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CAUSES POSTOFFICE DEFICIT Department Shows Nearly Double the Deficiency of Previous Year—De crease In Number of Pest offices. Washington. Dec. 3.—An increased* deficiency of 92.52 per cent, ovar the previous year is shown by the finan cial. statement for the postal service, incorporated In the annual report of B. C. Madden, third assistant post master general, for the fiscal year end ing June 30, 1904. The report shows, however, that the increase in expendi tures is on account of the rural free delivery service. Were it not for this extraordinary expenditure the postal service now would be about. self-sus taining. '1 ho total receipts from all sources for the fiscal year were >143.- 582.624. and the total expenditures $152,362,116, leaving a deficit of SB. 779,492. The deficiency the previous year was $4,560,044. Mr. Madden says: "It is believed that as soon as the rural free delivery service is fully es tablished the increase in the expendi tures on account of that service each year will not he more than the normal increase for other items of the service and that wiluin a short time after such normal conditions obtain the postal service will again bo self-sus taining, a condition wnicn has not ex isted since 1883.” Extension of the free delivery serv ice has resulted in an increase of 1,120 in the number of poatofflees discontin ued during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1904, according to the annual re port of J. Is. Bristow, fourth assistant postmaster general. During the year chore were 2.549 postofflces estab lished and 5,587 discontinued. There was a decrease* of 158 in the number of offices established. The total num ber of discontinuances was 3,750 post offices, with a saving in salary of post masters aggregating $171,121. At the close of the fiscal year tnere were 71.- 131 postofflces in Lie United States — • 265 first class. 1,204 second class. 3.896 third class and 65,766 fourth class. Operation of rural mail delivery and the extension of private interests of rural telephone service has created a demand from patrons of rural routes for the delivery of small packages of merchandise on an order to local mer chants by postal card, telephone or otherwise, i lie value of such pack ages is small, and the present rate of i cent per ounce, the report says, is practically prohibitive. Mr. Bristow recommends that Congress fix a rate of 3 cents a pound or any fractional part thereof on packages not exceed ing five pounds, mailed at the distrib uting post office of any rural free de livery route. Mr. Bristow recommends to Con gress that the interstate commerce tasr be amended so as to prohibit common carriers, to-wlt.. telegraph, and express companies, or any of their employes, from aiding and abetting In green goods or lottery swindles, or any other schemo carried on partly by mall and partly by common carrier And which Is in violation of the postal laws. » Sentences Commuted. Denver, Dec. 3.—At a meeting of th* Board of Pardons yesterday Charlei ; N. Bryce, sentenced from El Paso i county for embezzlement, was par- 1 doned and the sentences of four others ! commuted. Several other cases were refused clemency and one case, that» of Samuel Copner, was postponed un-1 til next meeting. The sentence of Arthur Flannigan , was commuted to a term of two to four years to a term of five months to four years. This will grant his a re- 1 •lease very soon. He was sentenced from EX Paso county for forgery of a check. The sentence of J. H. Strickland was commuted from a term of two to throe years to a term of one to three years. Strickland was sentenced from j Teller county June 1, 1904, for burg lary and larceny. Charles Davis, also sentenced from Teller county June 2, 1901, to a terra of nine to ten years, had his term com-, muted to five to ten years. He was cbnvleted of larceny of ore. Oeorge El Mow, sentenced from Fre mont county May 14, 1902, to a term j of fifteen to twenty-five years for mur der, had his term commuted to from three to ten years. Mow was a mem- ( her of the old McCoy gang whose op- 1 eratlons were frequent In that county. Grand Jury Indictments. Cheyenne, Wyo., Dec. 3. —In the United States Court Thursday the grand Jury found true bills in the fol iowing cases: P. S. Smith, postmaster at Lander, charged with embezzling $747.37. William Merrill, charged with forg ing a postoifice money order at the Thermopolis post office. Lowell Shaw, charged with embez zling funds from the Basin postofuce. J. B. Jackson, charged with burglar izing the Alma postoifice. "Ute,” an Arapahoe Indian, charged with assaulting F. L. Crabb, a govern ment surveyor on the Wind River res ervation. Claude Mudge. charged with perjury in connection with the case of Harry Brennan and Ed Thorpe, cowboys, charged with holding up Postmaster Jacob I.anh, at Clearmont. Harry Brennan and Ed Thorpe will be tried at this term. Port Arthur Must Fall. St. Petersburg. Dec. 3. —With the , confirmation of tho news that the Jap- ! anese have occupied 203-Meter hill and the report that tho Russians unsuc- j fully attem. ed Its recapture, officials