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ZION CITY IN RECEIVERS’ HANDS
Model Community Established by John Alexander Dowie Threatened with Demolition—Large Sums Due and Creditors Are Clamorous—Career of the Man Who Claims to Be “Elijah 111.. The Restorer.” Wbat looked to the outside world like the end of the economic experi ment of John Alexander Dowle at Zion City, but what Dowie himself de clared to be only the glancing blow of malicious enemies came IJec. 1. when Judge C. C. Kohlsaat of the United States District court at Chicago or dered him to appear before him on Dec. 11 and show cause why he should not be adjudged a bankrupt. Receivers were appointed Immed iately. and took Zion City and all its industrial enterprises into custody. Frederick M. Blount, cashier of the Chicago National bank, and Albert Dean Currier of the law firm of Bou tell. Currier & Freeman, were named as the receivers. As the result of conferences with legal representatives of the receivers, the head of Zion Is making every eZ for* to raise a fund of $1,000,000. If this is accomplished—and Dowie is preparing to call on his tens of thousands of followers to give their ail to the cause —it is probable that Dowie will be allowed to administer the distribution of this rejuvenation fund ns general manager of Zion and its industries, but all this under su pervision and direction of the receiv ers. who are supported by the Feder al court. The Immediate sum for which Itowie is responsible amounts to about $300,000, and by Jan. 1 the liabilities of Zion City, it is alleged, will aggre gate $385.01.0 more. "The Restorer" insists he Is perfectly solvent, and claims the petition for receivers is part of a deliberate attempt to crush him. OCV.’IE THE WHOLE OF ZION. Energy of One Man Builds the Struc ture Now Tottering. John Alexander Dowie was born near Kdinburg on May 25, 1847. Ills mother was a 8cot— an Alexander. The man who until last month was cslled lila father was also a Scot— John Murray Dowie—who now lives in Iowa. month, during the New York trip, Dowie declared that John 7, yinv av £LAMS/ /v/nwF / / lo&cmj MX>r// / C4GT f&CTQPy' Murray Dowie was not his father, and that he was the offspring of an Eng 'lish army officer a member of the no 'hilltjr. lie said his mother had been | led to believe that her marriage to the 'army officer was invalid, and that, to save her name, she married John Mur ray lkiw'ie. John Murray Dowie was a Congre gational minister of comfortable for tune. and young Dowie received a fair foundation for his education under him and in the board schools of his native town. In 1860 the family re moved to Adelaide, Australia, and for seven years young Dowie served as a clerk In a mercantile establishment. In 1807. when he was 20 years old. Dowie returned to Scotland, and. on Wars on Ticket Speculators. Albert Carre of the Parris Opera Ooxnlque has begun war on the theater ticket speculators. The fight was brought about by the speculators su ing Carre because he refused to ac cept their tickets at the theater. He has sued them in turn and the chances are favorable that he will win his fight. Descendant of Montezuma. Prince Nanzeta Montezuma, a wan derer and practically an exile from Mexico, is traveling somewhere in the west. He claims to be the only lineal descendant of the great Montezuma. The prince is described as a man with delicate features, a striking face, of polished manners and well read. Woman Manages Newspaper. Miss Mary E. Jervkins has been elected president of t’ ,# ' Syracuse. N. Y., Herald Publishing Company. She Is a thorough business woman, well acquainted with all the details of the newspaper business, with which she has been connected for a rumber of years. the money he had saved while work ing In Australia, took a five years' course in the university. Dowie. on graduation from the di vinity school, at once took orders in the Congregational church, and, in 1872, returned to Australia and began preaching at a Congregational church In Newtown, a suburb of Sydney. He continued in his work with success, hir. magnetic oratorical powers draw ing large crowds wherever he preached. tn 1878 (by divine direction, he says) Dowie suddenly deserted the Congregational church and started as an evangelist, preaching healing by faith. His power at once attracted at tention. He declares that he first learned of his power to heal by cur ing a girl of a wasting disease that had already killed thirty members of his congregation. Since that time faith healing has been the cardinal doc trine of Dowie. He went to Mel tHMirne, buiit a big. rude-looking tab ernacle. and began his work. In ten years he had