ZION CITY IN RECEIVERS’ HANDS
Model Community Established by John Alexander Dowie Threatened with
Demolition—Large Sums Due and Creditors Are Clamorous—Career
of the Man Who Claims to Be “Elijah 111.. The Restorer.”
Wbat looked to the outside world
like the end of the economic experi
ment of John Alexander Dowle at
Zion City, but what Dowie himself de
clared to be only the glancing blow of
malicious enemies came IJec. 1. when
Judge C. C. Kohlsaat of the United
States District court at Chicago or
dered him to appear before him on
Dec. 11 and show cause why he should
not be adjudged a bankrupt.
Receivers were appointed Immed
iately. and took Zion City and all its
industrial enterprises into custody.
Frederick M. Blount, cashier of the
Chicago National bank, and Albert
Dean Currier of the law firm of Bou
tell. Currier & Freeman, were named
as the receivers.
As the result of conferences with
legal representatives of the receivers,
the head of Zion Is making every eZ
for* to raise a fund of $1,000,000.
If this is accomplished—and Dowie
is preparing to call on his tens of
thousands of followers to give their
ail to the cause —it is probable that
Dowie will be allowed to administer
the distribution of this rejuvenation
fund ns general manager of Zion and
its industries, but all this under su
pervision and direction of the receiv
ers. who are supported by the Feder
The Immediate sum for which
Itowie is responsible amounts to about
$300,000, and by Jan. 1 the liabilities
of Zion City, it is alleged, will aggre
gate $385.01.0 more. "The Restorer"
insists he Is perfectly solvent, and
claims the petition for receivers is
part of a deliberate attempt to crush
OCV.’IE THE WHOLE OF ZION.
Energy of One Man Builds the Struc
ture Now Tottering.
John Alexander Dowie was born
near Kdinburg on May 25, 1847. Ills
mother was a 8cot— an Alexander.
The man who until last month was
cslled lila father was also a Scot—
John Murray Dowie—who now lives in
Iowa. month, during the New
York trip, Dowie declared that John
yinv av £LAMS/ /v/nwF / /
lo&cmj MX>r// /
Murray Dowie was not his father, and
that he was the offspring of an Eng
'lish army officer a member of the no
'hilltjr. lie said his mother had been
| led to believe that her marriage to the
'army officer was invalid, and that, to
save her name, she married John Mur
John Murray Dowie was a Congre
gational minister of comfortable for
tune. and young Dowie received a fair
foundation for his education under
him and in the board schools of his
native town. In 1860 the family re
moved to Adelaide, Australia, and for
seven years young Dowie served as a
clerk In a mercantile establishment.
In 1807. when he was 20 years old.
Dowie returned to Scotland, and. on
Wars on Ticket Speculators.
Albert Carre of the Parris Opera
Ooxnlque has begun war on the theater
ticket speculators. The fight was
brought about by the speculators su
ing Carre because he refused to ac
cept their tickets at the theater. He
has sued them in turn and the chances
are favorable that he will win his
Descendant of Montezuma.
Prince Nanzeta Montezuma, a wan
derer and practically an exile from
Mexico, is traveling somewhere in the
west. He claims to be the only lineal
descendant of the great Montezuma.
The prince is described as a man with
delicate features, a striking face, of
polished manners and well read.
Woman Manages Newspaper.
Miss Mary E. Jervkins has been
elected president of t’ ,# ' Syracuse. N.
Y., Herald Publishing Company. She
Is a thorough business woman, well
acquainted with all the details of the
newspaper business, with which she
has been connected for a rumber of
the money he had saved while work
ing In Australia, took a five years'
course in the university.
Dowie. on graduation from the di
vinity school, at once took orders in
the Congregational church, and, in
1872, returned to Australia and began
preaching at a Congregational church
In Newtown, a suburb of Sydney. He
continued in his work with success,
hir. magnetic oratorical powers draw
ing large crowds wherever he
tn 1878 (by divine direction, he
says) Dowie suddenly deserted the
Congregational church and started as
an evangelist, preaching healing by
faith. His power at once attracted at
tention. He declares that he first
learned of his power to heal by cur
ing a girl of a wasting disease that
had already killed thirty members of
his congregation. Since that time faith
healing has been the cardinal doc
trine of Dowie. He went to Mel
tHMirne, buiit a big. rude-looking tab
ernacle. and began his work. In ten
years he had built up a large congre
gation but he was not satisfied. He
deserted his tabernacle, leaving It in
the care of one of his converts, and
started for England. He had money,
' but not a large amount.