at the war office are beginning to pre pare themsplves for the inevitable. The ships In the harbor. It can be stated on high authority, are in no condition to attempt to break through the Investing squadron. The guns of tin* .warqhips were, long ago .disman tled and the marines and sailors have -been participating in the land defense. Some of the ships have been injured by shells. If the fortress falls it is un derstood the ships will be taken out side and sunk In deep water in order to prevent the possibility of their ever -being of service to the enemy. Fire on Fair Grounds. St. Louis, Dec. 3. —A conflagration which gave the firemen a stubborn fight, and which, owing to the high wind, entire exposition grounds, was 'discovered in “Apciant Rome," on the Pike, shortly after mid night. Tho flames spread with great rapid ity and destroyed part of "Fair Japan,” all of “Quo Vadia” and "The Streets of Rome.” Flying sparks also caused Incipient blazes on the roof of the Varied Industries building, but tiiey were extinguished without ma t jrlal damage. CONDENSED TELEGRAMS All bills of the Purchase Exposition except a few small current accounts have been paid. Herr Johann Most, the anarchist, who was arrested at St. Louis, was discharged on his promise to leave the city. Madame Janauscbfek. the famous actress, died in New York City No vember 29th at the age of seventy-four years. Russia has accepted the invitation of the United States to conclude an arbi tration treaty on the lines of tho American-French treaty. A receiver has been appointed for the Montana Co-operative Ranch Com pany. A fraud order was recently is sued barring the company's mall. President Roosevelt has approved the application of Colonel Charles A. Heyl, inspector general, for retirement, after thirty years’ service fn the army. It has been decided to hold the next annual reunion of Confederate Vet erans set for liOuisville by the last en campment in Nashville, June 5, 6 and 7. The porte has issued orders to the authorities at Trehizond to cease in terference with the sale of American Bibles and to restore those that have been seized. The vacancy in the list of rear admi rals created by the retirement of Rear Admiral Theodore F. Jewell will be filled By the promotion of Captain Royal E. Bradford. The director of the observatory on Loeningstuhl mountain near Heidel berg, has discovered a new planet of the thirteenth magnitude by means of a celestial photograph. The Odessa correspondent of the Ixmdon Standard learns that the Rus sian government has decided to start in January u general mobilization throughout European Russia. Spain has accepted in principle the President’s invitation for another peace conference at The Hague, re serving for further discussion the fix ing of a date for the meeting. Rear Admiral Evans, now president of the Lighthouse Board, will be ap pointed to the supreme command of the North Atlantic fleet when Rear Admiral Barker retires next March, The viceroy of the Chinese province of Honan is the first to carry out the instructions of the dowager empress of China in clothing his soldiers In Ehiropean dress and cutting off their queues. Former United States Senator Frank J. Cannon of Utah has accepted the po sition of editor in chief of the Salt Lake Tribune. The policy of the pa per, it Is announced, will not be changed. Tho secretary of the interior has ordered the withdrawal from entry of 825,000 acres of land in the Prescott, Arizona, district, on account of the Colorado river Irrigation project in that territory. It is estimated from Mukden that Don Jaime of Bourbon, son of Don Carlos, tho Spanish pretended, has been decorated with the Order of St. Anne with swords for gallantry In sev eral engagements. The German Pfled Cross Society has prepared another sanitary train for nursing the Russian sick and wounded, i The train will proceed to the frontier In a few days, where it will be turned over to the Russian officials. ' The president of the Swiss confede ! ration has Informed the American min | later at Berne that Switzerland ao- . cepts In principle President Roose- | velt’s Invitation to be represented at the Hague conference. I Secretary of the Navy Morton an nounces that the board appointed to . select & training station on the Great Lakes has unanimously recommended that the lake -bluff site, thirty miles north of Chicago, be selected and the President has approved the selection. | Francis Galley lowered the world’s j quarter mile swimming record during the Olympic Club's natatorial tourna ment at San Francisco. The former j record was held by F. Daniels of the New York Athletic Club, whose mark was 6:02. The new record is 5:69 4-5. Thirteen deaths have resulted from | football this season. The casualty list i Is the same as last year, but the num ber of serious injuries during the sea , son Just closed will exceed that of any ' year since the introduction of the mod ern college sport. The players injured 1 number 296. ! A telegram signed by many promi -1 nent men of Los Angeles, bankers, lawyers, merchants, journalists and others, has been sent to President | i Roosevelt, asking him to