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THE KSXSISTE R
. . COLORADO. About the only establishment that snakes money without advertising Is the mint. The Chinese empress wishes she could handle the czar as easily as she can an unruly editor. A woman in a Southern town adver tised for a lost sheep. Is her name Bo Peep or is she an evangelist? Panama has set South America a beautiful example in the way of a quiet and inexpensive revolution. At any rate, Ann wasn't so old as ■ome of the other problems and puz zles that have followed her into print. Some people have no idea of the ▼alue of money. A Pennsylvania man was murdered for an Insurance of 92M. As Daniel Webster might have re marked, Dartmouth mny be small, but there are those who say she can play football. New York city is suffering from what the papers vaguely speak of as a pie war. Have the consumers struck for shorter crusts? The next American heiress who marries a duke might make a good thing out of it by hiring a hall and charging admission. John Strange Winter says that 90 per cent of London society women wear wigs, which, of course, keeps them out of the front row. That loss of $3,500,000 in a burning Russian mall car looks like the story might have gathered a few globules of air coming under the ocean. The bank teller who is accused of embezzling $5,000 and has been locked tip should have made It SIOO,OOO and taken a foreign trip for his health. As radium will exhaust itself in 30,000 years, economical persons will lie cautious about Investing in it until the price falls below SIO,OOO an ounce. Ex-Postmaster General James is go ing to marry an English girl. But he can’t spite the American heiresses by doing that. There’s no title to be fwon. Patti is to receive over $200,000 for kinging about 300 songs during her present farewell tour. Yet some of •he critics say her high notes do not come easily. There’s one trust we don’t want to bust- If It wasn't for the grocer’s •rust, we should have to go hungry except when we happened to have the ready cash. • The Red-Headed Philosopher de clares that, the difference between the hard worker and the easy-going work er is not more than two cents, but he may be prejudiced. ! The women’s congress at Hamburg resolved that the corsets* are barbar ous, in the face of the fact that only women who are supposed to be civil ized ever wear them. If they were younger, and therefore Inclined to indulge in hahy talk, one imight expect Mrs. Platt to say to her husband as he left the house: “And where will I meet ’oo?” A New York doctor has found a paste that will do the work of a razor. It will not be ]>opular with barbers end women who use their husband's razors for ripping seams. irVlny Ooelet. with $30,000,000. may marry a duke, the young daughter of the Rockefellers, with a billion, might marry a czar; but we’d never let Rus sia run our kerosene business. It Is said that the moose with which the Adirondack woods were stocked are working their way north into Can ada. Maybe they couldn't endure see ing so many hunters shot by mistake. The American trotting association ■will not accept the alleged record of a mile in 1:59% trotted by Cresceus at Wichita, but the record of l:sßVfc made by l.ou Dillon will be printed In red ink. A monument has been erected in England to the memory of the 400,000 horses killed and wounded in the Boer war. The gallant and serviceable American mule appears to have a kick coming. The report that .1. Pierpont Morgan is to retire is denied both at his Walt street nnd Ixmdon offices. Accepting Iho denial as true, the best thing for the public will be to keep its hands on its pocketbook. An Arkansas man who weighed Cl 9 pounds died the other uay from in flammatory rheumatism. It must have been terrible to have inflamma tory rheumatism fhat was bad enough to work its way through 619 pounds. .The sweet simplicity of girlhood has often been commented upon, but It never had a more forceful illustra tion than in the girl student wno con fessed to raising one dollar bills to x's, saying that it never occurred to her it was wrong to do so, and she needed the money. A Boston man was stabbed by high way robbers and his life saved only by the highwayman's knife striking a bundle of love-letters In his pocket. Still some people will Judge the re sults of love letters only by the dam age they do a man in a breach of promise suit. Summer being at hand in the south ern hemisphere, another British expe dition is starting out to have a hot time with the mad mullah. i-ant year when the British had their outing the mullah had bis Inning, PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE TO FIFTY-EIGHTH CONGRESS 'Chief Executive Recommends Passage of Important Legislation—Causes Leading to the Formation of the New Republic of Panama—No Obstruction Now to the Building of the Isthmian Canal Venezuelan Dispute a Triumph for International Arbitration— Extension of Purposes of Appropriation for Enforc ing Trust and Interstate Commerce Laws Favored —Public Land and Postal Frauds—Need for Treaties Making Bribery Extraditable Relations of the Government to Capita] and Labor. The President Charges the Colombian Government with Acting in Bad Faith in Repudiating the Treaty Between That Country and the United States Precedents B. /tight Forward to Explain the Attitude of the State Department in the Recent Crisis- Country Hss Been in an Almost Constant State of Turmoil for Many Years The Importance of Preserving Peace in the Isthmus Declared of Paramount imporlrjice. President Rosevelt's message to the second session of the Fifty-eighth Con gress is substantially as follows: To the Rcnute and House of Jtepretcn tatives: The country Is lo be congratulnh<] on the amount of substantial achievement which haw marked the past _v«-ur .both us regards our foreign ami as regards our domestic policy. With a nation as with a man tbe most Important things ure those of the house hold. and therefore the country Is espe cially to lx- congratulated on what has been accomplished In the direction of pro \ (ding for the exercise of supervision over the great corporations and com hi na tions of uor|M>rntinns engaged In Inter state commerce, The Congress has cre ated the Department of Commerce and 1 .al>or. Including th«» Bureau of Corpora tions. with for the first time authority to secure proper publicity of such proceed ings of these great corporations ns the public Iras