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The prisoners released under the czar’s amnesty order for political offenders came out of the damp dun
geons of Schlusselburg, notorious in Russian history for the horrible crimes that have been committed within its walls since it became a prison in 1702. It is situated on an island at the junction of the Neva river and Lake Ladoga, forty miles from St. Petersburg. MASSACRE OF RUSSIAN JEWS. Recent Horrible Butcheries Explain able in Two Ways. The butchery of the Jews in Odessa is explained in two ways. In offic ial circles the Jews are blamed. It is said that they offended the patriotic sentiment of the rabble by unseemly demonstrations of delight when they heard of the czar's manifesto. It is said that they made insulting remarks about hint and tore down the national Hag. Then the "loyalists” fell upon the Jews —the innocent as well as the guilty —and, being greedy as well as patriotic, plundered their houses. The explanation of the liberals Is that the rioters were egged on by govern ment officials. The liberals assert that the simultaneous manner in which attacks were made on the Jews In many towns Indicates that they were dictated from St. Petersburg, but they are in error. Counte de Witte has done all in his power ; to stop the attacks on the Jews. When men are in a passion, as most Russians are. they make wild charges. It Is almost incredible that the mob which massacred at Odessa was incited by government agents. It would be altogether incredible as if were not that there have been occa sions where the dregs of the populace have been given to understand that of they engaged in the pastime of Jew baiting they would not be Inter fered with by the authorities. At Kishenoff two years ago the author ities were so supine as to leave no doubt of their complicity. It has been the domestic policy of the autocracy to divide to rule. It has stirred up race nga'.nst race and religion against religion as if fearing that, peace and harmony would en danger the govenment. In the Cau casus the Tartars were induced to at tack the Armenians. The troops re mained passive while the fighting went on. That tolerance of disorder led to the fearful destruction of property at Baku and the neighboring oil fields and the temporary paralysis of the petroleum Industry. Probably the direct loss is not less than $95,000,000. That is what the playing off of one race against another in one corner of the empire has cost. The autocracy has long been aware of the spread of socialist doctrines among the Jews, especially among those in the manufacturing towns of Poland. The Jewish Socialist union, or bund, is one of the large and un compromising socialist organizations in the empire. The autocracy has reasoned that whatever tended to lm bitter the relations between Jews and Christians would serve to keep the different organizations apart. The "programs," ns these raids on the Jews are called, serve also to keep the criminal classes in the cities quiet. They let the government alone when they have other game to pur sue. It is asserted, also, that on different occasions the same classes have been instigated by the police to fall on students and other "liberals.” They have called themselves "loyalists.” and in the name of loyalty have-at tacked respectable people who were petitioning for a liberty and reform. It Is a relief to read in the sicken ing tales of the massacres in the cities of southern Russia—tales which, it Is to be hoped, are exaggerated—that the Jews have begun to arm and defend themselves. They have long borne with wonderful meekness and patience the manifold outrages inflicted on them. As Dr. Hirsch says, they have given Christians a lesson in Christian ity. But "who would be free, them selves must strike the blow.” The Jews of Russia are taking the first step towards freedom by procuring arms and using them to defend their lives and property when attacked by mobs. —Chicago Tribune. Offends the New England Ear. Is there any way by which this un happy French word, chauffeur, which has been annexed to the vernacular, can be correctly pronounced by the general public? As it goes now. it Is accorded an infinite variety, the best of which is "chaffer.” Suppose, this being an easy one. it should be ac cepted as the "correct” name for the man who holds the wheel? It is a base corruption of the sprightly French language, but It would be bet ter than some or the mispronuncia tions now heard.