cause some action to be taken in behalf of the \ starving Campos Indians in San Diego l ' county, California. The will of Richard M. Scruggs, the ' prominent merchant and philanthro pist. who died at St. recently, j provides for the distribution of $147,- ; 500 among religious Institutions, in- ; , eluding $5,000 to each of the bishops of the Methodist church for use in for- ! eign missionary work. The Massachusetts Supreme Court ' j lias decided that it is not a crime for the seller of intoxicating liquors, in- 1 tended for delivery into a no-license j ! city or town, to transport them by ! one not carrying on a regular and law ful express business, and the carrier I though not a regular expressman, is 1 i free to transport liquors without the 1 act being considered a crime. A monument in memory of Preai ; dent McKinley was unveiled at the i entrance to Golden Gate park In San - ; Francisco on Thanksgiving day. It Is a symbolical statute of the Republic, - j modeled by Robert Aiken, a San i Francisco cast in bronze. • The figure, on a granite pedestal, rep resents a woman Of heroic size, with a > large sword in one hand and an up > lifted palm In the other. i Paul Kruger, late president of the r Transvaal republic, left a fortune es - tlmated by the Amsterdam correspond i ent of the World at $3,730,000. He be . queathed $125,000 to various societies 1 in Holland, and sums to all the funds - opened after the South African war • for the support of the Boer widows and ■ orphans. Bequests also were made for - the maintenance of the Dutch lan guage. An official canvass of the Kansas j i election returns shows that a total of i 324,588 votes was cast for all the pres i idential candidates. Of these Roose i velt received 210,873, Parker 84.- 800; Delis, 15,494; Swallow. 7,245; Watson, 6156. Roosevelt's plurality was 126,000; his majority, 97,198. A protest for applying tho Amer ican scheme of free land for settlers in Siberia in order to attract coloniza tion from the congested districts of European Russia is attracting much favorable comment in St. Petersburg. The plan as proposed follows closely tiu* American homestead system. FAIR IS CLOSED END OF ST. LOUIS EXPOSITION Great 'k nterprise in Commemoration of the Louisiana Purchase Haa Been a Complete Success. St. Louis, Dee. 2.—The Louisiana Purchase Exposition has ended. It passes into history as probably hav ing comprised the most representative collection of the resources, industries, art, peoples and customs of the world ever assembled. From the inception of a project to hold an exposition to fittingly com memorate the one hundredth annivers ary of the purchase of the Ijouisiana territory until the portals were thrown open and the world was invited to en ter, occupied seven years. The dura tion of the Exposition has been seven months and during that time nothing has occurred to throw a dampening ef fect on the interest or to detract from the Exposition in any way. The best of order has been maintained through out and no loss of life has occurred during the Exposition from accidents. The man probably most prominently known connected with the Fair Is President Francis, and it was fitting that the final day should be designated as “Francis’ Day” in his honor. “This Exposition has been the work of my life,” said President Francis. "It has consumed my entire time for the past four years but every hour has been an hour of pleasure to me.” The closing exercises were held at .the base of the Louisiana Purchase monument in the plaza of St. Louis, where were held seven months ago the exercises that formally opened the gates to the world. The openiqg day tho vast assemblage was buoyant in spirit and filled with an unanimous de sire to give expression to good feeling; yesterday depression prevailed genen ally because the conclusion was at hand, and It was rather a mournful assemblage that formed a solid pha lanx around the tall monument and listened to the farewell addresses. There was cheering, but it was not the cheering of final leave taking, and not the spontaneous outburst of enthusi asm. Tho principal speeches were made by Governor Dockery of Mlssburi and President Francis. The introduction of President Fran cis was greeted with an ovation of cheering. When quiet had been re stored, he said: “The results of this work cannot be adequately measured by the beauty of its landscapes, the grace and sym metry of its buildings, the comprehen siveness of its exhibits, the intelli gence of its congresses, the elegance of Its social features, nor by the Ineff able pleasures conferred upon its pa trons, hut time will be required to demonstrate that the thought and the labor and the sacrifices that have en tered Into It were not ill-advlsedly be stowed. "Those who have been engaged in the work will never cease to look back to It with pride. All who have shared in the spirit of the undertaking will have had their views enlightened, their tastes cultivated and their sym pathies broadened. The millions of visitors who have entered these gates have by their presence encouraged this band of workers and. let us hope, have taken away pleasant recollections of their experiences. ’’The distinguished guests we have entertained have by thir words and en couragement and manifestations of in terest lightened our labors and Incited us to renewed efforts. All Who have come have 1 contributed toward the con summation of an understanding upon which this outpouring of people at the end of the task stamps the approval of the people of St. Louis and of Missouri. “May this enterprise with which we have been connected for nearly seven years past bring into still closer broth erhood all the nations and all the peo ples who have participated in It. May it deepen our patriotism. May It strengthen our love for a benign Provi dence that smiles upon us.” Drowned in "Fool Killer." Stevensvllle, Mich., Dec. 2.