built up a large congre gation but he was not satisfied. He deserted his tabernacle, leaving It in the care of one of his converts, and started for England. He had money, ' but not a large amount. It was in 1890 that Dowie dawned upon Chicago. Out in Western Springs, a little prairie suburb at that time. Dowie started in "to fight sin” in Chi cago. In the spring of the following year Dowie moved upon Evanston, and there he remained until the spring of the world's fair year. when, with a dozen followers, he rented a house down near the Midway, and. almost with his own hands, he built Zion tab ernacle No. 1. With the fair Dowie's success began. A little further north there arose Zion tabernacle No. 2. The dozen fol lowers had become hundreds. The health authorities attacked Dowie. Dowie abused them. Then Zion taber | nacle No. 3. seating 2,000 persons, was erected. j On Feb. 22. 1896. Dowie organized I tli - * Christian Catholic church in Zion . aad appointed himself general over- PRINCIPAL BUILDINGS IN THE CITY OF ZION. ■ — ■ tx /ioasr m ** 1 » I I seer. with his wife. Jane Dowie, as i o erseer. His work began to attract a .cntlon all over the country. Con- | verts rushed into Chicago and began to congregate around the tabernacles. Dowie was growing. His idea fyjm the first was the cen traliz.atlon of all the money of ail the followers into the treasury of Zion, and he grew rich amazingly fast, for lie. John Alexander Dowie. was Zion, holding all its moneys ami properties in his own name, in the trust for the cnurch. He was an absolute power. In 1899 Dowie began preparations for his general move. His agents vent to work quietly and bought up land along the lake above Waukegan, forty-two miles from Chicago and Ireland's Attorney General. Mr. Atkinson, the new attorney general for Ireland, is a slight, spare man. fair of hair and beard, with an alert. attractive* personality and plen ' tlfully endowed with native Irish wit. He is a martyr of rheumatism and. to use his own phrase, has "steeped his legs in every bath in Europe.” A lady of the great world once commiserated him on his suffering and added: “But you look well. Mr. Atkinson.” “My dear Lady Blank,” he replied, "it's my legs tiiat are bad and you can't see t! ein.” Many Soldier Statesmen. ! Seven members of the present house ! of representatives serveu as soldiers in the war with Spain. They are I Charles Dick, nineteenth Ohio district; j Ariosta A. Wiley, second Alabama; I Butler Ames, fifth Massachusetts; Ai»- i gust P. Gardner, sixth Massachusetts; William Hughes, sixth New Jersey; Francis B. Harrison, thirteenth New York, and Wyatt Aike*n third South Carolina. They ranged in military rank from private to lieutenant i colonel. forty-two from Milwaukee. In the fall they held in the name of Zion a huge tract of land lying just south of the Wisconsin state line and stretching away four miles over the gently slop ing prairies from the lake shore back into the town of Benton. Then, when all these acres were his. Dowie an nounced that he Intended to build Zion City there. , Early in August. 1901. ground was John Alexander Dowie. broken for the first house in this City of Peace. Dowie called upon his followers from all parts of the country to move to Zion, and they came. He had adopted advanced ideas of health, cleanliness, and sanitation from the Mormons and improved upon them. Zion City seemed builded literally and really upon the sands. There was nothing to make a city, neither harbor r.or mines, and not much agriculture. Chicagoans could not see how Zion could be self-supporting. Again I Dowie showed his resourcefulness. He was related by marriage to one Stev enson. a Nottingham lacemaker. and Dowie decided that lacemaking should be the principal industry of Zion City. He went to England, enlisted Stcv . ' enson in the scheme, purchased new . and improved lace machinery, and began importing skilled laborers to ■ educate his people in the art. He , built a great brick building for his lace i factory to the east of the Northwestern > i ail way and prepared to start the in dustry. His enemies made a deter ; mined fight to keep out his lace ma i chinery. declaring a?ainst his impor ) tation oi skilled laborers, and seeking . j to force him to pay high tariff on bis 1 machinery. Stirred Up by Wolseley. Lord Wolseley's book, "The Story of a Soldier's Life,” has caused a sen sation in official circles by reason of its stinging criticisms of the British military policy. Lord Wolseley points out that politicians have been allowed the management of expert professions, the inevitable result being disaster for ♦he nation. His lordship's American lemlniscencos