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MESSAGE TO CONGRESS President Deals with Some New and Important Subjects and He A1 o Recommends R'uch Legislation ASKS FOR INCOME AND INHERITANCE TAX Belierez Scch Legislation Is Constitutional anil That It Would the Growth of Fortunes (o Dangerous Proportions—Asks for Legiia tlon That Will Enable Govern sent to Appeal Criminal Cases in Prosecutions of the Trusts —Would Minimize Injunctions in Labor Troubles —His Views on the Negro Questioi—Promises a Special Message on Panama Canal —Cuban Intervention, Currency Re form and Many Other Su'jects Reviewed. Washington, Dec. 3.—President Roose velt’s message to the second session of the Fifty-ninth congress deals with a number of new and important subjects, chief of which Is the government prose cution of the trusts, the abuse of injunc tions in labor troubles, the negro ques tion, the preaching of class hatred between capital and labor, additional legis lation for the control of large corpora tions, a federal inheritance and income tax law and currency reform. The message opens witli a statement of what the last congress left unfinished, and of this he says: "I again 'ecoinmend a law prohibiting all corporations from contributing to the campaign expenses of any party. Such a bill has already past one house of con gress. I,ct individuals contribute as they desire; but let us prohibit in effective fashion all corporations from making contributions for any political purpose, directly or Indirectly. "Another bill which has Just past one house of the congress and which is ur gently necessary should be enacted into law Is that conferring upon the govern ment the right of appeal in criminal cases on questions or law. This right exists In many of the states; It exists in the District of Columbia by act of the congress. It Is of course not proposed thut In any case a verdict for the de fendant on the merits should be set aside. Recently In one district where the government had indicted certain per sons for conspiracy in connection with rebates, the court sustained the defend ant's demurrer; while In another Juris diction an indictment for conspiracy to obtain rebates has been sustained by the court, convicliona obtained under it. and two defendants sentenced to Impris onment. The two cases referred to may not be In real conflict with oach other, but it Is unfortunate that there should even be an apparent conflict. At pres ent there Is no way by which the gov ernment can cause such a conflict, when It occurs, to be solved by an appeul to a higher court; and the wheels of Justice are blocked without any real decision of the question. 1 cun not too strongly urge the passage of the bill in question. A failure to pass will result In seriously hampering the government In Its effort to obtain Just oe. especially against wealthy individuals or corporations who do wrong, and may also prevent the government from obtaining Justice for wageworkers who are -Pot themselves able effectively to contest a enne where the judgment of an Inferior court has been agulnst them. I have specifically In view a recent decision by a district i lodge leaving railway employees with out remedy for violation of a certain so called labor statute. It seems an absurd ity to permit a single district Judge, against what may be the Judgment o: the immense majority of Ills colleagues Prraldrat Ha—writ. on the bench, to declare a law solemnly enacted by the congress to be "uncon stitutional.” and then to deny to the government the right to have the su preme court definitely decide the ques tion.” Evasion by Technicalities. "In connection with this matter. I would like to call attention to the very unsat isfactory state of our criminal law. re sulting In large part from the hab’t of setting aaide the Judgments of inferior courts on technicalities absolutely un connected with the merits of tho case, and where there Is no attempt to show that there has been any failure of sub stantial Justice. It would be well to en act a law providing something to the > effect that: ”No Judgment shall be set aside or new trial granted In any cause, civil or crim inal. on the ground of misdirection of the jury or the Improper admission or re jection of evidence, or for error as to uny matter of pleading or procedure unless, in the opinion of the court to which the application is made, after an examina tion of the entire cause, It shall affirma tively appear that the error complained 01 has resulted in a miscarriage or Justice ” Injunctions. On the subject of the abolition of In junctions In labor disputes, he says: "In my last message I suggested the en actment of a law In connection wrtti the issuance of injunctions, attention hav ing been sharply drawn to the matter by the demand that the right of apply fng Injunctions In labor cases should be wholly abolished. It Is at least doubtful whether a law abolishing altogether the use of Injunctions In such cases would stand the test of the courts; in which case of course the legislation would be Ineffective. Moreover. I believe it would be wrong altogether to prohibit the use of injunctions. It is criminal to permit sympathy with criminals to weaken our hands In upholding the law; and If men seek to destroy life or property by mob violence there should be no Impairment of the power of the courts to deal with them In the most summary and effective way possible. But so far as possible the abuse