—Peter Nlssen, who started across Lake Mich igan in his boat "Fool Killer No. 3,” was found dead on the beach two and a half miles west of here yesterday. He Is supposed to have been washed ashore during the night. His “Fool Killer’ was about twenty rods down the beach from the body and was much damaged. A life preserver and his overcoat were fastened to the basket shaped car In the boat. The body was brought to Stevensvllle. where It lies in the town hall. The hands and face are frozen and the features reflect his suffering. The clotlung on the body was somewhat torn. 'lt is' thought that Nissen could not have been dead a great while when the body was found, as rigor mortis had ,iot set in. When the wrecked aquatic balloon was examined one of Nissen’s business cards was found, on the back of which was a note from the dead adventurer, saying an air hose upon which he de pended to renew his supply of air had broken and that he was doomed to die of suffocation. Internal Revenue Receipts. Washington, Dec. 2.—The annual re port of Commissioner Yerkes of the Internal Revenue Bureau shows that for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1904, the receipts of the bureau were. $232,- 904,004, an increase of $2,163,079 over the collections for the next year pre ceding. The cost of collection was 1.93 per cent, as against 2.07 for the year 1903 and 2.83 per cent., the av erage cost of collection since the for mation of the bureau. The estimated receipts from ail sources of Internal revenue for the fiscal year ending .June 30, 1906, are $230,000,000. > Tunnel Scheme Approved. San Francisco, Dec. 2. —Jacob Schlff, the New York banker, who is heavily' interested in the Hawaiian roads, while here recently approved E. H. Harriman's plan for a 33.000-foot tun nel through the Sierra Nevada moun tains. By this means over 1,500 feet of the present mountain grade of the Central Pacific will he got rid of. many curves abolished and most of the thirty-six miles of costly snow sheds done away with. President Denies Report. Washington. Dec. 2.—lt was authori tatively stated at the White House to day that the President has no recol lection of a visit from John Beattie, the representative of the Master Painters' and Decorators’ Association, who at the convention of the Citizens’ Industrial Association to-day declared that the President had endorsed a proposition to put upon rahor unions the responsibility for paralyzing bus iness by lockouts. It also was an nounced that the President did not -ay anything suggested by Mr. Beattie. TO CURB UNIONS PLANS OF LABOR EMPLOYERS ! Resolutions in Favor of the Open Shop —Number of Hours Work to Be a Matter of Contract —Train- ing Schools Favored. New York, Dec. I.— Plans for organ izing the employers of labor In this country to combat the labor unions were considered at yesterday’s session of the Citizens’ Industrial Association convention. Among the addresses de livered was one by Daniel Davenport of Bridgeport, Connecticut, executive agent of the American Anti-Boycott Association. Mr. Davenport's subject was, “The Purposes and Work of the American Anti-Boycott Association.” It was In the employment bureau of tha country that Frederick W. Job. sec retary of the Chicago Employers’ As sociation, found hope of a future settle ment of all troubles between employes and employers. To that bureau he de clared both sides must return in the end to find relief. John Beattie, a representative of the Master Painters' and Decorators’ As sociation, speaking of the labor situa tion in New York, said: ”1 do not want you to think that the | men of New York are held up with ■ strings willingly or lack 'sand. We ' have in this city an organization that ! has successfully fought the labor un ions. We organized our association I eighteen months ago and made a strong fight. We formed an alliance with la bor after a lockout lasting sixteen weeks, which paralyzed business. "Recently 1 asked President Roose velt as an American citizen to use his influence to put the responsibility on labor unions and he said ‘that’s the thing that is needed.’ ” The report of the committee on res -1 olutions, which was adopted, reaffirmed the objects as adopted at the Chicago and Indianapolis conventions of the Citizens’ Industrial convention and again declares for: “The open shop. Demanding only good faith and fair dealing, it discrim inates against neither union nor inde pendent labor. "The freedom of the individual to have a trade and follow, it. “The right of private contract, with equal obligation upon employer and employes. "The right to work, limiting the hours of labor, whether of brains or or the hand, is a matter of mutual agree ment, not a subject for arbitrary leg islative enactment. "The enforcement of the law.” The resolutions direct the executive committee to take the necessary steps to secure a proper channel of activity for the correlation of Interested or ganizations with the Citizens' Industrial Association of America. Continuing, the resolutions say: “Whereas, the limitation which the trades union sets upon the number of apprentices in any shop Is largely re sponsible for the disappearance of skilled labor. Is destructive of the in dustry and Is one of the greatest dis turbing factors in the industrial devel opment of iae country, in that It limits the right of the individual to learn a trade; and "Whereas, the effort made by the employer to Increase the number of ap prentice In a trade Is necessarily ham pered by the above limitations; there fore be it “Resolved, that the Citizens’ Indus trial Association of America recom mend the establishment by boards o> education of artisan schools, under the control and direction of the state, giv ing a diploma which shall be the evi dence of the right to begin to practice a trade. “Resolved, further, that It be recom mended to Individual employers, so fai as practicable, to establish training schools in their own shops and as rap idly as possible to increase the num ber of apprentices desiring to learn the trade. “Whereas, in his farewell address Washington declared a ‘well-regulated militia necessary for national defense,' and "Whereas, organized labor through out the country seeks to discourage and practically prohibit membership in the state militia; therefore be it "Resolved, that this association con demns this policy of labor unions as disloyal and dangerous, destroying th6 natural nucleus of republican defenso, weakening the attachment of the citi zens to the state, impairing a patriotic Inspiration to our children and ulti mately necessitating an increase in our standing army repuggnant to our tra ditions and Institutions.” Russia Cannot Join Conference. Washington, Dec. I.—Russia is un willing to join the powers in a second peace conference at The Hague until her war with Japan is ended. Tho Russian reply to Secretary Hay's circular note to the powers of October 23rd last, inviting them In the name of the President, to reassem- ; hie in conference at The Hague "to complete the postponed work of the first conference,” was delivered ver bally to Secretary Hay to-day by Count Cassini, the Russian ambassa dor. The ambassador was requested by his government to say that Russia, heartily accepted In principle the Invl- 1 tation to a second conference at The j Hague and readily associated herself ; to the American government to com plete the mission of the first assembly ! convened under the leadership of tho Russian Emperor. The ambassador was further re quested to say that while the Russian government very sincerely cherishes these views, it did not consider the moment opportune fbr the convening of such a conference, and therefore must withhold Its formal acceptance of the invitation until the war in the far East was at an end. Charges Against New Mexico Judge. Washington, Dec. I.—Attorney Nell B. Field of Albuquerque, Is here mak ing an effort to secure the removal of Ben Baker, territorial Judge for the Third Judicial district of New Mex ico. Charges against Judge Baker have been filed In the Department of Justice, but the nature of them can not be ascertained. Judge Baker has held the position three years and was appointed from Nebraska. Louisville Invites Roosevelt. Louisville, Dec. I.—The board of trade yesterday passed a resolution inviting President Roosevelt to visit Louisville when he makes his pro posed trip to Texas In the spring. The Indian chief Abieta, a delegate from the Indian reservation at Ysleta, New Mexico, accompanied by three of his tribesmen, recently passed through El Paso en route to the city of Mex ico to confer with tLe Mexican govern ment on the establishment of a colony of Indians in Mexico. POULTRY Blue Ribbons and Breeding Birds. During the fall and winter a large number of poultry raisers will show birds at poultry shows. The love of prizes should not lead to the pamper ing of the fowls that are to be ex hibited. The birds that are to be placed before the public will be the best ones from the standpoint of of ficial excellence, and these are the ones that are of most value for breeding purposes. But it is no se cret that a good many of these birds are ruined for breeding purpose in a single campaign. It is not an un usual thing to have these prize birds sell for a fancy price, and the buyer be sadly disappointed when he comes to look for results. The blue ribbon is the cause of retrogression in the flock of many a breeder. He wins the blue ribbon for his birds and makes a great reputation for himself, which means a great demand for the prod uct of