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Agricultural Progress. The census of 1850 gave the number of farms at 1,449,073. In that year New York reported 170,621, the largest number of any state. Only two other states reported over 100,000. They were Ohio, with 143,807, and Pennsyl vania, with 127,577. In 1900 the aggre gate number of farms in the United States was 5,739,657, an increase in tit ty years of 4,290,584 farms. The same period witnessed an increase in na tional population of 23,191,876. In 1900 fifteen states reported over 200,- 000 farms each, as follows: Texas, 352,190; Missouri, 284,886; Ohio, 276,- 719; Illinois, 264,151; Kentucky. 234,- 667; Iowa, 228.622; Tennessee. 224,- 623; Pennsylvania, 224,248; Alabama. 223,220; Indiana, 221,897; Mississippi. ►220,803; Michigan, 203,261. The total increase in acreage has been from 293,000,000 acres in 1850 to 841,000,000 in 1900. The increase in value of farm prop erty during fifty years is shown by the following census reports: 1850, $3,967,- 000,000; 1860, $7,980,000,000; 1870, $8,944,000,000; 1880. $12,180,000,000; 1890, $16,082,000,000; 1900, $20,514,000,- 000. The average value per farm for each census year was as follows: 1850, $2,738; 1860, $3,904; 1870, $3,363: 1880, $3,038; 1890, $3,523; 1900, $3,574. In 1850 only eight states reported farm land to the value of $100,000,000 or over. In 1900 there were seven states each with farm land worth $800,000,000 or over. In 1850 little farm machinery was In use. Cast iron plows were about the only plows to be found on the farms. Grass was mowed with a scythe and grain was cut with the scythe, sickle or cradle. The threshing implement was the flail. Since that time almost innumerable farm implements have been patented. The value of all farm implements (including wagons and car riages) in 1850 was $151,000,000. By 1880 this value had increased to $406.- 000,000. In 1890 the value was $494,- 000,000, and in 1900 it was $761,000,- 000. The increased use of farm ma chinery has been largely the cause of the enormous increase in agricultural wealth. A Good Rotation. The rotation of crops has come to be regarded as one of the necessities of keeping up the condition of the farm. Where farm animals are not kept in considerable numbers, the growing of one crop is sure to reduce the fertility of the farm. Therefore the growing of several crops is advis able. One of* the best rotations for the general farmer in Illinois and like states is that consisting of corn, cow peas, wheat and clover. It always pays for the general farmer to have a few cows to assist him in the rotations of the crops by pasturing off the crops that can be pastured. With the rota tion above mentioned, the cow peas can be in the corn at the time of the last cultivation. These will make a good growth and being legumes will add to the soil a considerable portion of nitrogen. After the corn is harvest ed the cows can be turned into these peas which will still be green and can be fed ui>on them until the frost comes. Farmers that turn their cows in upon the corn stocks would find it safer to have a supply of cow pea foli age. that the animals may eat of both at the same time. Heavy losses have been occasioned by pasturing of the dry corn stocks. The cow peas may be turned under in the late fall or in spring and wheat sown. If the wheat is sown in the fall immediately after plowing the clover seed can be thrown upon the land at the end of winter, while the snow is still on the ground. If spring wheat is to be sown the clover can be sown with it. This will give a crop of corn, a crop of cow peas, a crop of w’heat and the next year following the wheat a crop of clover and clover seed. The clover sod can then be plowed under and corn again put on. This will keep the land rich in nitrogen and necessitates only an occasional buying of sorde form of phosphate. The Com Belt and Corn Roots. The corn belt is that section of the United States in which corn grows to great perfection and in which the yield per acre is very large. It is also that section of country in which the land is principally given up to the growing of corn. The deep rich soil is the cause of this. There are other parts of the country that have a rich soil, but that soil is not deep enough or of the right consistency to make the growing of corn a great interest. The corn plant is 'supposed to bp a surface feeder, and it is true that most of its roots are sent along the surface to the ground. But, in addi tion, a great number of roots pene trate the soil to a depth of three or even four feet. It is evident that on a thin, though rich, soil, this could not be the case. This possibility of deep ! rooting seems to be of great value to j the corn plant; just why we do not j know. It has been a surprise when ! corn plant roots have been followed | into the ground to find how deep they i have gone. Trenches have been dug to a depth of fou'r feet around a corn , plant and at a distance of four feet , from it on all sides. Then a great number of rods have been run through 1 the soil to keep the roots in place and the dirt has then been removed. The results have shown the corn plant to have filled all the big cube of earth with roots. The corn belt hao soil that permits of this kind of rooting, and this is why it is the corn belt. On such land drouth has to be- very severe to harm the corn, as it can draw moisture from far below the soil that is dried out. How much nourishment it can get from the depths We do not know, but it is prob able that in very dry weather much of its nourishment as well as its mois ture Is drawn from the lower strata of soil.