—Boston Herald. Cat Had the Toothache. N. C. Yost, cashier of the Markle Bank, Hazleton, Is the owner of a handsome pet cat. which In the past few days gave indications of suffer ing intense pnin. Mr. Yost, who received the cat from a friend in the West, objected to hav ing it killed, and summoned a veteri nary surgeon. The veterinarian found that the cat was suffering from tooth ache. He extracted three bad teeth, and pussy is now purring in content ment. —Philadelphia Public Ledger. FORTRESS AND PRISON OF SCHLUSSELBURG. AMERICAN SOLDIER’S BRAVE DEED While Sitting Bull with his 5,000 warriors was engaged in the annihi lation of Gen. Custer and his devoted following of troopers. Major Reno's squadron of the Seventh cavalry was battling with a band of Sioux not many miles away in the country of the Little Big Horn. The "Custer massacre” overshadow ed all the other Indian fights which took place in that red month of June in the year IS7C, and thus It is that but little is known outside the circles of the army about the gallant fight which the unfortunate Reno and his men put up that day against the swarming hordes of savages. After it was known that Custer and his command had been killed there was criticism of Major Reno for not pushing forward to Custer’s as sistance. The major had been given orders to take another trail, and when he felt the shaft of criticism he de manded that a court of inquiry bo convened to pass upon his conduct. The court met. heard the evidence and found him blameless. Later in his army life Reno, a man of tried courage, committed indiscre tions which resulted in a court-mar tial and a sentence of dismissal from the army In which he had served in peace and in war for years. Sergt. Hanley’s Brave Act. There was an incident in connec tion with Reno's fight with the reds nearly thirty years ago, concerning which the only facts set down in army history are that for a specific act of gallantry on that field of battle Sergeant Richard P. Hanley was awarded a medal of honor. The non commissioned officer received his dec oration for riding a njule, a danger ous proceeding on that day of battle so precarious that neither Hanley nor his comrades believed when the ride began that it could end in any thing but death. Reno found himself confronted by a tremendous force of Indians. The fight that ensued was one of the fierc est ever fought on the plains. A charge made by a part of Reno’s com mand. a charge that literally led the troopers into the jaws of death, turn ed the tide of defeat, though a score of officers and men gave up their lives that victory might come. The men in Reno's command knew that they were a match for five times their number of savages, hut they were short of ammunition and every time that the Sioux were driven away they returned again to the assault and every assault cost the troopers dear in powder and lend. Stampeded Ammunition Mule. Finally all the ammunition in the outfit with the exception of that which the men carried in their belts was on the hack of a huge, bad-tempered Mis The Empire of Dollars. Wall Street is the capital of the Empire of Dollars. Like all other capitals, it has its intrigues, Its favor ites, Its duels, its cabals, and its ca marillas; and. like all other capitals, i it gives its color to those who spend i their lives there. It has even a sort i of patriotism -‘‘wolf honor” —which j brings its citizens together, at times. ' in defense of the dollar and of prop erty right. The Empire of Dollars is not al- | together a noble spectacle. We are j not thrilled at the mere thought of those Venice hankers who "financed” j the Crusades. We do not like to think of those Wall Street manipulators who tried to corner the gold supply during our Civil War. when the nat ion needed gold.—Samuel Merwin in Success Magazine. She Proved It. "That Mr. BHvins has a remarkably distorted vision?” "What makes you think so?" “Didn't you see him sitting in the street car coming home with all those ladies standing in the aisle?” “I saw him.” “Did you see how carefully he avoid ed looking up by concentrating his at tentlon on the daily paper?" "Yes, hut that doesn’t prove his vis ion is distorted, does it?” “I think it does. The paper was up side down.” —Cleveland Plain Deale*. Muskrat Caught by a Tin Box. A large muskrat, with its head fast in a rusty sardine box, was caught recently in the Susquehannu near the lower bridge at Milton. Pa. It was seen swimming around in f.hc river without apparent direction or purpose. It did not resemble any species of four legged animal known to the oldest inhabitant along the West Branch until It was caught snd the sardine can was removed from its head. Then it looked like any other big muskrat. souri mule chosen for the job of cart ridge carrier because of his prodigious proportions and his unflagging energy. The mule was witli the pack train to the right and rear of the squadron, which was lying along the edge of a wood with Its face toward the enemy. A Sioux warrior who was no sharp shooter sent a bullet which might have been aimed at the noonday sun. Probably before it came to earth it tore a fragment out of a cloud, hut on its way to the ground it “creased” the ammunition-hearing mule, which instantly broke loose and, maddened by pain and fright, went tearing through the wood, knock ing down a trooper who attempted to stay its course, and then nmde straight for the outlying masses of the enemy. When the flying mule had reached a point about