his yards, and he is then un able to meet that demand on account of the breeding qualities of his best binds having been deteriorated by overfeeding. The Head of the Flock. The character of the flock of poul try may be rapidly built up if the head of the flock is every year a vigorous bird of high breeding. An old scrub will not do. Neither does it do to pick out a fine looking bird, if one of the grades. Using grades to head the flock can never improve the aver age of the flock. Culling Out. It does not ppy to carry culls any longer than it is possible to deter mine that they are culls. Prices are better now than they will be later in the fall, and the birds that are not suitable for breeders should be sent to market as soor. as they can be prop erly fitted. If the breeder is to raise the standard of his flock It will pay him to cull closely. Fall Buying. The tim- to buy hens and roosters for breeding purposes is in the fall, as the price is then lower than at any other time of year. The large num ber of birds in the hands of breeders make it easy to secure bargains. When the flocks have all been cut down to half what they are in the fall it will not be so easy to get good birds at a reasonable price. In Selling Breeders. The best way to dispose of breeding birds is to advertise them in the agri cultural papers. A good many breed ers carry st,oclc for months longer than they need to because they have not learned that money spent in ad vertising is well spent. The cost of advertising is largely paid by the sav ing in the cost of keeping the birds if they are not sold. Good Prices for Good Birds. A man can afford to pay a good price for a good bird. A little more vigor than usual is worth money. If a man is intending to build up a flock out of which he hopes to bring prize winners he will find it to his advan tage to have an expert score the birds he places at the head of the flock. Got Rid of the Roosters. Very few roosters are needed in a flock. If the eggs the hens lay are not to be used for setting it is un necessary to have a male head of the flock. Without him the eggs will keep better. Not many fowls should be kept in one house. From 25 to 50 makes a good flock. Unless wanted for setting, cockerels are useless adjuncts of the flock. Quantity of Dairy Products. Some one has suggested that the time is likely to come when the supply of dairy products will be so great that prices will be insignificant. We have nothing to fear on that score. The history of all lands so far is that the longer the dairy business is con tinued the better is the demand for dairy products. Take New York as an illustration. When milk was a scarce article there half a century ago five cents per quart was thought to be a good price to pay for it. Now the supply is very large but the demand has more than kept pace with it and the price received is ten cents a quart. Overproduction is out of the question. Even with the present poor quality of butter, cream and milk it is difficult to supply the demand. What would it be if the quality of all dairy products were good? The users of them would be so many that the present supply would be entirely inadequate and the price would be much higher than at the present time. Not only is the demand for dairy products increasing among those that use them in a practically fresh state, but ways are all the time being in vented of holding them in a state where they can be carried to all parts of the world or held in storage for an indefinite period. Tinning is be ing tried and preservation- in sugar and salt. As the preservative in but ter can be washed out easily it offers great opportunity for experimentation. It is entirely possible that ways of keeping butter will be devised that will enable the merchant ships of the world to carry it on their voyages and have it always in a fresh state. The work of experimentation that *s being done in this line augurs well for the future. It is certain that the inhabitants of the world from the poles to the tropics will yet be able to eat daily butter made in the tem perate zones. It seems unlikely that the tropics will ever become noted for the production of milk and its prod ucts, as climatic conditions there are not generally favorable to the ex istence of dairy animals. In a report the United States De partment of Agriculture says that the large southern cities consume per capita only half as much milk as do ‘*ie northern cities. DAIRY A Dairy Room. It Is an easy matter for almost any farmer to have a good dairy room in his cellar if he cares to go to the slight cost of construction. The part selected for the keeping of the milk must be partitioned off from the rest of the cellar and should have a good large window that may be made im pervious to the cold by double panes of glass. If this room is ten feet square it will give a floor surface of 100 square feet. The prevailing rate for cementing a cellar is 12 cents a square foot, provided the best of ce ment is used. This would be a tost of sl2 for the cement floor, which should be In every cellar used as a milk room. It will cost 35 cents a square yard to cement the sides of the