are especially interest ing. covering as they do a good deal of the civil war period, during which he had official interviews whn federal and confederate army commanders. Always an Eye to Business. Russell Sage is as easy to reach as any of the big men in this city.” said a newspaper man whose work has been in Wall street for a third of a century. “I used to wonder why it was so and whether Uncle Russell was more democratic than the other fel lows. But I have finally settled upon i the reason. It Is not fraternity and equality, but business. Sage has money i to lend and anyone who comes may lie a possible borrower. Uo the old j man sees him.” Dowie went to Washington, saw certain persons, and the workers and the machinery came through. He was starting an "Infant industry.” He then began to teach his unskilled people, re cruited from all ranks of life, the art of lacemaking. Shortly afterward Stevenson and Dowie quarreled. Stevenson went to court with his troubles, and disobeyed Zion's rule of arbitration. He got a judgment, but Dowie. who had re cruited able legal advisers, appealed, and finally the case was compromise-!, Stevenson taking a cash sum for his claim against the industry. In the first two years Dowie built schools, a huge hospice, and a taber nacle that will seat 7.000 persons. He opened a great general store, estab lished a city court and postofflee, erected a big printing office, and final ly started a candy factory that turns out tons of candy every week, supply ing some of the biggest houses in Chi cago. The candy factory, indeed, has been the biggest paying of his indus tries. Dowie as a business man had had marvelous success. Yet at times his desire to extend his religious views had seriously hampered his business ventures. June 2. 1901, standing before a great crowd in the Auditorium at Chicago he declared himself Elijah 111. He did not press the point strongly at first, but the Elijah idea kept working and by degrees people came to understand that Dowie claimed himself to be Elijah the Restorer, the reincarnation of Elijah the Destroyer, who was fed by the ravens and finally was trans lated. He declared that Elijah the Destroyer reappeared again as John the Baptist, who was Elijah the Pre parer. and that he. Dowie. was the third and last manifestation of Elijah. He called upon his people to believe this and they believed. This idea was what interfered w*!th his business. He startled Chicago over c year ago by sending down swarms of his followers from Zion City to make visitations from house to house and tell about Elijah 111. But not mucb EL'JAH «35®f AaW.KST&177crS BCVLOmt? attention was paid to it until, early la.'.t spring Dowie announced that in October he Intended to take his host and restore New York. His Invasion of New York was the most spectacular thing Dowie ever did. He took over 3,000 of his followers, put them on ten special trains, and rushed them i down to New York, where for a fort night he conducted meetings in Madi son Square garden and in Carnegie i hall. That trip drained Zion City of its surplus working capital. It took over ■ $300,000 out of the new town and left - it in bad financial condition as far as ; i working capital was concerned. Then i came the rush of creditors and pos- I sibly the end. Bl ushing a Lost Art. A well-known New York society woman says blushing is a lost art among American women. This state ment is called out by a cable report from London w'hich says that a young woman there had met with great suc cess teaching her sisters how not to blush. "What a gr\?at many women in this part of the world need.” said the society leader quoted, "is someone to teach them how to blush. I can’t re member when I have seen a blush in years, except in the faces of very sen sitive young men, or perhaps a few, very few, schoolgirls.” Buried Plot for Dogs. Mr. William E. Chisholm, a widow of College Point, L. 1., has set aside a plot on her estate for the burial of her dogs. Mrs. Chisholm’s son-ia law is a stepbrother of the present Duke of Marlborough. Mission Agencies. The native agency in the missions of the American board has incre sed In number during the last decade from 2,600 to 3.581. They Are After Him. One of the oldest and best-known newspaper men In Colorado is Herbert George, who operates atone quarries for an income and George's Weekly for the fun of the thing. What he has done for law and order in this state through the formation of Citizens Alliances is too well known to require mention. Under the rather misleading head. "A Prophet Save In His Own Country,” Clay's Review has this to say: "Colonel George, our esteemed con temporary. is sad. He sat at his desk in the office of George’s Weekly up to nls chin (tearing up a stack of mail that had accumulated during his ab sence on the Pacific coast. “ 'Why this expression of worry?” we ventured diplomatically, anxious to pry into his secrets. " 'Do I look worried?’ he quickly in quired. attempting to force a smile and brush the crow tracks out of the cor ners of his eyes. ‘I do? Well, my looks belie my real feelings. True, 1 feel a trifle worried, but it isn't be cause I am sick or in hard luck finan cially.’ ■' ‘Out with it. old boy; I'm your friend.’ we cut in. ” ‘Well. Perry, I believe you. Find some one to buy my quarries and I’ll give you my paper for your trouble. I have been wabbling fins with big hearted. broad-gauge people in 'Frisco and 1 yearn to enjoy some more of their frankness, candor and good will —it’s an inspiration.’ “ ‘You would lay aside your years of struggle in Colorado, then, for the fleeting fancies that come with new en vironments alone—friends and all.” " ’No. no. not that. I have many good friends in Colorado, who have stood by me through thick and thin. I would greatly dislike to say good-bye. too— that's what makes me look worried, perhaps. But what would you do. Perry, if you were offered $25,000 per year on a five years’ contract—would you turn it down? If that sum repre sented SIO,OOO a year more than you could make in Colorado?' We assured him we might be in duced to depart for pastures new un der circumstances of that sort. “ ‘Well, old boy. that’s precisely what has happened to me. In other words. I'm up against it. I can’t leave my in vestments behind to accept the offer made me. because, if I do. I’ll lose more than I would make by the change In the end—and there I am. Isn’t it up to me to look worried a little if I want to?’ ’’Or. further probing we learned the offer wus made by a syndicate of Pa cific coast merchants and manufac- ] turerc who seem carried away with the genius he displayed in organizing the largest and most influential Citizens' Alliance that has yet been organized in the country. The Pacific coast people want to make the work a state enter prise and feel assured Colonel George is the man they need in their business. As might be expected, the editor of this paper felt a natural pride in hav ing a contemporary so well received by the ’Frisco public. It is the old story—a fellow has to go away from home often to really learn his own value.” BEAR TRAP CAUGHT A MAN. Died in Its Clutch, His Hair First BA ing Turned White. Herman Kratz, a homesteader, wh* lived seventeen miles northwest of Ely. northeastern Minnesota, mysteriously disappeared last September, and no trace was ever found of him until a few days ago, when the skeleton of a man supposed to have been Kratz was found by a civil engineer In a deadfall set for bear five or six miles from his place In the deep woods. The flesh had practically all disappeared from the skeleton, but the scalp and hair still remained in part. The clothing was rotted away so that it was of lit tle use for purposes of ld°ntlfication. One puzzling thing is that the hair seems somewhat gray, while the hsii of the missing homesteader was dark brown, but it is thought that the ter ror of his situation in the bear trap and the knowledge that he could never escape caused his hair to whiten. Tneodora Kratz. mother of the young homesteader, wLo lived on a farm seven miles from Elroy, Wis., is re ported here to have become insane re cently over the disappearance and hor* rible death of her son.—Duluth Dia patch in New York World. Aborigine Plutocrats. The Osage Indians are the pluto crats. There are only 1,788 of them, and they have a trust fund of $516,203. .Besides, they have 1,470,858 acres of as productive land as the sun ever shone upon. Women’s Wages in Berlin. Recent Investigations of women's wages in Berlin showed that there were CO.OOO women who averaged from 52.50 to $2.75 a week, and that there were thousands who got less. After a Great Coal Trade. The scheme of French capitalists to transfer the Import coal trade of Med iterranean and African ports from England to the United States by build ing coal steamers to the value of s2o,* 000,000 will be aided by the $1.50 a ton bounty on coal carried ;n French bot toms, while England charges 24 cents a ton export duty. Chance for Young People. A London pastor proposes holding church services in the dark, so that women worshipers will not be tempt ed tq make the occasion one for fife study of hats and gowns. For entire ly different but perfectly natural rea sons such services are likely to fa liberally attended by young people. SCIENFIFIC Runner for Wheeled Vehlclee. How