the right to know-. It has pro vided for the expediting uf suits for the enforcement ol the Federal anti-trust law; and by another law It has secured equal treatment to all producers In the ] truimportstloti of their goods, thus taking ■ n long stride forward in making effective the wotk of the Interstate Commerce Commission- Department of Commerce and Labor. The establishment of the Department of Commerce anil l*abor. with the Bureau ot Corporations thereunder, marks a toal advance In the direction of doing all that la possible for the solution of the questions vitally affecting capitalists and wage w-oifeers. Functions of New Department. The preliminary work of the Bureau of Corporations In the department has shown the wisdom of Its creation. Pub licity In corporate affairs will tend to do away with Ignorance, and will afTord facts upon which Intelligent action muy be taken. Systematic, Intelligent Inves tigation Is already developing facta the knowledge of which is essential to a right understanding of the needs and duties of the business world. The corporation whleh Is honestly and fairly organized, whose managers In the conduct of Its business recognize their obligation lo deal i TUarely with their stockholders, their competitors, nnd the public, hna nothing to fear from such supervision. The pur pose of this bureau Is not to embarrass or assail legitimate business. hut to aid In bringing about a better Industrial con dition- a condition under which there shall be obedlenoe to Uiw and recognition of public obligation by nil corpora»lons, great or small The Department of Com merce And laibor will he not only the clearing house for Information regarding the raininess transactions of the nation but the executive arm of the government to aid In strengthening our domestic nnd foreign markets. In perfecting our trans portation facilities, hi building up our merchant marine. In preventing the en trance of undesirable Immigrants, in Im proving commercial nnd Industrial condi tions. nnd In bringing together on com m»m ground those necessary partners In Industrial progress—capital and lal>or. Commerce between the ns Done Is stead ily growing In volume, nnd the tendency of the times Is toward closer trade rela tions. Constant watchfulness Is needed to secure to Americans the chance to par ticipate to the l>est advantage In foreign trnd**; and we may confidently expect that the new department will Justify tire expectation of Its creators by the exer cise of this watchfulness, as well ns by the businesslike administration of such laws relating to our Internal affair* as are intrusted to Its care In enacting the laws above enumerated the Congress proceeded on sane and con servative lines Nothing revolutionary was attempted; but a common-sense and successful effort was made In the direc tion of seeing that corporations are so handled as to subserve the public good. The legislation was moderate. It was characterized throughout by the Idea that we were not attacking corporations, but endeavoring to provide for doing away with any evil in them; that we drew the line against misconduct. not against wealth; gladly recognizing the great good done by capitalists who nlone. or In conjunction with his fellows, does his work along proper nnd legitimate lines. The purpose of the legislation, which pur pose will undoubtedly be fulfilled, was to fu\ or such a man when ho does well, and to supervise Ills action only to prevent him from doing ill. Publicity can do no harm to the honest corporation. The only corporation that has cause to dread It is the corporation which shrinks from tbw light, and about the welfare of such corporations wie need not be oversensitive. The work of the Department of Com merce and luibor has been conditioned upon this theory, of securing fair treat ment alike for labor nnd for capital. Capital anti Labor. The consistent -'.policy of the national government. so far as It has the power, is to hold In check the unscrupulous man. whether employer or employe; but to re fuse ttj weaken individual Initiative or to hamper or crump the Industrial devel-' opmen *. of the country. We recognize that this Is an era of freedom nnd corn bins tion, In which great capitalistic oor poratlor.s and labor unions have become factors -it tremendous Importance In oil industrial centers. Hearty recognition Is given tlie far-reaching, beneficent work which has been accomplished through Loth corpcrntlons and upions. and Die Une as lie* ween different corporations, us between different unions. I-* drawn as it »s between different Individuals; that is. 't is drawn on conduct, the effort be ing to lrc.it both organized capita) mid organized labor alike; asking nothing save the Interest ot each shall be brought Into harmony with the Interest of the general public, and that Die conduct of each shall conform »c the fundamental rule** of obedience to •» c. of individual freedom, nnd of Justice C».d fair dealing towards all. Whencvi r either corpora tion.. labor union, or individual disre gar<*.s the law or acts in a spirit of arbi trary and tyrannous Interference with the rights of others, whether corpora tions or individuals, then where Die Federal Government lias Jurisdiction, It will see to it that the misconduct is 1 stopped, paying not the slightest heed to the position or power of the corporation. 1 the union or the individual, but only to ; one vital fact—that is. the question wlieth- I er or not the conduct of the individual or aggregate of Individuals is in ac- i cordance with the law of the land. Every | man must be guaranteed his liberty und j his right to do ns he Itkes with hi« prop- \ erly or his labor, so long as he does not Infringe the righlr of others. No man Is above the law and no man Is below It; nor do we ask any man's "emission when w* require him to obey it. Obedience to the law is demanded as a right: not usked as a favor Receipts and Expenditures. From all sources, -exclusive of the -pos tal service. I lie receipts of the govern ment for the lust fiscal year uggreguted 5a60.39C.tT74. The expenditures for the same period were 1506.