a hundred yards dis tant from where the feathered heads of the reds were showing, it stopped short and forgetting its pain began to graze on the hunch grass. On the hack of that mule was the ammunition upon which depended the troopers* salvation. In order to reach the animal, any man bravo enough to make the attempt must needs cross an open plain swept by a thousand rifles. Ran Gantlet of Death. The officers consulted and a des perate plan for the recapture of the mule was under discussion. Sudden ly one of the enlisted men called at tention to a movement in the grass far over to the right. In a moment the head of a white man was Been. It was a trooper who was crawling slowly toward the stampeded animal. Word was passed swiftly down the line and volley after volley was di rected at the Sioux to keep their at tention away from the mule and fiom the soldier who was making his vay toward it. The trooper crawled t*n and on. He was close to the sav age line ami discovery meant deatn. He reached a point within twenty-five yards of the grazing animal, then suddenly he stood tip; bolted forward and vaulted on to the mule’s hack. Digging his spurs deep Into the ani mal’s side. Sergeant Hanley, for he was the trooper who dared the death to save the ammunition, started the animal hack on a run toward the squadron. There was wild yelling from a thousand red throats. Hun dreds of rifles were emptied at the mule and Us dauntless rider. Straight into the lines Hanley rode unhurt. He had taken one chance j in a thousand and had won out. I The army mule lived, hut It did not escape unscathed as did Hanley. As a man In the fight said afterward: I' “That mule came hack with ns much lead In its hide as it had in its pack.” —E. B. C. In Chicago Post. Knotty Question for Commission. A curious commission lias been sit ting at the French ministry of war It is to decide what kind of bed is to he provided for the soldiers of the French army. So far. the soldier's i bed has been a mattress laid upon i hoards or else canvas stretched on ! hoards like a particularly hard ham 1 mock. The fatherly M. Berteaux, wai minister, whose policy is to kill anti | militarism by kindness, proposes to ' give the soldier a spring under his I mattress. But what kind of spring? i And when that spring is chosen, what j kind of mattress will he best to go on the top of it? These he complicated questions, and a commission whose work is being carefully recorded was ' the least important body that could hope to answer them. It Is toiling j faithfully. Monkeys Helped to Build Railroad. I Some years ago a number of British • engineers employed monkeys to assist : the workmen in carrying material to a railway extension in Cape Colony. It appears that a score of monkeys j came regularly every morning to the line to watch the laborers at w'ork, i and the engineers in charge, rightly I believing that the imitative faculties I of .he creatures would render them useful in railway work, had them cap j tured. They were immediately put In training, and soon proved themselves ; invaluable as carriers. Coon Causes Drowning. Willie trying to recover from Clear | Creek. Redding. Cal., a coon his broth ; er shot. Bon Martinez, son of G. G. 1 Martinez, of French Gulch, became ; entangled in the roots of a tred be neath the surface of the water, could not relieve himself, and was drowned i while his brother and father searched in vain for him. A dog awakened the family and treed the coon in a ! tree on the creek bank. The boy was an expert swimmer, hut the roots I held him fast, until he was dead. THOROUGH TILLAGE FOR ARID LANDS By W. H. Olin. Profes of Agronomy Coll Regions having an : nl rainfall of loss than twenty and than eight inches are usually coi • : . <| as semi arid. To successful) :o\v crops in such regions requires refill study of soil and climatic < i ions, with a selection of crops as n adapted to these conditions as able. Even when all requirement seemingly met, a failure is sonn • the only re sult. Experience, and % pertinents al ready conducted ill n parts of our Nation’s semi-arid h< demonstrate thr.t the preparation - .»il reservoir of good depth sever; oaths before seeding, the thorough dime of this ground before and at "-ding, the selection of suitable \ i s of crops, the seed of which is wn under dry farming conditions. essentials which very largely <i mine success in farming lands in ( do where ir rigation can not he pi - d. The preparation of soil reservoir and seed hods calls fu ml plowing, harrowing and sub-si packing. 1. Plowing.