—J. Y. Hudson, Illinois, in Farm ers’ Review. Cuban bloodhounds are now advo cated as a means of attacking the wolves and coyotes that prey upon the flocks of sheep on the western taages. HORTICULTURE Graces. As a popular fruit the grape stands next to the apple. When a man buys a package of apples or grapes he generally knows what he is getting. Grapes on the Chicago market are of a more uniform character than any other fruit. During the fall months baskets of grapes are sold by the thousands, daily, and almost always the buyers are •satisfied with them. This year they have been quite high from the consumers’ standpoint, this being due more to the fact that there has been a big demand for them than to any shortage of supplies. Grapes arc grown over a very wide range of latitude, and every year new vineyards are planted. It is now esti mated that the area in grapes Is in the neighborhood of half a million acres. California is the great grape grower, and that state grows about as many grapes as all the rest of the United States put together. The larg est single area planted to grapes is that known as the “Lake Shore Grape Belt” in New York and Ohio. This be gins at Brocton in New York, and ex tends to Sandusky in Ohio, and is limited on the north by Lake Erie. On the south it extends to Lake Chau tauqua. In this region nearly all of the farmers are engaged in the grow ing of grapes. The railroads are able to furnish the growers with the best of shipping facilities, and every day dur ing the grape-growing season whole train loads of grapes go east and west toward the great cities, where most of the grapes are consumed. At the present time there are hun dreds of varieties of grapes being grown in this country. They are. how ever, descended from four chief fami lies: Vitis labrusca, known also as the Fox grape; Vitis aestivalis (summer grape); Vitis cordifolia, sometimes called the Frost grape, and Vitis vlni fera, the kind generally grown in Eu rope. There are quite a number of other species, but none that have amounted to very much in cultivation. The entire grape growing industry has grown up in about 85 years. In 1820 no more than two varieties of the grapes now grown were known here. The greatest advance has been made w’ithin the past 50 years. Some of the new grapes have been produced by hybridization, but the most progress has been made by cultivating chance seedlings. Ia this way originated the Concord grape, the most famous and most valuable grape grown in the United States east of the Rocky moun tains. Cave Stored Fruit. A writer on the storage of apples for winter keeping says that tho digging of a cave for the winter storage of fruit is feasible and is often practiced In some parts of the country, but that certain things have to be carefully observed, to make the practice a success. The cave should lie dug in clean dirt and in a place that will receive no drainage and no seepage. Sand or gravel Is best of all. The cave should have a southern exposure, so that the frost line will be less deep. The top of the cellar should be just below the frost line. Little wood or vegetable matter should be present. No hay or straw is needed. The apples should not be piled too high or the lower ones will be bruised. Such a cave must be built so it can be entered at will. Pick Off Caterpillar Eggs. When the trees are bare is the time* to hunt the caterpillar eggs and re move them from the branches. If this can be done in December, it should be done at that time, because the days are mild, and a boy can climb about the tree tops without being exposed to the cold winds that will interfere with the work later in 'he winter. The ergs will be found in clusters or ring! about the twigs and smalle r branches. They are easily recognized, and cutting them out will prevent the appearance of the colonies next sp*. ing. The sooner the w’ork is done the more certain will the orchard owner be that the clusters of eggs will no: be for gotten. Next spring there will be a great many things to do, and it is very easy not to find time then for work of this kind. Laying Down Peach Trees. In some parts of the west the laying down of peach trees is being practiced on a considerable scale. A hole is dug around the tree and this hole is filled with water. This softens up the ground and the trees can then be bent at the roots. They are laid down till almost level with the ground. Some coarse material, like gunny