of the power should be provided against by some such law as I advocated ,a "In s this matter of Injunctions there is lodged tn the hands of the Judiciary a necessary power which Is nevertheless subject to the possibility of grave abuse. It is a power that should be exercised with extreme care and should he sub ject to the Jealous scrutiny of all men, and condemnation should be meted out as much to the Judge who falls to use it boldly when necessary as to the Judge who uses It wantonly or oppressively. Of course, a Judge strong enough to he «t for his office will enjoin any s«iort to violence or Intimidation, especially by conspiracy, no matter what his opinion may be of the rights of the original quar rgi There must be eo hesitation In dealing with disorder. But there must •ikewlse be no such abuse of the In- I nctlve power as Is Implied In forbidding shoring men to strive for their own bet terment In peaceful and lawful ways; nor must the Injunction be used merely to aid some big corporation In carrying nut schemes for Its own aggrandisement. It mS«t be remembered that a prelim inary Injunction In a labor case. If granted without adequate proof (even when authority can be found to support the 'conclusions of law on which It Is rounded) may often settle the dispute between the parties; and therefore If Improperly granted may do irreparable wrong. Yet there are many judges who assume u matter-of-fact course granting of u preliminary injunction tn be the ordinary and proper Judicial disposition of such cases; and there have undoubt edly been flagrant wrongs committed by Judges In connection with labor dis putes even within the last few years, altho 1 think much less often than In former years. Much judges by their un wise rc' lon immensely strengthen the bauds those who are striving entirely to do away with the power of Injunction; and therefore such careless use of tho injunctive process tends to threaten its very existence, for If the American peo ple ever become convinced that this process Is habitually übused, whether in matters affecting labor or in matters af fecting corporations. It will be well-nigh impossible to prevent Its abolition.” The Negro Problem. The negro problem Is given considera ble attention, after calling attention to the fact that no section of the country is free from faults, and that no section has occasion to Jeer at the shortcomings of any other section, lie turns to the sub ject of lynchings. and especially as ap plied to the negro of the south. He says the greatest existing cause for mob law Is the perpetration by the blacks of the crime of rape, a crime which be terms even worse than murder. He quotes the admonitions to the white people spoken by Gov. Candler, of Georgia, some years ago, and by Gov. Jelks, of Alabama, re cently, and then saya: •‘Every colored man should realise that the worst enemy of his race Is the negro criminal, and above all the ne gro criminal who commits the dread ful crime of rape; and It should be felt as In the highest degree an offense against the whole country, and ngalnst the colored race in particular, for a colored man to fall to help the officers of the law in hunting down with all possible earnestness and real every such Infamous offender. Moreover. In my Judgment, the crime of rape should always be punished with death, as Is the case with murder; assault with In tent to commit rape should be made a capital crime, at least in the discretion of the court; and provision should he made by which the punishment muy follow Immediately upon the heels of the offence; while the trial should he so conducted that the victim need not he wantonly shamed while giving tes timony. and that the least possible publicity shall he given to the details. The members of the white race on the other hand should understand that every lynching represents by Just so much a loosening of the hands of civ ilization; thnt tiie spirit of lynching inevitably throws into prominence in the community all the foul and evil ■reatures who dwell therein. No man •an take part In the torture of a hu man being without having his own noral nature permanently lowered. Every lynching means just so much moral deterioration in all the children who have any knowledge of It. and therefore Just so much additional trouble for the next generation of Americans. “I.et Justice l>e both sure and swift; but let It he Justice under the law. and not the wild and crooked savagery of a mob. Need for Negro Education. “There Is another matter which lias a direct bearing upon this matter of lynching and of the brutal crime which sometimes calls It forth and at other times merely furnishes the excuse for its existence. It is out of the question for our people ns a whole permanently to rise by treading down any of their own number. Even those who them selves for the moment profit by such maltreatment of their fellows will in the long run also suffer. No more shortsighted policy can he imagined than, in the fancied Interest of one da;#, to prevent the education of an other class. The free public school, the chance for each boy or girl to get a good elementary education, lies at the foundation of our whole political situ ation. In every community the poor est citizens, those who need the schools most, would he deprived of them If they only received ' school facilities proportionately to the taxes they paid. This is as true of one portion of our country as of another. It