—Jethi i ill nearly two centuries ago said “Ti is manure.” Roberts’ Fertility s; that .stirring and mixing the soil ;h-- one funda mental labor of agric . The object of plowing should b- pulverize the soil, making it possi) to prepare a good seed bed for tli :• <■< ption of the various farm seeds, TI depth to plow must depend upon th • me of plowing, the character of the .1 and the crop to he grown. Shallow plowing preferred for shallow soils underlaid by an inferior sub-soil lacking in pi food. Spring plowing for early cr- ; should not he as deep as fall plow for the same crops. Experiments 1. . . shown that deep plowing of stiff or clayey, adobe land in the spring tun. up uuworked or new soil in which i tof the plant food is not available mi account of the mechanical condition of the ground. Crops on lamds thus plowed often make an unfavorable growth. It is nearly al ways desirable to plow sandy and sandy loam soils deep, since the plant food contained in tli- soils is easily available and the deep plowing brings more plant food to the surface for the tender young plant to feed upon, giv ing it a sturdy growl h at the start. All deep plowing is best done in the summer or fall. This permits the weathering of the soil through the fall and winter, making its mechanical tex ture more desirable and the plant food available. Deep plowing assists water to percolate or pass through to lower depths. Hence it increases t lie water holding capacity of lie soil, a most important element in semi-arid farm ing. The deeper the plowing the greater the soil reservoir. Experiments conducted at the Cornell Experiment Station, New York, by Dr. Roberts, show that an acre of average soil in good tilth will hold twenty to twenty five per cent, of moisture and not he too moist for cultivation. It is esti mated that an acre of soil twelve inches deep will weigh 1.800 tons If it contains twenty per cent, of mois ture, 1,020 tons if it contains eight per cent, of moisture —ili<- amount upon which plants are able to grow and maintnin themselves. I)r. Roberts says that an inch of rainfall brings to each acre 112 7-10 tons of water. If this could nil he retained in average soil it would mean almost 7 2-5 per cent, moisture, nearly enough to maintain plant growth. Well fined soil Is ca pable of taking up two inches of rain fall in the first ttfoi of Hoil and still he in good eondi'tijj to cultivate. Sup -I*oßo that this soil is deeply plowed and contains liftmen per cent, mois ture; an inch or a two-inch rain would find the soil res- rvolr able to hold it. If this ground wore shallow plowed, say four Inches, an inch rain would sat urate the reservoir, while a two-inch rain would overflow the soil reservoir, causing a loss of water and severe washing away of the surface soil. Deep plowing, therefor* 1 , increases the stor age capacity of moisture in our soils from which the plant draws as it has need. Good plowing gives a clean-cut fur row on side and l»ottoin. It turns the inverted furrow slice upon edge in a j moderately well pulverized condition 1 with btit few air spaces at the bottom I edge of the furrow slice, A good coul- | ter lessens draft and aids in making j a clean-cut furrow. Disking the ground before plowing Is advantageous j hut increases the - xpensq of preparing , the seed bed. A seed bed from one to three inches deep can he prepared without plowing. The young plants may grow sturdily at first, but if thi ->ii Is not in a physi cal condition to store the moisture nec essary to dissolve the plant food and render it nvnilahl" for the growing plant, lack of nourishment will bring It to an untimely • nd and the crop will prove a failure. Very successful crops are grown tills way. when the moisture ! is supplied by ditch or sub-irrigation, hut it is always hazardous to attempt cropping without thorough tillage un-1 dor semi-arid conditions. A disc plow will often leave the soil In a good condition for the harrow when the ground is too hard for a mold hoard plow to do satisfactory work. The drier the ground the more narrow should be the furrow, whether the plow be a mold oi a disc plow. 2. —Harrowing the Ground. —Tlar ; rowing is the i-'oeess of stirring the soil by some form of a toothed or I circle knife implement. Its purpose is the pulverizing of the soil, reducing it , to finer tilth than the plow left It, , filling the incistices left by tin* plow j and thus leveling the soil. I believe that the spike toothed harrow is a superior implement for pulverizing after the plow. It should follow as j near after tic plow as possible so as to prevent loss of moisture by evnpo- 1 ration from tic newly plowed earth | and the formation of clods. Each half I day’s plowing should he 'harrowed that same half day in which it is plowed. Ground that is harrowed first lengthwise with the plowing will re tain its moist un- better, since it regu larly and even I > fills the interstices or openings at the bottom edge of each furrow slice. Always harrow lengthwise and later cross harrow if the ground is not in fine enough tilth for the seed. (Pound that is inclined to be cloddy should he worked with the disc harrow Instead of the spike tooth, double disking or half lapping length wise with the furrows. See that your disc is the proper size to do the most effective work in pulverizing the soil. A fourteen to sixteen-inch disc gener ally pulverizes lietter than an eighteen