sack ing. is thrown over them, and over this is piled the earth. In the spring, after the danger of hard .freezes is past, the trees are taken out of their protection. This must be done before growth starts. The trees, when right ed, have to be propped up and kept propped throughout the season. The results have been very good so far, and much Is hoped for from the ex periments carried on. How Much Clover Seed Per Acre. I It requires In the neighborhood of 15 pounds of clover seed to give the j best results in the sowing of land de- ; voted to the growing of clover only, i If it is to be seeded with a nurse crop, less clover seed will be needed. It is uspial to seed on the snow above the wheat field that is already green with the wheat sowed in the fall. In such a case eight pounds of clover seed should be enough. Color of Feed and Flesh. There is a popular superstition among breeders of fowls that if yellow corn is fed to them for a very long time it will produce a yellow color in the flesh. This has never been proved, and most of us will question if it is so. We know that the color of fowls depends large ly upon the breed. Most of the Euro pean birds have white flesh; most of the American birds, yellow flesh. If any of our readers believe that they have been able to effect a color of flesh by feed, we will be glad to hear from them. Poultry Increasing the Egg Yield. We have found it somewhat difficult to increase the egg yield per hen. though we have taken a great deal of pains in the matter. With Just a farm flock it is not possible to use some of the devices that can be used by the men that make a specialty of poultry raising and have men always at hand to do any kind of work required. There is the trap nest. It serves to show how many eggs a hen will lay and when she lays them, but it Is of no use to talk about using that kind of an arrangement on the farm, for the rea son that people are too busy to attend to it. We can’t keep the children at home from school to watch the hens and let them out of their prison when they have laid an egg. However, I am certain that the trap nests are only approximately correct. They only show what eggs the hens lay in the trap nests. I was visiting not long ago an establishment where they use trap nests. I asked the man ager what was done with the eggs that were dropped outside of the trap nests, and he said those did not count. Some hens will lay only in a certain nest, and when they cannot have ac cess' to that nest on account of soma other hen being there, they simply drop their eggs where they can. The trap nests increase the number of eggs dropped. It may bo that some of the hens that have failed to reach a certain standard laid their eggs else where than in the trap nests. I think the trap nests are a great help to the person that has enough leisure to look after them, but I do not think that they tell the whole story. On most of our farms nothing is done to increase the egg yield. I be lieve that the most practical method for us farmers to use is to employ egg bands and then make sure that we kill off all the fowls that have passed their most useful years and fill their places with young pullets Just in the prime of their laying ablJ- j ity. I also believe that we can in crease the egg yield by feeding less corn and coming nearer to a balanced ration. Union Co.. Ohio. Warren Wilson. 1. How Many Eggs Per Fowl? How many eggs should a fowl lav to make her profitable? I think on most of our farms the hen that lays 100 eggs a year pays for herself. I believe, however, that we should not be satisfied with hens that lay less' than 200 eggs a year, for we want to get reasonable pay for the labor we put upon them. At the present prices for eggs 100 eggs will bring at least j $2, and they have not cost more than $1. But there is another element that enters into the cost of eggs, and that is the number of fowls that are lost from various causes. It is possible to lose so many fowls while they are growing up that this will reduce the profits of the ones that live. Some men figure out that they are making a profit of a dollar a year off their ! fowls, but at the end of the year can I find no profit. They cannot under ! stand why, if ttielr birds arc making i them a profit of a dollar each, they should not have as many dollars in ' profits as they have birds. The fact is j that they had a large number of fowls I that were fed for from one month to | six months and then died. In some ' flocks the cholera appeared, and in others the roup was the devastator. In others skunks and cats reduced the size of the flock. It is the vanished cost of supporting these that reduced the profits on the eggs to about noth ing. The longer I take care of poul try the more I realize that success with fowls consists very largely In keeping them free from fat, lice auo dlseas* Mary Pickering, Elkhart County. Ind., in Farmers’ Review. Dry Bran Mash. I.ast summer in a visit to the Maine experiment station, the writer noticed that the fowls had a constant supply of bran. This