Is us true for the negro as for the white man. The white man. If he Is wise, will de cline to allow the negroes In a mass to grow to manhood and womanhood without education. Unquestionably ed ucation such as Is obtained In our pub lic schools docs not do everything to wards making a man a good citizen; but it does much. The lowest and most brutal criminals, those for instance who commit the crime of rape, are In the great majority men who have had cither no education or very title; Just as they are almost Invariably men who own no property; for the man who puts money by out of his earnings, like the man who acquires education, is usually lifted above mere brutal criminality. Of course the best type of education for the colored man. ta ken as a whole. Is such education as is conferred In schools like Hampton and Tuskegee; where tho boys and girls, the young men and young wo men. are trained industrially as well as In the ordinary public school branches. The graduates of these schools turn out well In the great ma jority of cases, and hardly any of them become criminals, while what little criminality there is never takes the form of that brutal violence which In vites lynch law. Every graduate of these schools —and for the matter of that every oher colored man or wo man—who leads a life so useful and honorable as to win the good will and respect of those whites whose neigh bor he or she Is. thereby helps the while colored race us It can he helped in no other way; for next to the negro hlmseif. the man who can do most to help the negro Is his white neighbor who lives near him; and our steady effort should he to better the relations between the two. Great tho the bene fit of these schools has been to their colored pupils and to the colored peo ple. it may well be questioned whether the benefit lias not been at least as great to the white people among whom these colored pupils live uftc** they graduate.” Capital and Labor. On the subject of capital ami lal»or the president takes the agitators of class hatred to task and says "to preach hatred to the rich man. as such. . . . to seek to mislead and inflame to mad ness honest men whose lives are hard ami who have not the kind of mental training which will permit them to ap preciate the danger in the doctrines preached Is to commit a crime ugalnst the body politic and to be false to every worthy principle and tradition of Amer ican national life." Continuing on this subject he says: "The plain people who thlnk'-the mechanics, farmers, merchants, work ers with head or hand, the men to whom American traditions are dear, who love their country and try to act decently by their neighbors, owe It to themselves to remember that the most damaging blow that can be given pop ular government Is to elect an un worthy and sinister agitator on a platform of violence and hypocrisy, whenever such an Issue Is raised In this country nothing can be gained by flinching from It. for In such case dem ocracy Ts Itself on trial, popular self government under republican forms Is Itself on trial. The triumph of the mob Is Just as evil a thing ns the tri umph of tho plutocracy, and to have escaped on* danger avails nothing whatever If we sucuumb to the other. In the end the honest man.whether rich or poor, who earns his own living and tries to deal justly by his fellows, has as much to fear from the Insincere and unworthy demagog. promising much and performing nothing, or else performing nothing hut evil, who would set on the mob to plunder the rich, ns from the crafty corruptionist, who. for Ills own ends, would permit the common people to ho exploited by tho very wealthy. If we ever let this government fall Into the hands of men of either of these two classes, we shall show ourselves false to America's past. Moreover, the demagog and corrup tionist often work hand in hutid. There are at this moment wealthy reaction aries of such obtuse morality that they regard the public servant who prose cutes them when they violate the law. or who seeks to mnke them hear their E roper share of the public burdens, as elng even more objectloiiuble than the violent agitator who hounds on the mob to plunder the rich. There Is nothing to choose between such a re actionary and such an agitator; funda mentally they are alike In their selHsh disregard of the rights of others: und It Is natural that they should Join In opposition to any movement of which the aim is fearlessly to do exact und even Justice to all.” Railroad Employees' Hours. He asks for the passing of the bill lim iting the number of hours of employment of railroad employes, and classes the measure as a very moderate one. He says the aim of all should he to steadily reduce the number of hours of labor, with as a goal the general in troduction of an eight-hour day, but in sists that oil the Isthmus of Panama the conditions are so different from what they are here that the Introduction of an eight-hour day on the canal would he absurd, und continues. "Just about as ab surd us it is. so far as the isthmus is concerned, where white labor cannot be employed, to bother as to whether the work is done by ullen black men or alien yellow men.” Investigation of Disputes. He urges the enactment of a drastic child labor law for the District of Co lumbia and the territories, and a federal Investigation of the suhjeet of child and female labor throughout the country. He reviews the work of the commission appointed to Investigate