It was in 1890 that Dowie dawned
upon Chicago. Out in Western Springs,
a little prairie suburb at that time.
Dowie started in "to fight sin” in Chi
cago. In the spring of the following
year Dowie moved upon Evanston, and
there he remained until the spring of
the world's fair year. when, with a
dozen followers, he rented a house
down near the Midway, and. almost
with his own hands, he built Zion tab
ernacle No. 1.
With the fair Dowie's success began.
A little further north there arose
Zion tabernacle No. 2. The dozen fol
lowers had become hundreds. The
health authorities attacked Dowie.
Dowie abused them. Then Zion taber
| nacle No. 3. seating 2,000 persons, was
j On Feb. 22. 1896. Dowie organized
I tli - * Christian Catholic church in Zion
. aad appointed himself general over-
PRINCIPAL BUILDINGS IN THE CITY OF ZION.
■ — ■ tx
/ioasr m **
1 » I I
seer. with his wife. Jane Dowie, as i
o erseer. His work began to attract
a .cntlon all over the country. Con- |
verts rushed into Chicago and began
to congregate around the tabernacles.
Dowie was growing.
His idea fyjm the first was the cen
traliz.atlon of all the money of ail the
followers into the treasury of Zion,
and he grew rich amazingly fast, for
lie. John Alexander Dowie. was Zion,
holding all its moneys ami properties
in his own name, in the trust for the
cnurch. He was an absolute power.
In 1899 Dowie began preparations
for his general move. His agents
vent to work quietly and bought up
land along the lake above Waukegan,
forty-two miles from Chicago and
Ireland's Attorney General.
Mr. Atkinson, the new attorney
general for Ireland, is a slight, spare
man. fair of hair and beard, with an
alert. attractive* personality and plen
' tlfully endowed with native Irish wit.
He is a martyr of rheumatism and. to
use his own phrase, has "steeped his
legs in every bath in Europe.” A lady
of the great world once commiserated
him on his suffering and added: “But
you look well. Mr. Atkinson.” “My
dear Lady Blank,” he replied, "it's my
legs tiiat are bad and you can't see
Many Soldier Statesmen.
! Seven members of the present house
! of representatives serveu as soldiers
in the war with Spain. They are
I Charles Dick, nineteenth Ohio district;
j Ariosta A. Wiley, second Alabama;
I Butler Ames, fifth Massachusetts; Ai»-
i gust P. Gardner, sixth Massachusetts;
William Hughes, sixth New Jersey;
Francis B. Harrison, thirteenth New
York, and Wyatt Aike*n third South
Carolina. They ranged in military
rank from private to lieutenant
forty-two from Milwaukee. In the fall
they held in the name of Zion a huge
tract of land lying just south of the
Wisconsin state line and stretching
away four miles over the gently slop
ing prairies from the lake shore back
into the town of Benton. Then, when
all these acres were his. Dowie an
nounced that he Intended to build Zion
City there. ,
Early in August. 1901. ground was
John Alexander Dowie.
broken for the first house in this City
Dowie called upon his followers from
all parts of the country to move to
Zion, and they came. He had adopted
advanced ideas of health, cleanliness,
and sanitation from the Mormons and
improved upon them.
Zion City seemed builded literally
and really upon the sands. There was
nothing to make a city, neither harbor
r.or mines, and not much agriculture.
Chicagoans could not see how Zion
could be self-supporting. Again
I Dowie showed his resourcefulness. He
was related by marriage to one Stev
enson. a Nottingham lacemaker. and
Dowie decided that lacemaking should
be the principal industry of Zion City.
He went to England, enlisted Stcv
. ' enson in the scheme, purchased new
. and improved lace machinery, and
began importing skilled laborers to
■ educate his people in the art. He
, built a great brick building for his lace
i factory to the east of the Northwestern
> i ail way and prepared to start the in
dustry. His enemies made a deter
; mined fight to keep out his lace ma
i chinery. declaring a?ainst his impor
) tation oi skilled laborers, and seeking
. j to force him to pay high tariff on bis
Stirred Up by Wolseley.