was placed in a long trough that was fed by a hopper from above. As fast as this bran was eaten by the poultry a new supply worked down from above. It was only neces sary to keep this hopper full of bran and the filling need only be done once a week or at longer periods. The manager of the poultry department said that they used this instead of the ordinary wet bran mash. They be lieved that they received all the bene fits from this that they could from the ordinary wet bran mash. The poultry were permitted to eat as much of this as they wanted, and it Is cer tain that large quantities were con sumed. This system of feeding bran to poultry seems to be an admirable one. Bran is very rich in nitrogen. Just the element that is needed to balance up the corn. It is so light that there is rfo danger of the fowls eating more than they should. This relieves tho gizzard from doing the very large amount of work that is put upon it when grain is continually fed. Too much grain results in digestive trou bles before the end of winter. The bran mash greatly relieves this work, as it is in shape to be acted upon at once by the digestive Juices. —Farm- ers' Review. The Buff Color in Breeds. Some one asserts that the buff color in fowls shows a strong tendency to become lighter from generation to generation. We doubt if this ap plies to all fowls. The original Buff Cochins doubtless hold their color very well, but many of the newer breeds have white in their make up. that is, the ancestors of these buff birds have many of them been white birds, which will explain the tendency of the buff birds to change to white. It is probably true that the buff color will remain in the breed in which it has been the pre vailing color for centuries. Profitable 8ilage. Silage increases the carrying ca pacity of the land. Ordinarily, from two to three acres of blue grass are required to carry a 1,000- pound steer for six months, when gain ing from 300 to 400 pounds. Four 800- pound steers were fed for 150 days on the product of less than an acre of land, in the form of silage, and gained 886 pounds during that period.—Ten nessee Station. CHINESE LOVE FOR OPIUM FYom the recent report on “opium In the orient,” made by the United States Philippine commission, are taken the following paragraphs: “There seems to be in China neither a public opinion which i ontrols nor u national life which welds and con solidates a people. There is no Chi nese nation, there is merely a Chinese race. The family is the unit and the individual is of Importance only as part of that unit. Hence arises a kind of family selfishness, a desire to benefit tho family regardless of in jury done to others. This selfishness acts as a positive force in urging men to sell opium to others <>f a different family or clun. For it is no matter how many persons are debauched, provided only those of the debaucher’s family are not harmed but benefited.” The Chinaman justifies his wrong course "by saying thnt his first and only duty is to his family; that not only Is he not his brother's keeper, but that it is also his highest and par amount duty to benefit his family even though it be by destroying others morally and physically To him the injury of the many for the benefit of the few may be a righteous duty, pro vided only that the few are his fam ily.” “It may be said that all people crave a stimulant,” continues the report. “Bu* are there no other ravings com mon to mankind? Arc there not crav ings for amusement, cravings for food? And what people on earth arc g.» poorly provided with food as the WONDERFUL CAREER OF ROMAN The baby born on Sept. 23, 63 B. C., to Cains Octavius anti Attia. daughter of Julius Caesar’s sister Julia, was destined to perhaps the greatest ca reer ever filled by mortal man. Placed in the way of it through his being the grand-nephew of the great Julius, the youthful Caiua was nevertheless only second to him In the extraordi nary talent he manifested. More than that, the boy and man together make one of tln- most diffi cult problems the historian has to colve. As a youth and young man there is no more bloodthirsty tyrant on record than this same Cains Julius Caesar Octavianus. As a man of ma ture and aging years there is no ruler more merciful and clement than the Augustus he had then become. Which of the two was the real man it is impossible to decide. But that there is greatness behind the changes his character assumed, no one denies. It U in one of the most interesting episodes in history that this young man appears nt the beginning of bis career. His grand-uncle had taken him in hand and given him the best education, in the closet and in the field, the age admitted But Julius was basely assassinated in the inter ests of aggrandized wealth in 44 B. C., while the 19-year-old Octavius was in RUSES OF THE JAPANESE Maj -Gen. von Frobol, a German military export with the Russian army in the late war, writes of Jap am ruses: “In the middle of Feru ary last I was with Rennenkampf's cavalry on the extreme right of tho Russian army. A flag of truce arrived and handed in Several letters written in unex ceptionable Russian. One was to Gen. Rennenkampf. and contained a polite request that, since hosilitles did not appear to be imminent, he would allow his officers to meet the Japa nese cavalry officers at a picnic. Feb. 20 was proposed for this entertain ment, but the Japanese hosts were r>ady to put it off till a later date if mo'.