labor conditions In the coal Helds of Pennsylvania In 1902. and refers to the wish of the commission "that the state and federal governments should provide the machinery for what may be called the compulsory Investiga tion of controversies between employers and employes when they arise.” After referring to the fact thut a hill has al ready been Introduced to this end he says: "Many of these strikes and lockouts would not have occurred had the parties to the dispute been required to uppear heforo an unprejudiced body representing the nation and. face to face, state the reasons for their contention. In most instances the dispute would doubtless he found to he due to a misunderstanding by each of the other's rights, aggravated by an unwillingness of either party to ac cept as true the statements of the other as to the Justice or Injustice of the mat ters In dispute. The exercise ot a ju dicial spirit by a disinterested body representing tho federal government, such as would be provided by a commis sion on conciliation and arbitration would tend to create an atmosphere of friendliness and conciliation between con tending parties; and the giving each side an equal opportunity to present fully its case In tho presence of the other would prevent many disputes from developing Into serious strikes or lockouts, and In other cases, would enable the commis sion to persuade the opposing parties to come to terms. "In this age of great corporate and la bor combinations, neither employers nor employees should be left completely at the mercy of the stronger party to a dis pute, regardless of the righteousness of their respective claims. The proposed measure would be in the line of securing recognition of the fact that In many strikes the public has Itself an Interest which cannot wisely he disregarded; an Interest not merely of general conven ience. for the question of a Just and proper public policy must also be con sidered. In all legislation of this kind it is well to advance cautiously, testing each step by the actual results; the step proposed can surely be safely taken, for the decisions of the commission would not hind the parties In legal fashion, and f-et would give a chance for public onln on to exert Its full force for the right.” Control of Corporations. A considerable portion of the message is devoted to the subject of federal con trol of corporations in what he refers to the passage at the last session of the ratp. meat Inspection and food laws, and says that all of these have already Justi fied their enactment, hut recommends the amendment of the meat Inspection law so as to put dates on tiie labels of meat products, and also to place the cost of Inspection on the packers rather than on the government. Continuing on this subject of the control of corporations by tiie federal government he says: "It cannot too often he repeated that ex perience has conclusively shown the Im possibility of securing by the actions of nearly half a hundred different state legislatures anything hut Ineffective chaos in the way of dealing with the great corporations which do not operate exclusively within the limits of any one state. In some method, whether by a national license law or In other fashion, we must exercise, ami that at an early date, a far more complete control than at present over these great corpora tions—a control that will among ott »*- things prevent the evils of excessive overcapitalization, and that will compel the disclosures by each big corporation of Its stockholders and of Its properties and business, whether owned directly or thru subsidiary or afllllated corporation*. This will tend to put a stop to the secur ing of Inordinate profits by favored individuals at the expense whether of the general public, the stockholders, or the wageworkers. Our effort should he not so much to prevent consolidation as such, hut so to supervise and control It ns to see that It results In no harm to the people. The reactionary or ultracon servative apologists for the misuse of wealth assail the effort to secure such control as a step toward socialism. As a matter of fact It is these reactionaries und ultraconservatives who are them selves most potent In Increasing socialis tic feeling. One of the most efficient methods of averting the consequences of a dangerous agitation, which I* *0 per cent, wrong. Is to remedy the 20 per cent, of evil as to which the agitation Is well founded. The best way to avert the very undesirable move for the governmental ownership of railways Is to secure by the government on behalf of the people as a whole such adequate control and regulation of the great Interstate com mon carriers as will do away with the evils which give rise to the agitation against them. So the proper antidote to the dangerous and wicked agitation against the men of wealth as such Is to secure by proper legislation and execu tive action the abolition of the grave abuses which actually do obtain In con nection with the business use of wealth under our present system—or rather no system—of failure to exercise any ade quate control at all. Some persons speak as If the exercise of such governmental control would do away with the freedom of individual initiative and dwarf Indi vidual effort. This Is not a fact. It would be a veritable calamity to fall to put a premium upon Individual Initiative, individual capacity and effort: upon the energy character and foresight which It Is so