-099,007, the surplus for the fiscal year being $04.297.GC7. The Indications are Diat the surplus for the present fiscal year will be very small. If indeed there be any surplus. From July to November the receipts from customs were, approximately, nine million dollars less than the receipts from the same source for a corresponding portion of lust year. Should this decrease continue at the same ratio throughout the fiscal year, the surplus would be reduced by. approximately, thirty million dollars. Khould the revenue from customs suffer much further decrease during the tlscul year, the surplus would vanish. A large surplus is certainly undesirable. Two years ago the war taxes were taken off with the express intention of equalizing Die government receipts und expenditures, und though Die llrst year thereafter still showed a surplus. It now seems likely Dint a substantial -quality of revenue and expenditure will be attained. Such being the case it is of great moment both to exercise rare und economy In appro priations. and to scan sharply any change In our fiscal revenue system which mny reduce our Income. The need of strict economy In our expenditures Is empha sized by the fact that we can not afford to he parsimonious in providing for wtiat is essential to our nutlonnl well-being. Careful economy wherever possibly will alone prevent our Income from falling below the point required In order to meet our genuine needs. Needs of Financial Situation. The integrity of our currency Is beyond question, und under present conditions it would be unwise and unnecessary to at tempt n recoiiHtructlon of our entire mon etary system. The same liberty should be granted -the Secr -tary of the Treasury to deposit customs receipts as Is grunted him In the depoait of receipts from other sources. In my message of Dec. 2. 1902, 4 culled attention lo certain needs of the financial situation, and I again ask the consideration of the Congress for these questions. Gold and Silver Standard. During the last session of the Congress, nt the suggestion of a Joint note from the Republic of Mexico and thn Imperial Government of China, and In harmony with an aat of the Congress appropriat ing $25,000 to pay the expenses thereof, a commission was appointed to confer with the principal European countries In the hope that some plan might be devised whereby n fixed rate of exchange could be assured between the gold-standard ommtries and the silver-standard coun tries. This commission Ims filed Its pre liminary report, which lias been made public. 1 deem It important that, the commission Ik* continued, and that a sum of money lie appropriated sufficient to pay the expenses of its further labors. With regards to the improvement af the American merchant marine the President recommends that the Con gress direct the Secretary of the Navy, the Postmaster-General, and the Secretary of Commerce and Labor, as sociated with such a representation from the Senate and 110»..,e of Repre sentatives ns the Congress in its wis dom may designate, to serve as a com mission for the purpose of investigat ing and reporting to the Congress at Its next session what legislation is de sirable or necessary for the develop ment of the American merchant ma rine and American commerce, and in cidentally of a national ocean mail service of adequate auxiliary naval cruisers and navel reserves. On the subject of immigration the message calls attention to the report of a committee of New York citizens or high* standing. Messrs. Arthur v. Vriesen. I.ee K. Frankel, Eugene A. Philbin, Thomas W. Hynes, and Ralph Trautman, which deals with the whole situation at length, and concludes with certain recommendations for adminis trative and legislative action, it is now receiving the attention ot .fie Secretary of Commerce and Laow. The message continues: Anti-Trust Laws. On the subject, of the antitrust measures which have been dealt with by the Congress the President says: In my last annual message. In ronnee- Don with the subjec t of the due regular- Dt*n of combinations of eapltnl which n-c nr may become Injurious to tbe pub lic. 1 recommended a special appropria tion for the better enforcement ot the law as it now stands, to he oxp6*«J*<l tinder the .direction of tbe At torney -General. Accordingly (by tlie leg lalntlve. executive, and Judicial appro priation act of February 25. 1903. 32 Stat.. 854. !*C4>. the Congress appropriated, for the purpose of enforcing the vnrlous Federal trust ami Interstate-commerce laws, the sum of live hundred thousand dollars, to be expended under the direc tion of the Attorney-General In the em ployment of special counsel and agents In the Department of Justice to conduct proceedings and prosecutions under said laws in the courts of the United States. I now recommend, us a matter of the ut most Importance anil urgency, the exten sion of the purposes of this appropria tion. so thut it may be available, under the direction of the Attorney-General, and until used, for tin* due enforcement of Die laws of the United States In general and especially of the civil nnd criminal laws relating lo public lands and the laws relating to postal crimes and offenses and the subject of naturalization. Recent In- ! vestiKU tions have shown a deplorable stale of afYalik In these three matters of 1 vital concern. By vnrlous frauds nnd ! by forgeries and perjuries, thousands of acres of ih»* public domain, embracing lands of different character and extend ing through various sections of the coun- ; trx. have been dishorn stly acquired. It lsnhardly necessary «■» urge trie Import ance of recovering *!»■ sc dishonest acqu|. slttcms. stolen from the itopJe, and «T promptly and duly punishing tl»e of fender s. Portal Fraud*. 3 speak In another part of this message of the widespread crimes by which the snored right rtf citizenship is falsely as serted and that ''lnestimable heritage” perverted to base ends. By similar means —that Is. through frauds, forgeries, and perjuries, and by shameless briberies— the laws relating to the proper conduct of the public service in general and to the due administration of the Postoffice department have been notoriously vio lated. and many Indictments have been found, and the consequent prosecutions are In course uf hearing or on the eve thereof. For the icason* thus Indicated, and ho that the Government may be pre pared to enforce promptly and with the greatest effect the due penalties for such violations of law. and to this end may be furnished with sufficient Instrumentali ties and competent legal assistance for the Investigations and trials which will be necessary at many different points of the country. 