well the old resident remem bers the time when we had summer in the summer time and winter when it was due, which lasted until spring: and with what pleasure he tells of the cold weather and good sleighing for weeks in succession! But whether it is the destruction of the forests to build our houses and serve other pur poses, or from some other cause, we do not seem to have good winter weather for very long at a time, and sleighing and skating are soon de stroyed by a thaw. In Canada and some portions of this country this Is not the case, and when a farmer or teamster puts up his wagons and gets out his sleighs for the first snow he has fairly good assurance that he will not have to change again until the spring thaw. But in a vast area of the country the man who drives may find himself riding through mud in a sleigh or slipping over a snowy road in a carriage, and it is to meet Just such occasions as this that the in- For Changeable Weather. vention shown in the picture has baen designed. A set of sheet Iron shoes Is provided, with steel runners. And perforated at intervals for the in •it tlon of bolts. When there is a (all of snow the driver has only to put ;he shoes on the wheels and bolt them in position, and be is ready for a slttgh ride, with no worry over what the fu ture state of the weather may be. The shoes are light enough to be carried in the wagon when not in >.;se. and should prove a great convenience to the man who has to drive exery day. The patentees are Samuel J. and John D. Phillips of New York city. Artificial and Real Pearls. A report from the Osaka, Japan, exposition, published in European pa pers, says a Japanese has devised a plan for the artificial production of pearls. His method is to put a grain of sand or foreign substance forcibly into pearl oysters, which he after wards puts back in the beds. In this way he gets pearls so like natural pearls that connoisseurs cannot tell them apart. It would be strange, thinks one writer, if they could, for tne method employed by the Japanese is the one employed by nature. It is a well-known fact that pearls are pro duced by a grain of sand or spme other foreign substance falling into the open oyster and being covered by the same substance as the interior of the shell. The pearls thus prodcced are being sold so cheaply that a fear is gaining ground that they may af fect the market for "real” pearls— that Is, pearls produced by accidents to the oysters rather than by the ef forts of man. The "artificial” pearls are being put to exactly the same uses as the "real" ones. Improved Shoe Attachment. It is not at all uncommon for a shoe lace to break at an inopportune moment, when one is in a hurry to catch a train, or has something Im portant to attend to, instead of at an hour when there is plenty of time for repairs. The accident is not to be wondered at, when it is remembered that the lacing hook has two sharp edges over which the string is drawn at a sharp angle, and the movement of the foot saws the lace over these edges at every step. A simple but effective arrangement to prevent this wear is that shown in the picture, consisting of a series of flattened rings, w’hich are secured to the hooks in place of the laces themselves. The latter are inserted in the rings, which, having no sharp edges, and present ing only a rounded surface in contact Prevents Wear of the Strings. with the string, wears the latter very little, if any. It Is probably no more difficult to lace the shoe with these rings than in the old manner, and a decrease in the number of broken strings is sure to follow. The inventor is George W. Johnston of Dorchester, Mass. Manufacture of Aluminum. The world's supply of aluminum Is produced almost solely by the electric furnace. The processes used consist in the electrolysis of alumina dis solved in a molten bath of some other more readily fusible salt—generally the mineral cryolite, which is a double fluoride salt of aluminum and sodium, is used for this purpose. Theoretical ly 1 electrical horse power day will produce 4.7 pounds of the metal; com mercially. however, the output is only about 1.25 pounds. No workable pro cess has as yet been discovered for producing aluminum by electrolyzing an aqueous solution of an aluminum salt. Cleaning Agent from Filth. Soap for sewage sludge is an ex treme example of by-product economy reported In the Zeltschrlft of the Aus trian Society of Engineers and Archi tects. The process, briefly stated, is as follows: Dosing the sewage with sulphuric acid, heating to 100 degrees Centigrade, compressing into cakes, drying and treating with benzine. which latter dissolves out the fatty matters. The