Important to encourage In the individual. But as a matter of fact the deadening and degrading effect of pure socialism, and especially of Its extreme form communism, and the destruction or Individual character which they would bring about, are In part achieved by the wholly unregulated competition which results In a single Individual or corpor ation rising at the expense of all others until his or Its rise effectually checks all competition and reduces former competi tors to a position of utter Inferiority and subordination. . ... "In enacting and enforcing such legis lation as this congress already has to Its credit, we are working on a coherent plan, with the steady endeavor to secure the needed reform by the Joint action of the moderate men. the plain men who do not wish anything hysterical or dangerous, hut who do Intend to deal In resolute commonsense fashion With the real and great evils of the present system The reactionaries and the vio lent extremists show symptoms of join ing hands against us. Both assert, for Instance, that if logical, we should go to government ownership of railroads and the like; the reactionaries, becuuge on such an issue they think the would stand with them, while the ex tremists care rather to preach discontent and agitation than to achieve solid re sults. As a matter of fact, our position Is as remote from that of the bourbon reactionary as from that of the imprac ticable or sinister visionary. We hold that the government should not conduct the business of the nation, hut that It should exercise such supervision as will Insure its being conducted In the Inter est of the nation. Our aim Is. so far as may he. to secure, for all decent, hard working men. equality of opportunity and equality of burden. Combinations Aro Necessary. "The actual working of our laws has shown that the effort to prohibit all com blnatlon. «™kl or had. i, , where It is not ineffective. Combination of capital like combination *.r labor is a necessary element or om | : ••sent Indus trial system. It Is not pn.s ;i,i,. completely to prevent It; and ir n w. re possible, such complete prevention w.*ul«| do dam age to the body politic it we need is not vainly to prevent u omhinatlon. hut to secure such rlgoroi mid adequate control and supervision ..i the combina tions as to prevent tn- injuring the public, or existing In sm i t..im us Inev itably to threaten Injury i.>i- tiie mere fact that a combination ias secured practically complete conn l of a neces sary of life would unde- any circum stances show that such . n i.ination was to he presumed to be ad vers.- to the pub lie Inleri-it. H i. unfo,' that oi.r firesent laws should form- 1 ill eombina ions. Instead of sharply discriminating between those coinblnui .ms which do evil. Rebates, for Inatan* • are as often duo to the pressure of I>i ; shippers (as was shown In the Investigation of the Standard Oil company and ns lias been shown since by the Inyesi gallon of the tobacco und sugar trust.- <s to the Initi ative of big railroads. 1 ■ n railroads would like to combine foi the purpose of preventing a big shipper -nun maintain ing Improper advantage.- i the expense of small snippers and of n *• general pub lic Such a combination, instead of being forbidden by law. should be favored. In other words. It should l.e permitted to railroads to make agree, -nts. provided these agreements were sm. tinned by the interstate commerce commission and were published. With these two condi tions compiled with It - impossible to see what harm such a continuation could do to the public at largo it is a public evil to have on the statute hooks a law Incapable of full enfor* • tent because both Judges and Juries i •. I ir.- that Its full enforcement would U • tr.»> the busi ness of the country; for *• .*• result Is to make decent railroad men violators of the law against their Wil! and to put a premium on the behavior ..i the wilful wrongdoer*. Such a result m turn tends to throw the decent man .uni the wilful wrongdoer Into close asm at ion. and In the end to drag down the former to the latter's level; for the man who becomes a lawbreaker In one way unhappily tends to lose all respect for law and to he willing to break It In many ways. No more scathing condemn at n could be visited upon a law than >- contained In the words of the Interstate commerce commission when. In commenting upon the fact that the numerous joint traffic associations do technical.. violate the law. they say: "The de. ision of the I'lilted States supreme <>urt in the Transmlssisslppl case and the Joint Traffic association case has produced no practical effect upon the railway opera tions of the country. 8m I. associations, in fact, exist now as they did before these decisions, and with the same gen eral effect. In Justice to all parties. w« ought probably to add that it is difficult to see how our Interstate lailways could be operated with due regard to the Inter est of the shipper and tho railway without concerted action of the kind af forded thru these assoclaiions.” This means that the law. as construed by tho supreme court Is such that the business of the country • an not he con ducted without breaking It I recommend that you give careful and early consider ation to tills subject, and if you find the opinion of the Interstate commerce com mission Justified, that you amend the law so as to obviate the <■ il disclosed. Inheritance and Income Tax. It was expected that tin.