cellar, if that is considered de sirable. In most cellars it will not be necessary to cement higher up than three feet. The coat should be of strong composition and approximate ly an inch thick. This would cost $4.67. These are city prices, but If an attempt is made to have the work done for less the result may be an unsatisfactory Job by reason of the use of poor cement. The door that enters the main cellar should be a tight-fitting one and should be self-closing, so that it will not be in advertently left open. The window should be open as much as possible, so that the air in the room may come from outside rather than from the other cellar. The Oleo War Revives. For some time the oleo war has seemed to be at an end, with the but ter interests on top. Now, however, there are numerous signs that the war is to be renewed with vigor. The defeat of the oleomargarine interests in the United States Supreme Court has made it necessary for the mak ers of oleo Jo practically go out of business or begin an agitation for the repeal of the present laws rel&iing to their product. So a great na tional association is in process of formation, the object of the associa tion being to wage a relentless war on the laws that now compel oleo to be sold in its uncolored state. In this new organization the entrance fee is put at $25 and a circular issued by the managers of the association aays that the association proposes to fight the butter men with their own weapon —“money.” It is declared that the oleo business has been practically killed by the present law. Pasteurized Milk as a Charity. During the last two summers pas teurized milk has been sold to the people at cost in some of our great cities, particularly New York. The booths for the selling of this milk In New York sold during the past sum mer eight hundred thousand glasses. Over two million bottles of pasteur ized milk were sold. The people are coming to see the value of pasteur ized milk for infants and are coming to demand it. Doubtless thousands of Infantile lives have been saved this past summer in New York by .the use of this milk. The same plan has been inaugurated to some extent in some other great cities, including Chicago. It is a charity in the sense that no profit is made on the milk, but it is not a charity in the sense that every one pays tne actual cost of the arti cle he receives. The Cows and the Fall Pastures. After the frosts have come and cut down the value of the grasses in the pastures there is little reason for letting the cows run in them. If the rains have come and soaked the pas tures till the soil is soft, there is all the more reason why they should not be subjected to the trampling of farm animals. Some of the pastures have been heavily stocked all sum mer and in the fall have a very thin sod in consequence. In most cases it will pay to give the land a rest till spring. The loss that will come on account of the trampling and the compacting of the wet ground will more than offset the benefits derived from the feed obtained. Extreme Statements. A contemporary makes the state ment that "warmth and comfort will double the yield of the same cows on the same food, as compared with cold.” This is what may be called an extreme statement. Why did not the writer say quadruple or quintuple the product? One could be as easily proven as the other. In a general way it is believed that comfort increases the milk yield, but that it doubles It is a hard proposition to prove. Such extreme statements bring agricul tural journalism into disrepute. Dairy Notes. The flavor producing bacteria are the first to perish when heat is ap plied. Wood is the least satisfactory of all materials used for inside creamery walls. Dairy products, being human food, should be produced in the most clean ly manner. Few people give enough weight to the question of pure water for wash ing butter. In Omaha cases of sickness on dairy farms must be reported to the Board of Health. A government report say that the pasteurization of market milk is not yet generally practiced. Within the city limits of Omaha there are 89 herds of dairy cows which total more than 2,000 dairy ani mals. * As a rule, the larger the city the more milk is sold from stores; the smaller the city the more milk is sold from wagons. In some states milk and cream that have been exposed to contagion from sick persons or animals cannot be legally sold. A model dairy is not necessarily a place where money is lavishly ex pended for fine blooded cattle and Highly adorned buildings. Of the large cities. Boston Is the greatest consumer of milk, using over one pint per day. New Orleans is the smallest consumer, using only 27- 100 of a pint daily. LIVE STOCK Hoof of the Horae. Horsemen differ greatly as to the treatment that should be given the hoof of the horse. In some sections of the country the popular prejudice is in favor of allowing the hoof to grow out to a good length and size. The Idea is to give the impression that the horse has excellent feet, as “no foot, no horse,” is a common saying. But one man asks if a big growth of horn means necessarily a good foot. The foot is not merely the horn. It