Lord Wolseley's book, "The Story of
a Soldier's Life,” has caused a sen
sation in official circles by reason of
its stinging criticisms of the British
military policy. Lord Wolseley points
out that politicians have been allowed
the management of expert professions,
the inevitable result being disaster for
♦he nation. His lordship's American
lemlniscencos are especially interest
ing. covering as they do a good deal of
the civil war period, during which he
had official interviews whn federal
and confederate army commanders.
Always an Eye to Business.
Russell Sage is as easy to reach
as any of the big men in this city.”
said a newspaper man whose work
has been in Wall street for a third of
a century. “I used to wonder why it
was so and whether Uncle Russell was
more democratic than the other fel
lows. But I have finally settled upon
i the reason. It Is not fraternity and
equality, but business. Sage has money
i to lend and anyone who comes may
lie a possible borrower. Uo the old
j man sees him.”
Dowie went to Washington, saw
certain persons, and the workers and
the machinery came through. He was
starting an "Infant industry.” He then
began to teach his unskilled people, re
cruited from all ranks of life, the art
Shortly afterward Stevenson and
Dowie quarreled. Stevenson went to
court with his troubles, and disobeyed
Zion's rule of arbitration. He got a
judgment, but Dowie. who had re
cruited able legal advisers, appealed,
and finally the case was compromise-!,
Stevenson taking a cash sum for his
claim against the industry.
In the first two years Dowie built
schools, a huge hospice, and a taber
nacle that will seat 7.000 persons. He
opened a great general store, estab
lished a city court and postofflee,
erected a big printing office, and final
ly started a candy factory that turns
out tons of candy every week, supply
ing some of the biggest houses in Chi
cago. The candy factory, indeed, has
been the biggest paying of his indus
Dowie as a business man had had
marvelous success. Yet at times his
desire to extend his religious views
had seriously hampered his business
June 2. 1901, standing before a great
crowd in the Auditorium at Chicago he
declared himself Elijah 111. He did
not press the point strongly at first,
but the Elijah idea kept working and
by degrees people came to understand
that Dowie claimed himself to be
Elijah the Restorer, the reincarnation
of Elijah the Destroyer, who was fed
by the ravens and finally was trans
lated. He declared that Elijah the
Destroyer reappeared again as John
the Baptist, who was Elijah the Pre
parer. and that he. Dowie. was the third
and last manifestation of Elijah. He
called upon his people to believe this
and they believed.
This idea was what interfered w*!th
his business. He startled Chicago over
c year ago by sending down swarms of
his followers from Zion City to make
visitations from house to house and
tell about Elijah 111. But not mucb
attention was paid to it until, early
la.'.t spring Dowie announced that in
October he Intended to take his host
and restore New York. His Invasion
of New York was the most spectacular
thing Dowie ever did. He took over
3,000 of his followers, put them on
ten special trains, and rushed them
i down to New York, where for a fort
night he conducted meetings in Madi
son Square garden and in Carnegie
That trip drained Zion City of its
surplus working capital. It took over
■ $300,000 out of the new town and left
- it in bad financial condition as far as
; i working capital was concerned. Then
i came the rush of creditors and pos-
I sibly the end.
Bl ushing a Lost Art.
A well-known New York society
woman says blushing is a lost art
among American women. This state
ment is called out by a cable report
from London w'hich says that a young
woman there had met with great suc
cess teaching her sisters how not to
blush. "What a gr\?at many women in
this part of the world need.” said the
society leader quoted, "is someone to
teach them how to blush. I can’t re
member when I have seen a blush in
years, except in the faces of very sen
sitive young men, or perhaps a few,
very few, schoolgirls.”
Buried Plot for Dogs.
Mr. William E. Chisholm, a widow
of College Point, L. 1., has set aside
a plot on her estate for the burial
of her dogs. Mrs. Chisholm’s son-ia
law is a stepbrother of the present
Duke of Marlborough.
The native agency in the missions
of the American board has incre sed
In number during the last decade from
2,600 to 3.581.
They Are After Him.
One of the oldest and best-known
newspaper men In Colorado is Herbert
George, who operates atone quarries
for an income and George's Weekly for
the fun of the thing. What he has done
for law and order in this state through
the formation of Citizens Alliances is
too well known to require mention.