or twenty-inch disc, and the draft is correspondingly greater. Experiments seem to indicate that the smaller diameter disc s are better adapted for fanning conditions on the Colorado plains than the larger . diameter discs. Experiments conducted by experiment stations and by Mr. In the Agricultural College at Fort iins. H. W. Campbell of Lincoln. Nebraska, show that disking grain ground after the harvester prevents loss of moisture on stubble ground through too rapid evaporation, and pre pares the ground for the ready absorp tion of rain. 3. —Sub-Surface Packer. —This tool consists of a series of wedge faced wheels attached to a common axle. These wedge-faced disks are eighteen Inches in diameter and placed vert ically on the shaft six Inches apart. This machine is better than a smooth roller for a roller firms the surface soil with little or no effect upon the under or sub surface soil. The packer firms the soil In the lower portion of the furrow slice, restoring the capillarlety where plowing had ar rested it. This firmed undersurface soil is enabled to draw moisture from below and give good normal root de velopment. In case a sub-surface packer is not obtainable, a corrugated roller can be used. It firms the ground but not to the depth which the sub surface packer does. These packers should be followed by a smoothing har row to produce an earth mulch which shall arrest capillarity and thereby chock evaporation. A spike toothed harrow with lever attachments for regulating the angle of the teeth is a very satisfactory im plement for this purpose. 4. —Summer Culture. Fallowing Ground—leaving the land without *• crop for one or more seasons —was a common practice with the ancients. Dr. Roberts in his work on “Fertility of the Land,’’ says this was a neces sity for them. The imperfect tools then used made but a small proportion of the plant food in the soil available and the demands of the crops grown soon outran the obtainable plant food. Then the only method for renewal was to let the soil "weather out” enough plant food, with the decayed vegetable matter to sustain another crop. Some centuries later the French found that “manoeuverlng” the land—causing the particles of earth to change place by tillage—made it more productive. Experiments now show that Burner til lage in our semi-arid lands has an added value—lt conserves the moisture while it. renders more plant food avail able. Good results have been obtained In eastern Washington, eastern Oregon Utah and many sections of Colorado from summer culture of the land every other season. It has been found that in this way sufficient moisture can be stored from the year’s rainfall to ma ture a crop, in many localities. After the snows of winter have melted in the spring, plow the ground at least seven to eight inches deep. Level tliis down with the harrow and packer, following this process with a smoothing harrow, forming an earth mulch to check evaporation. This mulch should not be too fine ns the winds of the plains will tend to rift the soil, or blow the earth mulch en tirely away. If possible, stir the sur fact soil from two to four inches every ten to fifteen days throughout the sum mer. Allow no crust to form after summer nhowers, as this will increase the evaporation of the soil moisture. Keep the ground clean—free from weeds. If fall grain is to be sown it is ad visable to drill in the grain, as this In sures getting it below the earth mulch which is really a dry earth blanket used all summer to hold the moisture in the soil below. Get the seed into this moist under-soil where It can have the moisture so essential for germina tion. It is advisable to seed fall grain not later than the last week in Sep tember in the lower altitudes and noi later than the first week in September In tiie higher altitudes; better still, tli * third or last week In August. Ground that has been well cultivated for several years will produce two crops in succession and can be given summer culture the third year. In this way it is possible to grow two crops in three years. If a farmer expects to cultivate eighty acres he should divide it into two crop divisions—cropping > forty acres the first year and giving summer culture to the other forty acres.' This gives him a crop on one half of his land each year while he is storing up moisture in the soil reservoir of the other half to make tin* next year’s crop. Farmers in the southern part of Larimer county. Colorado, have been able to raise quite satisfactory wheat. I barley and forage crops by following this method of cropping. Mr. Geo. I). Porter. living at Akron, Colorado, near the center of the plains region, has used this method of crop ping, for a small area, for several years. He reported last fall, when he i seeded his winter wheat, a soil reser voir in which there was five feet of j moisture. Last season gave us an un j usual amount of rainfall but this sum mer culture has been practiced in some parts of California for more than