* president would refer in some way to his belief in the necessity for the curbing of enor mous fortunes, and he has done so by recommending legislation for both In come and an Inheritance tax. He be lieves the government should impose a graduated Inheritance tax. and. If possi ble. a graduated Income tax He says: "I uin well aware that such u. subject as this needs long and careful study in order that the people may become famil iar with what Is propose.! to be done, may clearly see the necessity of proceed ing with wisdom and self restraint, and inuy make up their minds Just how far they are willing to go In the matter; while only trained legislators can work out the project In necessary detail. Hut I feel that In the near future our nation al legislators should enact a law provid ing for u graduated Inheritance tax by which u steadily Increasing rate of duty should he put upon all moneys or oilier valuables coining by gift, bequest, or devise to any Individual or corporation. It may be well to make the tax heavy In proportion as the Individual benefited Is remote of kin. In any event. In my judgment the pro rata of the tax should increuse very heavily with the Increase of the amount left to any one Individual after a certain point has been reached. It Is most desirable to en< ourage thrift and ambition, and a potent source of thrift and ambition Is the desire on the part of the breadwinner to. leave his chil dren well off. This object can be attained by making the tax very small on moder ate amounts of property left; because the prime object should he to put a con stantly Increasing burden on the Inher itance of tlmsA swollen fortunes which it Is certainly of no benefit to this coun try to perpetuate. There ran be no question of the eth ical propriety of the government thus de termining the conditions upon which any gift or Inheritance should be received Exactly how fur the Inheritance tux would, a* an Incident, have tho effect of limiting the transm *moii by devise or f;lft or the enormous fortunes In question l is not necessary ai present to discus* It is wise that progre-s In this direction should tie gradual. At Hrst a permanent national Inheritance tax. while It might be more substantial than any such tax has hitherto been, need not approximate, either In amount or in the extent of the Increase by graduation, to what such a tax should ultimately be. Inheritance Tax Constitutional. "This species of tax lias again and again been imposed, altho only temporarily, by the national government. It was first imposed by the act of July 6. 1797, when the makers of the « onstltutlon were alive and at the head of affairs. It was a graduated tax; tho -mall In amount, the rate was Increased with the amount left to any Individual, exceptions being made In the case of certain close kin. A similar tax was again Imposed by the act of July 1. 1662; a minimum sum of SI,OOO In personal property being excepted from taxation, the tux then becoming progressive according to the remoteness of kin. The war-revenue act of June 13. 1898. provided for an Inheritance tax on any sum exceeding the v *lue of SIO,OOO. the rate of tax Increasing both In accord ance with the amounts left and In ac cordance with the legatee’s remoteness of kin. The supreme court has held that the succession tax Imposed at the time of the civil war was not a direct tax but an Impose of excise which was both con stitutional and valid. More recently the court. In an opinion delivered by Mr Justice White, which contained an ex ceedingly able und elaborate discussion of the powers of the congress to Impose death duties, sustained the constitution ality of the Inheritance tax feature of the war-revenue act of IS3F. Is Income Tax Constitutional? "In Its Incidents, and apart from the main purpose of raising revenue. an income tax stands on an entirely differ ent footing from an inheritance tax. be cause It Involve* no question of the per- Ketuatlon of fortunes swollen to an un ealthy size. The question Is in Its essence a question of the proper adjust ment of burdens to beneflts. As the law now stands it is undoubtedly diffi cult to devise a national income tax which Shall be constitutional. Rut whether It is absolutely impossible Is an other question; and If possible It Is most certainly desirable. The Hrst purely in come tax law was past by the congress In 1861. but the most important law deal ing with the subject was that of 1881. This the court held to bo unconstltu *'"The question la undoubtedly very In tricate delicate, and troublesome. The decision of the court was only reached by one majority. It Is the law of the land. and. of course, is excepted as such and loyally obeyed by all good citizens. Nevertheless, the hesitation evidently felt by the’eourt as a whole in coming to a conclusion, when considered to gether with the previous decisions on the subject, may perhaps indicate-the possibility of devising a constitutional Income-tax law which Bub"tan tially acccompllsh the results aimed at. The difficulty of amending the con stitution Is so great that only real ne cessity can Justify a re *? rt 1 thereto. Every effort should be made In dealing with this subject, as with the subject of the proper control by the national government over the use of corporate wealth In interstate business, to devise legislation which without such action shall attain the desired end. but If this falls, there will ultimately be no al