3 urge upon the Congress the necessity of making the said appro priation available for Immediate use for all such purposes, to be expended under the direction of the Attorney-General. Needs for Treaties Making Bribery Extraditable. Steps have been taken by the State Department looking to the making of bribery an extraditable offense with for eign powers. The need of more effective treaties covering this crime Is manifest. The exposures and prosecutions of of ficial corruption In St. Louis. Mo., and other cities and staWs have resulted In a number of givers and takers of bribes becoming fugitives in loreign lands. Brib ery has not been Included In extradition treaties heretofore, ns the necessity for It has not arisen. While there may have been as much official corruption In former years, there has been more developed and brought to light In the immediate past than In the preceding century of our country's history, it should Lo the policy of the United States to leave no pluce on earth where a corrupt man fleeing from this country cun lest In peace. There Is no reason why bribery should not be Included In all treaties us extraditable. The recent amended treaty with Mexico, whereby this crime was put in the list of extraditable offenses, has established a salutary precedent In this regard. Under this treaty the State Department lias asked, and Mexico has grunted, the extradition of one of the St. Louis bribe givers. There can be no crime more serious than bribery. Other offenses violate one law. while corruption strikes at the'foun dutlon of all law. Under our form of gov ernment all authority is vested In the people and by them delegated to those who represeut them In official capacity. The exposure und punishment of public corruption Is nn honor to a nation, nut a disgrace. The shame lies In toleration, not In correction. No city or state, still less the nation, can be injured by the enforcement of law. As long as public plunderers when detected can tlnd a haven of refuge In any foreign land and avoid punishment. Just* so long encour agement is given them to continue their practices. If wo fall to do all that In us lies to stamp out corruption we can not escape our share of responsibility for the guilt. The first requisite of successful self-government Is unflinching enforce ment of the law und the aulting out of corruption. Alaskan Boundary. The message gives in detail the causes which led to the appointment of the Alaskan boundary commission, and congratulates both countries on the satisfactory termination of the sessions of the tribunal. It continues: The result is satisfactory In every way. It Is of great material advantage to our people In the far Northwest. It has re moved from the field of discussion -and possible danger a question liable to be come more acutely accentuated with each passing year. Finally. It has furnished a signal proof of the fairness and good will with which two friendly nations can approach nnd determine Issues Involving national sovereignty and by their nature Incapable of submission lo u third power for adjudication. Claims Against Venezuela. Referring to the success which crowned the efforts of the United States to have the Venezuelan dis pute submitted to impartiul arbitra tors the President says: There seems good ground for the be lief that there has been a real growth among the civilized nations of a senti ment which will permit a gradual sub stitution ot other methods than the method of war In the settlement of dis putes. It is not pretended that as yet we are near a position in which it will ho possible wholly to prevent war. or that a Just regard for national Interest and honor will In till cases permit of the settlement of international disputes by arbitration; but by a mixture of pru dence und firmness with wisdom we think It Is possible to do away with much of the provocation and excuse for war, and at least In many cases to substitute soma other nnd more ralionnl method for Die settlement of disputes. The Hague court offers so good mi example of what can be done in the direction of such settle ment that it huuld be encouraged in every way. President McKinley, In his mes sage of Dec.. 5, 1898, urged that the Executive lie authorized to correspond with the governments of the principal maritime powers with a view of in corporating into the permanent law or civilized nations the principle of the exemption of all private property at sea, not contraband of war. from cap ture or destruction by belligerent powers. President Roosevelt says he cor dially renews this recommendation, as a matter of humanity and morals. Consular Service. I call your attention to the reduced cost In maintaining the consular service for the tinea! year ending June 30. 1903. as shown In the annual report of tbe Aud itor for the State and other departments, as compared with the year previous. For the year under eon si <le rut ion the excess of expenditures over receipts oil account of the consiiSnr service amounted to $26.- 125.12. as against $90,972.5*) for the year ending June 30. 1902. and $147,010.16 for the year ending June 30. 1901. This Is the best showing in this iest>ect for the con . zular service for the past fourteen years, und the reduction In tbe cost of the serv ice to the Government has been made in spite of ti e fact that the expenditures for the year in question were more than $20,000 greater than for the previous year. Rural Free-Delivery Service. The rural free-dellvery service has been steadily extended. Tlie attention of the Congress Is asked to Die question of the compensation of Die letter carriers und dorks engaged In the postal service, es pecially on the new rural free-dellvery route*. More routes have been Installed since the llrst of July Inst thnp In any like period In the department's history. While a due regard to economy must be kept In mind In the establishment of new routes, yet the extension of the rural free-dellvery system must be continued, for reasons «>r sound public policy. No governmental movement of recent years has resulted in greater Immediate benefit to the people of the country districts. Rural free delivery, tuken In connection with the telephone, tlie bicycle, und the trolley. ueconipMshes much toward les sening the Isulation of farm life anil mak ing It brighter and more attractive. In the immediate past the lack of just suth (acllitles ns these has driven many of the more active and restless young men nnd women from the farms to ;ne cities; for they rebelled at loneliness and lack of mental companionship It is unhealthy and undesirable for tlie cities to grow nt the expense of tlie country; and rural free delivery Is not only a good tiling In Itself, but is good because It Is one j of the causes which check tills unwhole- j some tendency towards the urban con centration of our population nt the ex pense of the country districts. It is for tlie same reason that »» sympathize with and appiove of the policy of building good roads. The movement tor good roads Is one fraught with the greater.! benefit to l<* cpp.nti.v di.