* convenient. The proposed pic nic actually took place, and the Rus- K’an and Japanese officers met Feb. 21. To understand the point of this little Japanese joke it is necessary to r member that, the great Japanese offensive movement l>< gan on the 20th. but against the Russian extreme left —not the Russian right. Thus, while both sides were picnicking on the SPORT IN AFRICAN SWAMPS “As a pastime during tho evenings and nights my men and I fished for crocodiles with line and hook,” writes one who has hunted much In Africa “I had connected th* island with the right bank, also, b> means of trees cut down on the island and the bank. The trunks of the enormous trees and their Intertwined tops formed a kind of river-bar, above and below which gathered numerous reptiles. 1 had some shark hooks with me. 1 baited them with large pieces of meat. When ever I had a bite from an animal. I gave it a long line, about 150 feet of thin, strong rope. Then ten to twelve of my men pulled for all they were worth. an<l t!ragged the crocodile— often weighing 1,000 pounds—to the bank. While the saurian was beat ing the water with its tail, I killed it with a shot aimed ft a spot just be hind the head. The dying animal emitted a sickenin;-’ mell of musk. * I often caught six or more croco diles in one night. We hud to be very careful to keep out of the reach of the flexible and powerful tail of the ani- I FAMOUS MEALS AT WASHINGTON John Chamberlain, who kept the best restaurant American has ever known at Washington, induced Sen ator Mahone to try his hand at rais ing pigs for han;t- In Albemarle county the Senator bought 2,000 acres of land. This he had subdivided into tracts of 500 acr* s each. In one he p'anted clover, in the next nutmeg grass and in another goobers. In the summer he would turn his swine in on the clover; in September they fed on the roots of the nutmeg grass, and in October the bars were let down for raids on his peanut patch. All during the fattening period the pigs were given buttermilk to drink —no water. During December the hogs were killed. The sides and shoulders were sold to the Richmond market, John Chamberlain taking all the hams except those the Senate kept for private use. Chamberlain paid 75 cents a pound and a Mahone hotm steak was the chief article that constituted one of Chamberlain s fam indigent Chinese, or so destitute or amusement as all Chinese, both rich and poor. There are no outdoor games in China, nor, indeed, any games, ex cept in a gambling sense. Absolute dullness and dreariness seem to pre vail everywhere. As these two demons drive the Caucasian to drink, so they drive the Chinese to opium. As an individual may, by habitual toll and attention to business, become incapa ble of amusement, so a race of almost Incredible antiquity, which has toiled for millenniums, may likewise reach a point in its development where the faculty of being amused may have been atrophied and disappeared, so that all that remains of that desire U to spend pleasure in placidity. A.nd nothing contributes so much to this as opium. "In Formosa the merry Japanese l>oys are teaching the placid Chinese lads to play tennis, football, polo, vaulting and the like, with a view the Japanese teachers say—of improv ing them physically and also of de veloping in them a love of sports which will prevent them from wishing to spend their leisure indoors smok ing opium. And the poor who have no leisure? They often have no food or so little that any drug which removes first the pangs of hunger and later the healthy cravings of appetite seems a boon to them. Add to this the feel ing of peace and well being that often accompanies the smoking of opium and it is not difficult to sec why the Chinese use It." camp at Apollonia in lllyrlcum. Al ready a favorite with his soldiers, he declined their escort to Home, and pet forth alone. From the time of his landing in Italy there is nothing -more delicious in the annals of the nations than the manner in which this youth, after learning that he was heir to Julius Caesar's titles and fortune, compelled men and events to his will. His own mother wished him to deny himself the heirship, which seemed to mean death. Marc Antony had all of Caesar’s papers and property, and laughed at the boy who wished to have them. Brutus and the rest paid no attention to him whatever. Cicero expected to make use of him, and was flattering and somewhat condescending. This was in 44 B. C. In 31 B. C., thirten years later, there was no one in the world standing be tween Octavianus, only 32 years old, and universal dominion over the known earth. All his foes, his rivals, his patrons, had