morality, Is more than un indl vldual mutter; It is a community nf fair. Have Patience In Judgment. Kndenvur to be paiieut !n bearing with the defects and Infirmities of oth ers, of what sort soever they lie; for that thyself also hast many fallings, which must be borne with by others. If thou onnst not make Mich an one thou wouldst, how cunst thou ex pect to have another In nil tiling« to I 'by liking?—Thomas a Kempls. I lift Adding to. Wealth and Happinew. Public imrkn are drmocri(9'« play* ground«, The comforting bcuutb-i« of Much place* nr#* free to «11* Public rmrk* «re buMne«* umw.-u. They Ktrengthon civic pride among actual citlren*. They convert proapeetfve cUb xen» Into actual one*.— Dalla* Time» Herald. ' v •' $ Makos No Progress. "He man dat don't trust nobcTW Mid Uncle Bbeo, "la like a man w*o won't git on board de cara foh fear 4# engine will blow up. He don't git M N FEW > UTTLE s màSâ ü mum A Lingering Disease. Ma —Say, this here state of Wyom ing must he a turrtblo unhealthy place. I'n—What makes you think that, " mnnthy? Mm Why, ole Mi* Berklns had u tet ter from her uncle and he says hljn and Ills, wife have both had the ballot ever since they moved there In 'Oil. Experlmentlng. "Why did you take those fish from tile aquarium I' "Because I was might oat them." "Why, there's no turtle In there." "Well, johnny put Ills boat In tbe aquarium ami papa said It turned tur tie." ifrnid the turtlr An Exception. "A yellow streak never pays," launched out the guy who was full of bromide». "Oh, doesn't It? 1 air. afraid you would have a hard time to convince a gold miner of the truth of that state ment," said the mean old joy-kllllng feller. What's the Use? ' Professor 1 went to the railroad of fice today and got that umbrella 1 left on the train last week. Ills Wife Tlml'a good. Where Is It now? Professor Eli? By .love, I reallt, my dear, I'm afraid I left It on t! i train. Stumplng for Father. Mother Herbert, you mustn't ask your pupa so many questions. They ir ritate him. Herbert (slinking his head)—It ain't It.i questions, mu. It's the answers he can't give that make him sore!—Pear Son's Weekly. Son's Weekly. ON BARGAIN DAY. 6 r i >v / V w f A Gentleman—Kr-where cun ! find Hi« silk counter? Floorwalker Third battle to tin right. Livelihood. Tlie world owes you ii llvln»; eos, It y method* rlt-sii nod right, Hometlmo« by work It rosy l-»- «on; HoinelliiH-N you'v# got to fight. Looking Ahead. Stage Manager—You're seated at this table all during the scene and all the action you have Is to eat two sand wiches. Extra Man There ought to lie on the plate, ill If 1 get an encore? Keeping Her Promlee. The Justice You promise to love, minor and obey IIiIk man? Eloping Girl I do. Now It's your turn, Dick. Take yonr hands from your pockets, -land on both feet, throw «way ilia! cigarette unit don't iook so like- a fool, What'll 1 more'n twi Judicious Optimism. "Are you mi optimist?" "Yes. But i don't believe In being so careless nnd happy ns to give the busy pessimist n ebunre for tlie lust of I lie argument." Special Facilities. 'That woman Is fond of the sound of her own voice." ''Fiie'H enjoy It here." «aid Hie land lord of the hotel, "We iinVc It very I fine echo." Nothing to Crow About, of •'Well, I've made my mark In thla life. at any wile." remark«*! th«* f«*l low who wan given to «efMaudfttlon don't let thut puff you up, r%M"»mb*d the chap who get« tired of it "*o 1the guy who can't write hti name.' Explained. " A sailor In time of war simply con t '«*» n ' hl * 4# ,.„ y m ' ,r , . .. "Because a man-of-war most keep * wake when on tlie water."