-DUts. In the Philippines and Porto Rico, it is declared, steady progress is being made and the condition of the island ers already has been materially ad vanced. Receipts of General Land Office. On the subject of the public lands of the country the message says: The cash receipts of the General Land Office for the last fiscal year were sll.- 024.743.65. an increase of $4,762,816.47 over the preceding year. Of this sum, approx imately. $8,461 493 will go to the credit of the fund for the reclamation of arid land, making the total of this fund, up to the 30th of June, 1903. approximately. $16,181,836. A gratifying disposition has been evinced by those having unlawful In closures of public land to remove their fences. Nearly two million acres so In closed have been thrown open on de mand. In bat comparatively few cases has It been necessary to go Into court to accomplish this purpose. This work will be vigorously prosecuted until all unlaw ful Inclosures have been removed. Irrigation. The work of reclamation of the arid lands of the West Is progressing steadily and satisfactorily under the terms of the law setting aside the proceeds from the disposal of public lands. The corps of engineers known as the Reclamation Service, which Is conducting the surveys and examinations, has been thoroughly organized, especial pains being taken to secure under the clvil-aervico rules a body of skilled, experienced, snd efficient men. Surveys and examinations are progressing throughout the arid states and territories, plans for reclaiming works being prepared and passed upon by boards of engineers before approval by the Secretary of the Interior. In Arizona and Nevada. In localities where such work is pre-eminently needed, construc tion hus already been begun. In other parts of the arid West various projects are well advanced toward the drawing up of contracts, these being delayed In part by necessities of reaching agree ments or understanding as regards rights of way or acquisition of real estate. Most of the works contemplated for construc tion are if national importance, involv ing Interstate questions or the securing of stable, self-supporting communities In the midst of vast tracts of vacant land. The Nation as a whole Is of course the gainer by the creation of these homes, adding ns they <lo to the wealth nnd sta bility cf the country, and furnishing a home market for the products of the Last and South. The reclamation law. while perhnps not Ideal, appears at present to answer the larger needs for which It Is designed. Further legislation Is not rec ommended until the necessities of change are more apparent. Preservation of Forests. The President points out the neces sity of taking steps for the preserva tion or our forests, especially at the headwaters of streams. Of the cotton weevil he says: The cotton-groa ing States have re cently been Invaded by a weevil that has done much damage and threatens the entire cotton Industry. I suggest to the Congress the prompt enactment of such remedial legislation us its Judgment may approve. The Philippines and Porto Rico. Of our Insular possessions the Philip pines nnd Porto Rico It Is gratifying to say that their steady progress lias been such as to make it unnecessary to spend much lime In discussing them. Yet the Congress should ever keep In mind that u peculiar obligation rests upon us to further In every way the welfare of these communities. The Philippines should be knit closer to us by tarlfT arrangements. It would, of course, be Impossible sud denly to raise the |H-ople of the Islands to the high pitch of industrial prosperity and of governmental efficiency to which they will in the end by degrees attain; and the caution and moderation shown In developing them have been among the main reasons why this development hus hitherto gone on so smoothly. Scru pulous care has been taken In the chol«M! of governmental agents, and the entire elimination of partisan politics from the public service. The condition of the Islanders is In material things far better than ever before, while their govern mental. intellectual, and moral advance has kept pace with their material ad vance. No one people ever benefited an other people more than we have bene fited the Filipinos by taking possession of the islands. Isthmian Canal. The causes leading up to the estab lishment of the new republic of Pan ama, and its recognition by the United States are given in much de tail, as follows: By the act of June 28. 1802. the Con gress authorized the President to enter Into trruty with Colombia for the build ing of the canal across the Isthmus of Punanu; it being provided that in the event of failure to secure such treaty after the lapse of a reasonable time, re course should be had to building a canal through Nicaragua. it has not been necessary to consider this alternative, as I ntn enabled to lay before the Senate a treaty providing for the building of the canal across the Isthmus of Panama. This was the route which commended itself to tho deliberate Judgment of the » < ngress, and we cun now acquire by treaty the right to ei nstruct the canal over this route. The qi estlon now. there fore, Is not by which route the Isthmian rnnal shall he built, for that question has been definitely ai d irrevocably de cided. The question is simply whether or not we shall have an isthmian canal. When the Congress directed that we .should take the Panama route under treaty with Colombia, the essence of the condition, of <*ourse. referred not to the Government which controlled that route, but to Lhe raute itself; to the territory across which the route lay, not to the name which for the moment the territory bore on the map. The purpose of the law was to authorize the President to make a treaty with the power In actual control of the Isthmus of Panama. This purpose has been fulfilled. In the year IM6 this Government en tered Into a treaty with .sew Granada, the