disappeared. He stood alone from that moment until his death on Aug. 19, 14 A. D., la command of more i>ower than any man in history had ever exerted up to that time —and it would he difficult to name one with more who has lived since. . I.iauho they were fighting at the Dal in pass. "At Mukden the staff interpreter had commnndered my Chinese serv -1 ant to assist him in translating the contents or a packet of letters which | had just been taken from the bodies of dead Japanese. From these letters it appeared that we had Nogi's army —or at least portions of It —in frottt of us. We were confirmed in this be lief by the Japanese themselves. Wo were fighting ut very close quarters ' and the Japanese constantly shouted to us in Russian that they had come from Port Arthur. ! "I was afterward taken prisoner, ( and during the whole period of my | captivity I remained under the im pression that we had been fighting Nogi's army. Judge of my astonish ; ment when at last, on my release. I procured a newspaper and found that Nogi's army had been fighting In all entirely different part of the theater of war, and that we had been engaged with a newly formed army, culled thu ‘ army of the Yalu!" mal. The stomachs of most of the reptiles contained bones of mammals and Ashes and also pieces of quartz, often as big as an apple, swallowed to aid digestion. In one animal I found a vulture which I had killed and thrown in to the river—the crocodilo han swallowed the bird whole. "One day, traversing one of the temporary lakes near the big swamps, | I noticed, not far ahead of me, a violent commotion in the water. My native companions took to their heels, screaming ‘Mamba! Mamba!' which means crocodile. The two animals that moved in my direction, the backs of which only emerged’ at times above the surface, appeared to be crocodiles. “Believing discretion to be the bet i ter part of valor, I found my men, who I could not be made to stop until they had reached the shore. I soon be came convinced that the animals were not crocodiles, but big snakes, i Wading back for some distance, I suc ceeded in killing throe pythons over twelve feet in length. They had been j after the eggs of the swamp birds." ous breakfast in the capital. For this meal one was served with some favorite fruit. Then came the ham —fried—with the gravy thick in the dish to be poured on hot boiled rice. With these were given beaten biscuit and wafTles and a pitcher of wild honey, and by the time one had finished he was quite ready and will ing to shut his eyes and give his soul up to the Master of all Blessings. When Chamberlain died. Hancock’s old place In Pennsylvania avenue at tempted to serve similar breakfasts. But the proprietor neither had the hams to cook nor a cook that knew how to treat such a delicacy. And so the morning meal which made Chamberlain's place famous has got to be a common, ordinary afTalr of grape fruit and eggs in the nation’s capital. Just as It has everywhere. Chamberlain’s chief cook was a negress—a former slave, born tpd reared in South Carolina. And He paid her SIO,OOO a year, too REPORT ON CANAL WORK OF DIRECTION OF PREPAR ATION AND SANITATION. ALIEN LABOR IS EMPLOYED Yellow Fever Extirpated—Seventeen Thousand Persons On the Pay Roll. Expenses $600,0C0 a Month. Washington -The report of the Isth mian Canal Commission for the year ending December 1. 1905. says: "The members of this commission decided, during their first trip to the isthmus, that it would be useless to hope for large and satisfactory results in canal work, either in quantity of ox cavation or in cost, until thorough preparation had been accomplished in several directions. The isthmus must be made healthy by thorough sanitation, proper quarters and food must be pro vided for employes and adequate ter minal facilities must he constructed for the prompt and economic handling of supplies and materials. It was de cided, therefore, to stop at /pee exca vation on a large scale unljf the pre paratory work was done. The commis sion realized that this was a radical change of policy, hut believed that it. would he approved when a full state ment should be made of existing con ditions and of tho difficulties to be overcome before canal construction could be undertaken in accordance with a comprehensive and systematic plan. "In order to make the isthmus a place fit to live In and to work in the the first essential was a thorough san itation. "Four thousand one hundred men are now employed in the sanitnr.v un dertaking. and so effective lias been this work that yellow fever has been virtually extirpated from the isthmus. "The force eipployed on the isthmus on November 15, 1905, was as follows: "In November, 1904, tlie commis sion’s employes on the Isthmus num bered 3,500. In November, 1905, they numbered, approximately, 17,000. Of these 11,300 were under tlie depart ment of construction and engineering, 2.C00 under the bureau of material and supplies, and 3,050 under the depart ment of government nnd sanitation. There were in tho local auditor’s