Under the rather misleading head. "A
Prophet Save In His Own Country,”
Clay's Review has this to say:
"Colonel George, our esteemed con
temporary. is sad. He sat at his desk
in the office of George’s Weekly up to
nls chin (tearing up a stack of mail
that had accumulated during his ab
sence on the Pacific coast.
“ 'Why this expression of worry?” we
ventured diplomatically, anxious to pry
into his secrets.
" 'Do I look worried?’ he quickly in
quired. attempting to force a smile and
brush the crow tracks out of the cor
ners of his eyes. ‘I do? Well, my
looks belie my real feelings. True, 1
feel a trifle worried, but it isn't be
cause I am sick or in hard luck finan
■' ‘Out with it. old boy; I'm your
friend.’ we cut in.
” ‘Well. Perry, I believe you. Find
some one to buy my quarries and I’ll
give you my paper for your trouble. I
have been wabbling fins with big
hearted. broad-gauge people in 'Frisco
and 1 yearn to enjoy some more of
their frankness, candor and good will
—it’s an inspiration.’
“ ‘You would lay aside your years of
struggle in Colorado, then, for the
fleeting fancies that come with new en
vironments alone—friends and all.”
" ’No. no. not that. I have many good
friends in Colorado, who have stood by
me through thick and thin. I would
greatly dislike to say good-bye. too—
that's what makes me look worried,
perhaps. But what would you do.
Perry, if you were offered $25,000 per
year on a five years’ contract—would
you turn it down? If that sum repre
sented SIO,OOO a year more than you
could make in Colorado?'
We assured him we might be in
duced to depart for pastures new un
der circumstances of that sort.
“ ‘Well, old boy. that’s precisely what
has happened to me. In other words.
I'm up against it. I can’t leave my in
vestments behind to accept the offer
made me. because, if I do. I’ll lose
more than I would make by the change
In the end—and there I am. Isn’t it
up to me to look worried a little if I
’’Or. further probing we learned the
offer wus made by a syndicate of Pa
cific coast merchants and manufac- ]
turerc who seem carried away with the
genius he displayed in organizing the
largest and most influential Citizens'
Alliance that has yet been organized in
the country. The Pacific coast people
want to make the work a state enter
prise and feel assured Colonel George
is the man they need in their business.
As might be expected, the editor of
this paper felt a natural pride in hav
ing a contemporary so well received
by the ’Frisco public. It is the old
story—a fellow has to go away from
home often to really learn his own
BEAR TRAP CAUGHT A MAN.
Died in Its Clutch, His Hair First BA
ing Turned White.
Herman Kratz, a homesteader, wh*
lived seventeen miles northwest of Ely.
northeastern Minnesota, mysteriously
disappeared last September, and no
trace was ever found of him until a
few days ago, when the skeleton of a
man supposed to have been Kratz was
found by a civil engineer In a deadfall
set for bear five or six miles from his
place In the deep woods. The flesh
had practically all disappeared from
the skeleton, but the scalp and hair
still remained in part. The clothing
was rotted away so that it was of lit
tle use for purposes of ld°ntlfication.
One puzzling thing is that the hair
seems somewhat gray, while the hsii
of the missing homesteader was dark
brown, but it is thought that the ter
ror of his situation in the bear trap
and the knowledge that he could never
escape caused his hair to whiten.
Tneodora Kratz. mother of the young
homesteader, wLo lived on a farm
seven miles from Elroy, Wis., is re
ported here to have become insane re
cently over the disappearance and hor*
rible death of her son.—Duluth Dia
patch in New York World.
The Osage Indians are the pluto
crats. There are only 1,788 of them,
and they have a trust fund of $516,203.
.Besides, they have 1,470,858 acres of as
productive land as the sun ever
Women’s Wages in Berlin.
Recent Investigations of women's
wages in Berlin showed that there
were CO.OOO women who averaged
from 52.50 to $2.75 a week, and that
there were thousands who got less.
After a Great Coal Trade.
The scheme of French capitalists to
transfer the Import coal trade of Med
iterranean and African ports from
England to the United States by build
ing coal steamers to the value of s2o,*
000,000 will be aided by the $1.50 a ton
bounty on coal carried ;n French bot
toms, while England charges 24 cents
a ton export duty.
Chance for Young People.