fats recovered by dis tilling off the benzine are of a slightly yellow color. Thus has science not only provided away to dispose of sewage, but has actually transformed it Into a cleaning agent for household use! Preservation of Potatoes. It is reported that a German has made the discovery that by means c-f a chemical preparation being pouro-d over potatoes they may be kept iu a condition of preservation for years If this is true, it will be of the utmost ' importance to all countries, enabling i them not only to keep on hand a large stock of potatoes for their armies, and thus better preparing them for some unforeseen war, but in times of great abundance the potatoes could be pre served for the benefit of the poor in years when the tubers were scarce and higher In price. Successful Electrical Transmission. The greatest success in the elec trical transmission of electricity gen- W/ crated by the aid of water power has been obtained in this country. Forty three companies, having a total ca pacity of 177.300 horsepower, transmit power over a line distance of 1,549 miles, on an average of 26 miles, with a voltage of from 10,000 to 60,000. The maximum distance over which power is transmitted by wire is from Colgate to San Francisco, a space of 220 miles, with a loss of 25 per cent. At the power station the volume of water is small, but the fall is 1,50 J feet. Electric Lighting in the North. It is suggested that Thorshaven. i.i the Faroe Islands, should be provtdej with electric lights. The water powe/ is abundant for nine months of th* year, and during all that period it is so dark that artificial light is nece# sary. Petroleum lamps are generally used In the shops and houses and for street lighting; this could all be t* placed advantageously by electricity during the season when lights wer» most needed. During the months c} May, June and July, when the stream* are the lowest, no lights would b* needed, as it is daylight constantly. Convenient Little Heater. The oil or gas stove which canno* be utilized to cook a meal ot victual* while heatipg a room has little plane in the system of economics. Many a lamp flame and gas jet have produced good cups of tea. coffee or chocolatg ® to accompany a frugal lunch prepare-: and eaten in a small room by those too poor to afford "square” meals on all occasions. This class of econo mists will probably see the merit of the burner attachment * recently de signed by a California inventor, and shown in the accompanying illustra tion. It has a clamping arrangement Attached to the Gas Burner, which grips the burner-tube and sup ports the standards depending from the flat wire screen at the top. These standards are adjustable by loosening the screws in the clamping member, and may be regulated to correspond with the size and heat of the flam* issuing from the jet. George W. Brunner of San Francis co, Cal., is the patentee. Transportation of Live Fish. ® Acting ui>on the principle that flail live with ease in any water which is supplied with oxygen, European ex porters are beginning to use metallic ttibes to which oxygen generators are affixed in such a manner as to feed the water regularly with gas. which escapes when the pressure surpasses that of the atmosphere. Recently by this means 40,000 trout were exported from Switzerland to England, Ger many and Austria, of which numbei only 400 died. New Vocation for Women. The German press reports that a new vocation has been found for women on account of the use of the X-rays in hospitals. Courses of leo tures for the instruction of X-ray nurses will soon be commenced at 3erlin. These women will serve only as nurses of patients treated by 7% rays, and as assistants in the use of this recently discovered healing agent, which service Is of a very deli cate nature and one requiring great care. Pure Water from Sewage. In the bacterial treatment of sewage at Birmingham, England, some of the contact beds were filled with coal, and it is stated that the effluent was so clear, sparkling and odorless that the men working about the bed* drank from it. The flow from thesg beds was very much better than from beds filled with other filtering® media. Mattress of Torn Paper. A good mattress for a child’s cot may be made of torn paper. Old let ters. or any clean paper which is not too stiff, may be torn into strips for this purpose. Make a stout case of the size required and fill it with the torn paper. Over this mattress lay a folded blanket. Cleaning Bamboo Furniture. To clean bamboo furniture scrub It with a small brush dipped in warm water and salt, as the salt prevents its turning yellow. Treat Japanese and Indian matting in the same way.