office forty-six men nnd in the office of the disbursing officer twenty-one. "The question of labor is a grave and perplexing one. A sufficient supply of labor can be secured from near-by trop ical islands and countries, so far as numbers are concerned. The question of quality Is a very different matter. Unless a much greater efficiency can be developed than is secured at pres ent It will bo necessary to look else where for a better class. "Tho present wage varies from 80 cents to $1.04 per day in gold. As compared with the best common labor In tho United States Its efficiency is rated at from twenty-five to thirty three per cent. Over eighty per cent, of tho employes of the canal are now and will continue to be alien laborers. "A majority of tho other twenty per cent, employed will be In a clerical, a supervisory, or in some other capacity to which the various labor laws of the United States are not applicable. It is to tills kind of labor we are compelled to apply the eight hour law —that is. to aliens who know nothing of the law’s existence until they arrive on the Isth mus. Such application will Increase tlie labor cost of canal construction at least twenty-five per cent, and will add many millions unnecessarily to the total expenditure. "While this preparatory work has been in progress very little has been done in tlie way or actual excavation. Eleven steam shovels have been at dif ferent times in operation, however, in tile Culebra cut. which Is the largest single factor in the construction of tlie canal, and approximately 1,000,000 cu bic vards of material have been re moved. By this work two things are. being accomplished. First, the levels of tlie cut are being put In proper con dition for tho Installation of the largest number of machines which can he ef fectively operated, and, second, data is being gathered which will be useful in future estimates of the cost of cauul construction. -The pay roll on the isthmus at pres ent amounts to approximately $600,000 per month.’’ POSTOFFICE REPORT. Says Clerks’ Salaries Are Too Small and Discusses Post Cards. Washington—ln his annual report. First Assistant Postmaster General Hitchcock says the low salaries paid clerks in first anil second-class postof flees is decreasing the standard of ef ficiency. It is impossible, he says, to induce efficient men to enter this branch of the service when the salary to begin with is hut S6OO per year, with no certainty of promotion for perhaps several years. Nearly 11,000,000 pieces of mail wore received at the dead letter office during the year, including 1,068 that failed of delivery in the Panama canal zone. Over 1,500,000 cases of alleged inde cent and scurrilous matter received at tention. In the summer the influx of offen sive pictorial post cards became so great as to call for a special order by the de partment looking to the abatement of the nuisance. As a result of this order many thousands of objectionable cards have been withdrawn from the mails by postmasters and forwarded to the department for d«-st rueiioii. The Pope’s Jubilee. Rome. —Preparations are already go ing on to celebrate in 1908 the jubilee of the Pope’s ordination as a priest. Being asked if he wished the festivi ties to bo similar to those witnessed on the occasion of the priesthood Jubi lee of the late Pope Deo, when an in ternational exhibition was held In the Vatican, the Pope answered: "Cer tainly not. I wish the celebration to maintain a strictly religious charac ter.” Committees will be organized all over the world with the object of pre senting the Pope with large offerings during the Jubilee mass, which he will celebrate in St. Peter’s in the presence of pilgrims from all countries. "Get-Rich-Quick” Concerns. Chicago.—Clifton R. Woolridge, de tective sergeant in the office of chief of Police Cclllns. has issued an an nual r *port covering what he declares was his work of destroying frauds in Chicago in 1505. The detective terms as "get-rich-oulck’’ concerns most of the companies, corporations and firms he has prosecuted. He estimates in his report that the machinations of these alleged swindlers and swindling aggregations result annually in a net profit for them of approximately $150.- 000,000. Wool ridge's report came as a surprise to the police department SCHOOL COUNCIL MORE THAN A THOUSAND TEACH ERS ASSEMBLE IN DENVER. AT THIRTY-FIRST MEETING Address by President Jordan of Stan ford University—Receptions and Banquets —Study and Play. Denver—The thirty-first annual ses sion or the Colorado Teachers’ Asso ciation had a busy day Wednesday and before night more than a thousand members were registered, so that the great high school building where they met resembled a beehive at swarming time. On the day previous President Lewis C. Greenlee, superintendent of the Denver schools delivered his annual address to n large audience. His sub ject was "The School as a Moral Fac tor.” He said that Colorado holds an honornhle position among the states of the country whose public schools have for their basis broad, efficient