forty years with satisfactory results. The writer knows of one section of California where it seldom rains from April to September, yet here some of the finest fruit and grain is grown. This region in California has tin ample supply of moisture in the rainy sea son—the winter months. This illus tration is simply given to show the value of the earth mulch in holding the moisture which is already In the soil reservoir. Mr. S. S. Peterman has a cherry orchard near Fort Collins that has never been Irrigated. He depends upon rainfall for his moisture iu a region that averages scarcely fifteen inches per annum. As soon in the spring as possible he cultivates his orchard and continues to stir the ground until the fruit sets. His trees bear fine flavored cherries In a satis factory quantity, while his orchard is the cleanest one in bis neighborhood. This orchard is eight years old, but has not jet weathered one of our “dry” years. Summer culture keeps the ground in good tilth, keeps down weeds, renders the plant food easily available for the next j’ear's crop, while it stores up th : moisture so necessary to the plant in assimilating its food. The following wash or paint for rough work, such as hen houses, lasts several years.. No more should be mixed than is used in a day: Stir into one gallon of whole milk about three pounds of Portland cement and add sufficient Venetian red to give a good color. Ami other color may be used. The milk holds the paint In suspension, but as the ct m< nt is heavier it will sink, so it is necessary to keep the mix ture w II stirred with a paddle. This feature of constant stirring makes it a job unsuited to untrustworthy help. Whole milk sets the cement better than skimim d. Six hours after paint ing, the coat becomes hard and very protective. FOUNDER OF THE YOUNG MEN’S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION DEAD aav. -as? .fr7/j:zd/Zs’ Sir George Williams, founder of the Young Men's Christian Association, who died Nov. B nt Ills home in London nt the nge of SI, had been frequently honored hy member.) of the organization throughout the world. ll*- was made the i.residlng officer at suveral i*f the International conventions und was an earnest worker In the cause uj> to thu time of Lis death. SPLENDID RECORD OF Y. M. C. A. Njw Great Power for Good Among the World’s Workers. Slxty-one years ago Mr. George Wil liams of Hitchcock. Williams & Co. London, and eleven other young men ln«l(J an informal meeting In a room In St. Paul’s church. They organized a Yig.ug Men's Christ bin Association “tot" improving the spiritual condition of young men engaged in the drapery at;d other trades.” Jlr. Williams was elected president of the little society. He Inaugurated a course of lectures, extended the or ganization to all parts of London, to alj parts of Great Brltlan, to all parts of Europe. It came to Boston In 1851 and spread to all parts of the United States. It grew amazingly In numbers and ill Influence. It was so great an or ganization on Its semi-centennial in 11*94 that Queen Victoria made its fuuader Sir George Williams. He re mained at the head of the British society until his death. Men have been knighted for achievements in military and public life, for services to the state or In the C-2.U30 of literature and science. George Williams was knighted be cause he founded and organized the Y. M. C. A. There are now 7.370 Y M. C. A. As soclations in the world. Of these 1.8j3 are in the United States. Can ada, and Mexico, having a member ship of 373.502, The American as sociations own property to the value of $20,200,000 and expend annually In their work $4,492,000. The little society or George Wil liams has grown into a groat inter national association working through nearly a million members. It has worked with the churches of all de nominations. has extended Its activ ities to every country in the world, and, while it has undoubtedly brought the several branches of thp Christian church closer together. Independent of its relation to the churches, the Y. M. C. A. has worked on lines laid out by the founders and. in the larger cities ami on the rail ways of all nations, on the merchant fleets of all the maritime powers, in the armies and in the navies of the great military powers, has pushed its active work to the benefit of mankind. Sir George Williams could look back over sixy one years and see tin growth of his corporal’s guard of 1811 to a great army of earnest crusaders. The Man and the Hour. Conditions In Russia sire ripe to-day for a great man. And by the same in scrutable law which has obtained al ways the great man Is on the spot. M. De Witte takes up the mighty burden of Russia’s woes as a giant might take up a hurt child, bind up its wounds and comfort it. Tin* new hero stands for humanity. All the moral force in the world is with him. Men may wonder that the most auto cratic ruler on earth should meekly submit to a man of the people, and that an oppressed, despairing nation should look up at his coming with new hope. But it has been the law through all the ages. Somehow, from somewhere, the man of the hour coines and triumphs.