predecessor upon the Isthmus of the Republic of Colombia and of the present Republic of Panama, by which treaty it was provided that the Govern ment and citizens of the United States should always liav • free nnd open right of way or transit across the Isthmus of Panama by any modes of communication that might be constructed, while in re turn our Government guaranteed the perfect neutrality of the above-mentioned isthmus with the view that llte free tran sit from the one to the other sea might not be Interrupted or embarrassed. The treaty vested In the United States a substantial property right curved out of the rights of sovereignty and property which New Granada then hnd and pos sessed over the said territory. The name of New Granada Jini» passed away und its territory has been divided. Its successor, the Government of Colombia, has ceased to own any property in the Istnmus. A new repulJllc. that of Panama, which was at one time a sovereign state, nnd r.t another time a mere department of the successive confederations known as New Granada and Colombia, has now suc ceeded to the rights which first one and then the other formerly exercised over the isthmus. Hut as long as the Isthmus endures, the mere geographical fact of Its existence, and tiie pi collar Interest there in which Is required by our position, perpetuate the solemn contract which hinds the holders of the territory to re spect our right to freedom of transit across It. and binds us In return to safe guard for the Isthmus and the world the exercise of that Inestimable privilege. The true interpretation of the obliga tions upon which the Cnlted States en tered in this treaty of 1546 Ims been given repeatedly In the utterances of Presi dents and Secretaries of State. Secretary Cass In IS5s offi. tally stated the position of this Government as follows: "The progress of «.i ents has rendered the Interoceanlc route actons the narrow portion of Central Ameilea vastly Impor tant to the commercial world, and espe cially to the United States whose pos sessions extend along the Atlantic nnd Pacific coasts, and demand the speediest and easiest modes of communication. While the rights of sovereignty of the states occupying this region should nl- | ways he i-spec'-d we shall expect that these rights be exercised In a spirit be fitting the occasion and the wants and circumstances that have arisen. Sover eignty has its duties os well as Its rights, and none of these local governments, even If administered with more regard to the Just demands of other nations than they have been, would be permitted. In a spirit of eastern Isolation, to close the gates of Intercourse on the great high ways of the world, and Justify the act by the pretension that these avenues of trade and travel belong to them and that they choose to shut them. or. what Is almost equivalent, to encumber them with such unjust relations as would pre vent their genera) use." Seven years later. In 186.'. Mr. Sewnrd In different communications took the fol lowing position: "The United Btates have taken and will take no Interest In any question of Internal revolution In the State of Pan ama. or any State of the United States of Colombia, but will maintain a perfect neutrality In connection with such do mestic altercations. The United States will, nevertheless, hold themselves ready to protect the transit trade across the Isthmus against invasion of either do mestic or foreign disturbers of the peace of the State of Panama. • • • Neither the text nor the spirit of the stipulation In that article by which the United States engages to preserve the neutrality of the Isthmus of Panama. Imposes an obliga tion on this Government to comply with the requisition (of the President of the United States of Colombia for a force to protect the Isthmus of Panama from a body of insurgents of that country]. The purpose of the stipulation was to guar antee the isthmus against seizure or In vasion by a foreign power only.” Attorney-General Speed, under date of Nov. 7, 1865. advised Secretary Seward as follows: "From tins treaty It can not be sup posed that New Grnnada Invited • the United States to become a party to the intestine troubles of that Government, nor did the United Stutes become bound to take sides In the domestic broils of New Granada. The United States did guarantee New Granada In the sovereign ty and property over the territory. Thla was as against other and foreign govern ments.” For four hundred years, ever since shortly after the discovery of this hem isphere. the canal across the Isthmus has been planned. For two score years It has been worked at. When made It Is to last for the ages. It is to alter the geography of a continent and tue trade routes of the world. We have shown by every treaty we have negotiated or at tempted to negotiate with tne peoples in control of the isthmus and with foreign nations In reference thereto our consis tent good faith In observing oUr obliga tions; on the one hand to the peoples of the Isthmus, und on the other hund to the civilized world whose commercial rights we are safeguarding and guaran teeing by our action. We have done our duty to others In letter and In spirit, and we have shown the utmost forbearance in exacting our own rights. I-«*t spring, under the net above re ferred to. a treaty concluded between the representatives of the Republic of Co lombia and of our Government was rati fied by the Senate. This treaty was en tered Into at the urgent solicitation of the people of Colombia nnd after n body of experts appointed by our Government especially to go Into tho matter of the routes across the Isthmus had pronounced unanimously In favor of the Panama route, in drawing up this treaty every concession was made to the people and to the Government of Colombia. We were more than Just In denllng with them. Our generosity was such us to make It a se rious question whether we hnd not gone too far In their Interest nt the expense of our own; for In our scrupulous desire to pay all possible heed, not merely to the real hut even to the fancied rights of our weaker neighbor, who already owed so much to our protection and forbearance, we yielded In all possible ways to her desires In drawing up the treaty. Never theless the Government of Colombia not merely repudiated the treaty, but repu diated It In such manner as to make it evident by the time the Colombian Con gress adjourned that not the scantiest hoi hi remained