consists also of bones, muscles and sinews. These must all be good to make a good foot. Among veter inarians it is considered that a good foot is one that has all of the things mentioned in first-class quality, but the horn is trimmed down to what the hoof needs. The work horse should have his hoofs trimmed down to the point where every part of it is of value in the support of fhe ani mal. There is a difference between tho horse that Is working every day and the horse of the dealer that is be ing put into shape for selling at the best price. The wily dealer has dis covered that if the toes of the horse are permitted to grow long the horse will have more action when he is be ing shown off. The action will, of course, be artificial and a fraud, but the dealer does not care for that, if he can get a few more dollars out of the animal on account of it. Buyers of horses should be on the lookout for this. Long toes and good action go together to some extent because when the toes are long the horse has to ex ert more muscular power to get bis feet off the ground. Temperature of Stables. There is a constant dispute as to the temperature of stables in winter. The English investigators have de clared that from 55 to 60 degrees is the best for cows, even if the tempera ture has to be reached by the use of stoves. But when we attempt to fix a degree of heat to which the cows should be subjected, we are at once brought face to face with innumerable varying and conflicting conditions. The cows should be made comfortable and kept so, but much depends on the breed of cows. If all the cows used for milk production were Holsteins. Jerseys, Guernseys and Ayrshires, it would be much easier to solve the question of temperature than at the present time, when most of the cows on farms have in them some blood of the beef breeds. One characteris tic of the beef breeds is that the ani mals infiltrate their fat through their muscles or place it under the hide, where it acts as a non-conductor of heat. This protects the animals from ’ the cold, and, as a result of this, a fat steer may often be seen lying down in a snow bank and contentedly chewing his cud, while a pure-bred dairy cow is to be seen standing with her nose at the barn door shivering. It is evident that the temperature is a question that each cow owner must settle himself. A Definite Policy of Improvement. Owners of stock should have a defi nite policy of improvement. The cost of improvement is so slight, especially in the line of cattle, that it is a won der that any community should be satisfied to go ahead in the old way. The prices for pure bred bulls are ab surdly low, and hundreds of the best of breeding have sold at not much above the $l5O mark. When a good pure-bred bull can be purchased at such figures, is there any reason why the scrub bull should be kept in e«- istence at all? Each community that has a definite plan of improvement can take advan tage of such opportunities. The rais ing of $l6O In a community is of no consequence when the raising con cerns an investment that is to return to the makers a golden harvest. Any definite plan of improvement must be based on the securing of pure-bred sires and the continuing to use pure bred sires. That policy should not stop short of driving every scrub bull/4 out of the neighborhood if it is possi ble to do so. Winter Feed of the Colt. The growing colt can take a great deal of feed in the winter if he has exercise. There is no danger of get ting him too fat under a proper sys tem of feeding. The owner desires that the colt increase the amount of bone and muscle as fast as he can. To do this he must eat much more than the horse that has obtained his growth. It is frequently remarked, "That colt eats more than a full-grown horse.” That is natural, and as it should be. The chief grain feed should be oats, and at times some bran and oilmeal may be mixed in. One of the best rough feeds for the colt is clover hay. This in the past has not been regard ed of much value for this purpose, but we are now finding out that it is one of the best possible rations. Breeding the Filly. We would like to have an expres sion of the opinions of our readers as to the best age to breed the Ally. There are taro opposite tendencies ob servable. One Is to breed too young and the other is to breed too old. What is the best age? Some of our best breeders breed the Ally at three years of age with the expectation of having her drop a colt at four years of age. Little fault can be found with this arrangement. It has the virtue— of not bringing into the world coldfl from very Immature parents. Whether it would improve the quality of the produce to allow the mother to be still more mature is a hard question to settle. Butter from Pantry Milk. Milk kept in the pantry will always accumulate all the odors that are ob tainable. If cream taken from this milk is to be made into butter, the butter should not be sold to a partic ular customer or sent onto market. The farmer’s family may not care if their butter does taste cf pie and doughnuts, but some of the buy ers are very exacting as to the flavor that must be in the butter.