—Albany Times- Uulon. A Border Battlefield. Five skeletons have been unearthed on the Border battlefield of Halidon Hill during the plowing operations on the farm of Camphlll, which is situat ed on the site of the battlefield. An ancient vault has also been discov ered. Swords, cannon balls and other implements of war have been dug up of recent times, one sword bearing the Percy crest now being in posses sion of the duke of Northumberland. Edward 111 routed the Scots at Hali don, and won Berwlck-on-Tweed for England.—Weekly Scotsman. Huge Petition. The famous Chartist petition of 1848. presented by Feargus O'Connor to the British Parliament, was said to con tain no fewer than 5,700,000 signa tures. So hopeless seemed the task of counting these names that the Public Petitions Committee actually directed a clerk to take a yard measure, count the number of signatures in a yard, and then, by ascertaining the number o/ yards in the petition, make a rough calculation of the -.otai number of oameu. MEDICAL INSPECTION A FARCE. Much-Heralded New Plan Presents Few Advantages. The much-threatened medical In spection of flrst-clusH passengers ar riving at New* York by steamer did not prove very terrifying. To begin with, W. K. Vanderbilt and Mrs. Van derbilt escaped Inspection by the sim ple process of going ashore in a tpg before It began. Then It Is recorded that passengers who said they wore residents of this country passed quick ly. while foreigners, even the most important had to endure considerable questioning. The actual medical In spection appears to have bepn con ducted for the most part hy surgeons looking at the passengers while they stood in a strong light before the Im migration offit ials. In older and sim pler times the declaration of the ship's surgeon was (haunted of some value. Now, with tho courtesy which Is a notable characteristic of the treat ment of those who land in this coun try. It Is tacitly assumed that the sur geon Is not a man of character and that those who ere employed on laud must he. -Hartford, Conn., Times. CONSULS AS BUSINESS AGENTS. Kansan City Journal Points Out Flew in the System. Under the pre s .-nt arrangement a consular officer is a commercial agent pure and simple. When he Is expect ed to piece out his salary with agent's (ommlssions he usually secures tho agency for several American manu facturers and exporters and quite nat urally he devotes n ost of his time to his outside business When a consul on commissions lx asked to make an investigation in a certain direc tion for an American company in which there is little prom ise of substantial pay ho will not de vote as much serious attention to this business he will to selling ills own goods on commission. Tims the aver age consul is merely » foreign sales man doing business on his own ac count under tho guarantee of the United States. This is a good thing for some favored manufacturers and exporter.-, but it is exceedingly bad for others. -Kansas City Journal. TO ESCAPE DREAD PNEUMONIA. Freeh Air and Simple Living All That Is Necessary. The pneumonia season, which in those latitudes and especially along the lakes, lasts from early fall to early summer, fairly open, and for the next seven or eight months many peoplo will live in dread of a disease that is on the whole more easily prevented than most ills of the flesh to which mankind lias fallen heir. Fresh air is the deadly enemy of the pneumo nia germ. To exclude it from living, working and sleeping rooms is to invite an attack of tho disease by removing the most ef fective means of defense. In short, to escape pneumonia It is only neces sary, speaking in general, to avoid excesses of every kind and live sim ply, cleanlj* and rationally. If one can bring himself to make that by no means heavy sacrifice nature can bo depended upon to do the rest. —Cleve- land Plain Dealer. A Cougar's High Leap. Frank Parker came in last week from ills ranch In tho Coast Range, some thirty miles west of here. He informed us that a few nights before he left they heard considerable of a racket about the place and next morn ing found their house cat dead and also two goats. The animal leaped an eight-rail fence with a goat with out disturbing a rail. With the assistance of a neighbor and his dog the animal, which proved to be a cougar, was treed and killed. —Junction City Times. Public Baths for Dogs. Dresden has developed a curious Idea. The public baths of that city will shortly receive an addition that is probably without parallel. The new annex will consist exclusively of bath ing establishments for dogs, organized on the strictest lines of class distinc tion. The: will he first, second, and third-class, subdivided into swimming and single wash-baths. It is even gravely stated that there will be a hair-dressing department for caniu* customers.