of ever getting a satis factory treaty from them. The Govern ment of Colombia mnde the treaty, and yet when the Colombian Congress was called to ratify it the vote against rati fication was unanimous. It does not ap pear that tho Government made any real effort to secure ratification. Revolution in Panama. Immediately after the adjournment of the Congress u revolution broke out In Panama. The people of Panama had long been discontented with the Republic of Colombia, and they had been kept quiet only by the prospect of the conclusion of the treaty, which was to them a mat ter of vital concern. When It became evident that the treaty was hopelessly lost, the people of Panama rose literally as one man. Not a shot was fired by a single man on the isthmus In the Interest of the Colombian Government. Not a life was lost In the accomplishment of the revolution. The Colombian troops stationed on the isthmus, who had long l»een unpaid, made common cause with the people of Panama, nnd with aston ishing unanimity the new republic was started. The duty of the United States in the premises was clear. In strict ac cordance with the principles laid down by Secretaries Cass and Seward In the of ficial documents above quoted, the United States gave notice that It would permit the landing of no expeditionary force, the arrival of which would mean chaos and destruction along the line of the rail road and of- the proposed canal, and an interruption of transit as an Inevitable consequence. The de facto Government of Panama was recognized In the follow ing telegram to 31 r. Ehrmnn: "The people of Panama have, by ap parently unanimous movement, dissolved their political connection with the Re public of Colombia and resumed their In dependence. When you are satisfied that a de facto government, republican In form nnd without substantial opposition from its own people, has been established in the State of Panama, you will enter into relations with It as the responsible government of the territory and look to it for all due action to protect the tier sons and property of citizens of the United States and to keep open the Isthmian transit. In accordance with the obligations of existing treaties govern ing the relations of the United States to that territory.” Disturbances on Isthmus Since 1846. When these events happened, fifty-seven years ha«| elapsed since the United States hail entered Into Its treaty with New Gra nada. During that time the Governments of New Granada nnd of its successor, Colombia, have been in a constant stute of flux. A long list of the disturbances and revolutions which have convulsed the isthmus is given, and tiie report con cludes: The above is only a partial list of the revolutions. rebellions. Insurrections, riots, and other outbreaks that have oc curred during the period In-question; yet they number 53 for the 57 years. It will be noted that one of them lasted for near ly three years belore it was quel Tod; an other for nearly a year. In short, the experience of over half a century has .•fljown Colombia to be utterly Incapable of keeping order on the isthmus. Only the* active Interference of the United States has enabled her to preserve .-o much ns a semblance of sovereignty. Had It not been for the exercise by the United States of the police power In her Interest, her connection with the Isthmus would have been sundered long ago. In 1566, in 1860, In 1873, In 1885, In 1801, and again In 1902, sailors and marines from United States war ships were forced to land In order to patrol the isthmus, to protect life and property, nnd to see that the transit across the isthmus was kept open. In 1861. In 1862. in 1885. and In 1900. the Colombian Government asked that the United States Government would land troops to protect Its intertsts and main tain order on the Isthmus, Perhaps the most extraordinary request is that which has Just been received und which runs us follows: “Knowing tlint revolution has already commenced In Panama [an eminent Co lombian] says that if the Government of the Unite I States will land troops to pre serve Colombian sovereignty, and the transit, if requested by Colombian charge d'aftnires. this Government will declare maitlal law: ard. by virtue of vested con stitutional authority, when public order Is restored, will approve by decree the ratification of the canal treaty as signed; or If the Government of the United States prefers, will call extra session of the Congress—with new and friendly members-next May to approve the treaty. [An eminent Colombian] has the perfect confidence of vice-president he Lay- and If it became necessary will go to the Isthmus or send representative there to adjust matters along above lines to the satisfaction of the people there.” This dispatch is noteworthy from two standpoints. Its offer of Immediately guaranteeing the treaty to us is In sharp contrast with the positive and contemp tuous refusal of the Congress which has lust closed Its sessions to consider fa vorably such a treaty; it shows that the Government which made the treaty really had absolute control over the situation, but did not choose to exercise this con trol The dispatch further calls on us to restore order and secure Colombian supremacy In the Isthmus from which the Colombian Government has Just by its action decided to bur us by preventing the construction-of the canal. Importance of Peace in Isthmus. The control. In the Interest of the com merce and traffic of the whole civilized world, of the means of undisturbed tran sit across the Isthmus of Panama has become of transcendent Importance to the United States. We have repeatedly exercised this coutrol by Intervening In the course of domestic dissension, and by protecting the territory from foreign invasion. In 1853 Mr. Everett assured the Peruvian minister that we should not hesitate to maintain the neutrality of the isthmus In the case of war be tween Peru nnd Colombia. In 1864 Co lombia. which has always been vigilant to avail itself of Its privileges conferred by the treaty, expressed Its expectation that In the event of war between Peru and Spain the United States would carry Into effect the guaranty of neutrality. There have been few administrations of the State Department In which this treaty has not. either by the one side or the other, been used as a basis of more or less Important demands. It was said by Mr. Fish In 1871 that the Depart ment of State had reason to believe