A London pastor proposes holding
church services in the dark, so that
women worshipers will not be tempt
ed tq make the occasion one for fife
study of hats and gowns. For entire
ly different but perfectly natural rea
sons such services are likely to fa
liberally attended by young people.
Runner for Wheeled Vehlclee.
How well the old resident remem
bers the time when we had summer
in the summer time and winter when
it was due, which lasted until spring:
and with what pleasure he tells of the
cold weather and good sleighing for
weeks in succession! But whether it
is the destruction of the forests to
build our houses and serve other pur
poses, or from some other cause, we
do not seem to have good winter
weather for very long at a time, and
sleighing and skating are soon de
stroyed by a thaw. In Canada and
some portions of this country this Is
not the case, and when a farmer or
teamster puts up his wagons and gets
out his sleighs for the first snow he
has fairly good assurance that he will
not have to change again until the
spring thaw. But in a vast area of
the country the man who drives may
find himself riding through mud in a
sleigh or slipping over a snowy road
in a carriage, and it is to meet Just
such occasions as this that the in-
For Changeable Weather.
vention shown in the picture has baen
designed. A set of sheet Iron shoes
Is provided, with steel runners. And
perforated at intervals for the in •it
tlon of bolts. When there is a (all
of snow the driver has only to put ;he
shoes on the wheels and bolt them in
position, and be is ready for a slttgh
ride, with no worry over what the fu
ture state of the weather may be.
The shoes are light enough to be
carried in the wagon when not in >.;se.
and should prove a great convenience
to the man who has to drive exery
The patentees are Samuel J. and
John D. Phillips of New York city.
Artificial and Real Pearls.
A report from the Osaka, Japan,
exposition, published in European pa
pers, says a Japanese has devised a
plan for the artificial production of
pearls. His method is to put a grain
of sand or foreign substance forcibly
into pearl oysters, which he after
wards puts back in the beds. In this
way he gets pearls so like natural
pearls that connoisseurs cannot tell
them apart. It would be strange,
thinks one writer, if they could, for
tne method employed by the Japanese
is the one employed by nature. It is
a well-known fact that pearls are pro
duced by a grain of sand or spme
other foreign substance falling into
the open oyster and being covered by
the same substance as the interior of
the shell. The pearls thus prodcced
are being sold so cheaply that a fear
is gaining ground that they may af
fect the market for "real” pearls—
that Is, pearls produced by accidents
to the oysters rather than by the ef
forts of man. The "artificial” pearls
are being put to exactly the same
uses as the "real" ones.
Improved Shoe Attachment.
It is not at all uncommon for a
shoe lace to break at an inopportune
moment, when one is in a hurry to
catch a train, or has something Im
portant to attend to, instead of at an
hour when there is plenty of time for
repairs. The accident is not to be
wondered at, when it is remembered
that the lacing hook has two sharp
edges over which the string is drawn
at a sharp angle, and the movement
of the foot saws the lace over these
edges at every step. A simple but
effective arrangement to prevent this
wear is that shown in the picture,
consisting of a series of flattened
rings, w’hich are secured to the hooks
in place of the laces themselves. The
latter are inserted in the rings, which,
having no sharp edges, and present
ing only a rounded surface in contact
Prevents Wear of the Strings.
with the string, wears the latter very
little, if any. It Is probably no more
difficult to lace the shoe with these
rings than in the old manner, and a
decrease in the number of broken
strings is sure to follow.
The inventor is George W. Johnston
of Dorchester, Mass.
Manufacture of Aluminum.
The world's supply of aluminum Is
produced almost solely by the electric
furnace. The processes used consist
in the electrolysis of alumina dis
solved in a molten bath of some other
more readily fusible salt—generally
the mineral cryolite, which is a double
fluoride salt of aluminum and sodium,
is used for this purpose. Theoretical
ly 1 electrical horse power day will
produce 4.7 pounds of the metal; com
mercially. however, the output is only
about 1.25 pounds. No workable pro
cess has as yet been discovered for
producing aluminum by electrolyzing
an aqueous solution of an aluminum
Cleaning Agent from Filth.