anil hon orably effectual aims. Ho enumerated the various institutions of the state, and mentioned comparisons to show how well they rank, lie said $23.10 was spent in Colorado on tho educa tion of each of the 50,000 school chil dren between the ages of six and twenty one. An important meeting of tho Educa tional Council was held Tuesday. One of the principal features Wednesday was tho lecture of David Starr Jordan, president of Deland Stanford, Jr., University, on "Human Degeneration.” The speaker’s views are reassuring. He does not believe there is any such thing as race degen eracy, although there may he Individ ual degeneracy and local degeneracy. At the Hose of the lecture there was music, followed by an open parliament, the leaders being J. Raymond Brackett, of tho University of Colorado, who gave a talk on "The True Foundation for the Dove of Plastic Arts.” Henry Read, chairman of the Art Commission of tno city and County of Denver, talked ou the "Work of a Municipal Commission.” Edward D. Hale, dean of tlie Colorado School of Music, gave a talk on "Music as An Element In Personal Culture.” Joseph F. Daniels of the State Agricultural College dis cussed "Chalk.” At night at the Savoy hotel the mem bers of the State Normal School alumni had Its banquet, ninety-eight guests be ing seated at the ”E” shaped table. After the coffee, the president of the alumni, Charles Clark of Greeley, made a short speech, introducing C. A. Hol- Ungaheitd, president of the Denver branch of tlie alumni, who responded. Following was Z. X. Snyder, who was Introduced ns the president of the in stitution which had graduuted the men and women present. President Snyder announced that within the next two years the Statu Normal School at Greeley, Colorado, will have a capacity doubled and a $60,000 library building lAected. Tho board jf directors had decided to do nate the library, and that work on it would begin as hooii as the pluns have been accepted in February. "A wealthy business man of Colo rado," sniil Dr. Snyder at tho State Normal School banquet last evening, has agreed to donate another building, larger and liner than the present one, lo cost in the neighborhood of $200.- 000." The Denver Teachers* Club enter tained the visiting delegates to tho convention of the association at tho Woman' Club, at a inuslcale and dance. Misses Maud Dong, Bessie Bur dick. Anna Bradley. Damn Pratt. Iva Wright. Helen Hill, Maxine Brown. Bertha Stoole, Knapp and Arnold, and B. (!. Bud and A. E. Longfellow as sisted in tlie program, posed as living pictures under the direction «>f Charles M. Carter. The statue of David and Goliath, posed by Mr. Bud, was espe cially attractive. At 9:30 o’clock the guests wero taken to the banquet hall and refresh ments were served, and afterwards a dance was enjoyed. There wero about 500 teachers and tlielr friends present. The annual banquet of the Alumni Association of the University of Colo rado. which was held at the Brown Pal ace hotel Wednesday night was at tended by 150 students and friends of the Institution. Dean F. It. B. Hel lems was toastmaster, and the follow ing responses were made: "A Realistic Vision.” <>. J. Phelffer; "What tho Other Half Think,” Mrs P. F. Carney: “The College Man in Public Affairs.” Edwin Van Clso; “University Spirit Impersonated,” Sanford Bell: "Apllod Science,” Irving Hale; "Value Re ceived," John It. Bell. HIGH SCHOOL BURNED. Fort Morgan Suffers by Very Disas trous Fire. Denver. —A Fort Morgan dispatch yesterday says: The destruction of the Fort Morgan High school by firo early this morning has been the main topic of conversation on the streets to day The origin of the fire remains a mystery. It was discovered shortly after 1 o’clock by passersby returning from a party. The flames at that time were just visible near the south door. The firemen responded promptly and ti large number of volunteers among the people were also on the scene early, hut the start the flames had secured made It impossible to save tho building or Its contents, and the Fort Morgan school was, before 2:30 o’clock, com pletely in ruins. The building cost, nearly $30,000 anti the equipment about SB,OOO. In addi tion, nearly all of the books of the pupils were in the burned building and entirely destroyed, the teachers hav ing made it. a point to have the pupils leave their books at the school in or der that they might be entirely free during the Christmas vacation. Tho building was insured for $19,000. Large Manganese Contract. Deadvllle, Colo.—During the coming year Deadville will resume its place as an active shipper of manganese ore. A contract has just been made with the Illinois Steel Company for 20,000 tons from the Deadville district. Tho credit for securing this contract is duo to the persoverenoe and energy of Gen. George W. Cook of Denver, who has been persistent in season and out of season in seeking to find a market for the Deadville manganese. The manganese will be shipped from the Gray Eagle mine, now under the control of the Western Mining Com pany.