thut an attack upon Colombian sovereignty on the Isthmus had. on several occa sions. been averted by warning from this Government. In 1886. when Colombia was under the menace of hostilities from Italy in the Cerruti case. Mr. Bayard ex pressed the serious concern that the United States could not but feel, that a European power should resort to force against a sister republic of this hemis phere. as to the sovereign and uninter rupted use of a part of whose territory we are guarantors under tho solemn faith of a treaty. The above recital of facts establishes beyond question: First, that the United States has for over half a century pa tiently and In good faith carried out Its obligations under tho treaty of 1840; sec ond. that when for the first time It be came possible for Colombia to do any thing In requital of the services thus re peatedly rendered to it for fifty-seven years by the United States, the Colombian Government peremptorily und offensively refused thus to do Its part, even though to do so would have been to Its advan tage and Immeasurably to tli« advantage of the State of Punuma, ut that time under Its jurisdiction: third. that throughout this period revolutions, riots, and factional disturbances of every kind have occurred one after the other In al most uninterrupted succession, some of them lasting for months und even for years, while the central government was unable to put them down or to make pence with the rebels; fourth, that these disturbances instead of showing any sign of abating have tended to grow more nu merous and more serious In the Imme diate past; fifth, thut the control of Co lombia over the Isthmus of Panama could not be maintained without the armed In tervention and assistance of the United States. In other words, the Government of Colombia, though wholly unuble to maintain order on the isthmus, has nev ertheless declined to ratify a treaty the conclusion of which opened the only chance to secure Its own stability nnd to guarantee permanent peace on. und the construction of a canal across, the Isth mus. Under such circumstances the Govern ment of the United States would have been guilty of folly and weakness, amounting In their sum to a crime against the nation, had it acted otherwise than it did when the revolution of Nov. 3 Inst took place in Panama. This great enterprise of building the Interoceanlc canal can not be held up to gratify the t whims, or out of respect to the govern-' mental Impotence, or to the even more sinister and evil political peculiarities, of people who. though they dwell afar off. yet. against the wish of tin* actual dwel lers on the isthmus, assert an unreal supremacy over the territory. The pos session of a territory fraught with such peculiar capacities as the isthmus In question carries with it obligations to mankind. The course of events has shown that this canal can not be built by private enterprise, or by any other na tion than our own; therefore it must be built by the United States. Treaty With Republic of Panama. Every effort hast been made by the Gov ernment of the United States to persuade Colombia to follow a course which was essentially not only to our interests and to the interests of the world, but to the Interests of Colombia Itself. These ef forts have failed; and Colombia, by her persistence In repulsing the advances that have been made, has forced us. for the suke of our own honor, and of the Inter est and well-being, not merely of our own people, but of the people of tne Isthmus of Panama and the people of the civilized countries of the world, to take decisive steps to bring to an end a condition of affairs which had become Intolerable. The new Republic of Panama immediate ly offered to negotiate a treaty with us. This treaty 1 herewith submit. By It our Interests are better safeguarded than In the treaty with Colombia which was rati fied by the Senate nt Its last session. It Is better In Its terms than the treaties of fered to us by the Republics of Nicara gua nnd Costa Rlea. At last the right to begin this great undertaking made available. Panama has done part. All that remains Is for the American Con gress to do its part and fortnwith this Republic will enter upon the execution of a project colossal In Its size and of well-nlg.. incalculable possibilities for the good of this country und the nations of inu n kind. Provisions of Treaty. By the provisions of the treaty the United States guarantees and will main tain the Independence of the Republic of Panama. There is granted to the United Stutes In perpetuity the use. occupation, and control of a strip ten miles wide and extending three nautical miles Into the sea at either terminal, with nil lands ly ing outside of the zone necessary for the construction of the cunal or for Its aux iliary w.orks. nnd with the Islands In the Bay of Panama. The cities of Panama and Colon are not embraced In the canal zone, but the United Stnt.'s assumes their sanitation and. In case of need, the maintenance if order therein; the United States enjoy* within the - granted limits nil the rights, power, and authority which It would possess were It the sovereign of the territory to the exclusion of the ex ercise of sovereign rights by the Republic. All railway nnd canal property rights be longing to Panama and needed for the canal pass to the United States. Includ ing a ly property of the respective com panies in the cities of Panama and Co lon: the wor.rs. property, and personnel of tne canal and railways are exempted from taxation ns well In the cities of Panama nnd Colon as In the canal zone and Its dependencies. Free immigration of the personnel nnd importation of sup plies for the constructldn and operation of the ennnl are granted. Provision Is made for the use of military force and the building of fortifications by the Unit ed States for the protection of the tran sit. In other details, particularly ns to the acquisition of the Interests of the New Panama Canal company and the Panama railway by the United States and the condemnation of private property for the uses of the canal, the stipulations of the Hay-Herran treaty are closely fol lowed. while the compensation to he given for these enlarged grants remains the same, being ten millions of dollar* payable on exchange of ratifications; and. beginning nine year* from that date, an annual payment of $250,000 during the life of the convention. THEODORE ROOSEVELT.' White House. Dec. 7. 1903.