Soap for sewage sludge is an ex
treme example of by-product economy
reported In the Zeltschrlft of the Aus
trian Society of Engineers and Archi
tects. The process, briefly stated, is
as follows: Dosing the sewage with
sulphuric acid, heating to 100 degrees
Centigrade, compressing into cakes,
drying and treating with benzine.
which latter dissolves out the fatty
matters. The fats recovered by dis
tilling off the benzine are of a slightly
yellow color. Thus has science not
only provided away to dispose of
sewage, but has actually transformed
it Into a cleaning agent for household
Preservation of Potatoes.
It is reported that a German has
made the discovery that by means c-f a
chemical preparation being pouro-d
over potatoes they may be kept iu a
condition of preservation for years
If this is true, it will be of the utmost
' importance to all countries, enabling
i them not only to keep on hand a large
stock of potatoes for their armies, and
thus better preparing them for some
unforeseen war, but in times of great
abundance the potatoes could be pre
served for the benefit of the poor in
years when the tubers were scarce
and higher In price.
Successful Electrical Transmission.
The greatest success in the elec
trical transmission of electricity gen- W/
crated by the aid of water power has
been obtained in this country. Forty
three companies, having a total ca
pacity of 177.300 horsepower, transmit
power over a line distance of 1,549
miles, on an average of 26 miles, with
a voltage of from 10,000 to 60,000.
The maximum distance over which
power is transmitted by wire is from
Colgate to San Francisco, a space of
220 miles, with a loss of 25 per cent.
At the power station the volume of
water is small, but the fall is 1,50 J
Electric Lighting in the North.
It is suggested that Thorshaven. i.i
the Faroe Islands, should be provtdej
with electric lights. The water powe/
is abundant for nine months of th*
year, and during all that period it is
so dark that artificial light is nece#
sary. Petroleum lamps are generally
used In the shops and houses and for
street lighting; this could all be t*
placed advantageously by electricity
during the season when lights wer»
most needed. During the months c}
May, June and July, when the stream*
are the lowest, no lights would b*
needed, as it is daylight constantly.
Convenient Little Heater.
The oil or gas stove which canno*
be utilized to cook a meal ot victual*
while heatipg a room has little plane
in the system of economics. Many a
lamp flame and gas jet have produced
good cups of tea. coffee or chocolatg ®
to accompany a frugal lunch prepare-:
and eaten in a small room by those
too poor to afford "square” meals on
all occasions. This class of econo
mists will probably see the merit of
the burner attachment * recently de
signed by a California inventor, and
shown in the accompanying illustra
tion. It has a clamping arrangement
Attached to the Gas Burner,
which grips the burner-tube and sup
ports the standards depending from
the flat wire screen at the top. These
standards are adjustable by loosening
the screws in the clamping member,
and may be regulated to correspond
with the size and heat of the flam*
issuing from the jet.
George W. Brunner of San Francis
co, Cal., is the patentee.
Transportation of Live Fish. ®
Acting ui>on the principle that flail
live with ease in any water which is
supplied with oxygen, European ex
porters are beginning to use metallic
ttibes to which oxygen generators are
affixed in such a manner as to feed
the water regularly with gas. which
escapes when the pressure surpasses
that of the atmosphere. Recently by
this means 40,000 trout were exported
from Switzerland to England, Ger
many and Austria, of which numbei
only 400 died.
New Vocation for Women.
The German press reports that a
new vocation has been found for
women on account of the use of the
X-rays in hospitals. Courses of leo
tures for the instruction of X-ray
nurses will soon be commenced at
3erlin. These women will serve only
as nurses of patients treated by 7%
rays, and as assistants in the use of
this recently discovered healing
agent, which service Is of a very deli
cate nature and one requiring great
Pure Water from Sewage.
In the bacterial treatment of sewage
at Birmingham, England, some of the
contact beds were filled with coal,
and it is stated that the effluent was
so clear, sparkling and odorless that
the men working about the bed*
drank from it. The flow from thesg
beds was very much better than
from beds filled with other filtering®
Mattress of Torn Paper.
A good mattress for a child’s cot
may be made of torn paper. Old let
ters. or any clean paper which is not
too stiff, may be torn into strips for
this purpose. Make a stout case of
the size required and fill it with the
torn paper. Over this mattress lay a
Cleaning Bamboo Furniture.
To clean bamboo furniture scrub It
with a small brush dipped in warm
water and salt, as the salt prevents
its turning yellow. Treat Japanese
and Indian matting in the same way.
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