ternative to a constitutional amend mHe' makes a strong pica for technical and industrial education for the masses, and while the federal government cando but little In this line, he Ml* tbat schools of this character be established In the District of Columbia as an ex ample to the various states. Agricultural Interests. He appeals for every encouragement that the congress can give to the agri cultural Interests of the country. He points to the good that Is being done by the various forms of grange organiza tions. and says: "Several factors must cooperate In the improvement of the farmer s condition. He must have the chance to be educated in the widest possible sense—ln the sense which keeps ever In view the intimate relationship between the theory of edu cation and the fuels of life. In ull education we should widen our alms. It is a good tldnie to produce u certain num ber of trained scholars and students; but the education superintended by the state must seek rather to produce a hun dred good citizens than merely one scholar, and it must be turned now and then from the class book to the study of the great book of nature itself. This is especially true of the farmer, us has been pointed out again nml again by all observers most competent to pass prac tical Judgment on the problems of our country life. All students now realize that education must seek to train the executive powers of young people and to confer more real slgnltli-ance upon the phrase "dignity of labor.” and to pre pare the pupils so that in addition to each developing in the highest degree Ids individual cupuelty for work, they may together help ereate u right publlr opinion, and show In many ways social and cooperative spirit. Organization has become necessary In the business world; and it has accomplished much for good In the world of labor. It Is no less neces sary for farmers. Such a movement us the grunge movement is good In Itself and is capable of u well-nigh Intlnite fur ther extension for good so long as It Is kept to Its own legitimate business. The henellts to l>e derived by the association of farmers for mutual advantage are partly economic and partly sociological. * Moreover, while In the long run volun tary effort will prove more elllcaclons than government assistance, while the farmers must primarily do most for themselves, yet the government can also do much. The department of agriculture has broken new ground in many direc tions. and year by year It finds how it ••an Improve Its methods and develop fresh usefulness. Its constant efTort Im to give the governmental assistance in the most effective way; that la, thru as sociations of farmers rather than to or thru individual farmers. It is also striv ing to coordinate its work with the agri cultural departments of the several stutes. and so far as Its own work Is educational, to coordinate It with the work of other educational authorities. Agricultural education Is necessarily based upon general education, but our agricultural educational Institutions are wisely specializing themselves, making their course relate to the actual teaching of the agricultural and kindred sciences to young country people or young city people who wish to live In the country. "Great progress lias already been made among furmers by the creation of farmers' Institutes, of dairy associa tions. of breeders' associations, horti cultural associations, unit the like. A striking example of how the govern ment and the fanners can cooperate Is shown in connection with the menace offered to the cotton growers of the southern states by the advance of the boll weevil. The department is doing all It can to organize the farmers In the threatened districts. Just as It has been doing all It can to organise them In aid of Its work to eradicate the cat tle fever tick In the south. The depart ment can and will cooperate with all such associations, and It must have their help If Its own work Is to be done In the most efficient style.” lie urges the extension of the irriga tion and forest preservation system, and asks for on appropriation for building a memorial theater at Arlington. Marriage and Divorce. As a means of bringing about national regulation of marriage and divorce he suggests a constitutional amendment, ami says It Is not safe to leave these ques tions to he dealt with by the various states. Continuing on this subject he says: When home ties are loosened, when men and women cease to regard a worthy family life, with all Its duties fully performed, and all its responsi bilities lived up to. as the life lx »t worth living: then evil days for the commonwealth are at hand. There are regions In our land, and classes of our population, where the birth rate has sunk below the death rate. Hurely It should need no demonstration to show that wilful sterility Is. from the standpoint of the nation, from me standpoint of the human race, the on** sin for which the penalty Is national death, race death; a sin for which there Is no atonement; a sin which is the more dreadful exactly In propor tion as the men and women guilty thereof are In other respects, in char acter. and bodily and mental powers, those whom for the sake of the state It would be well to see the fathers and mothers of many healthy children well brought up In homes inude happy by their presence No niun. no womnn. can shirk the primary dntieH of life, whether for love of ease and pleasure, or for any other cause und r« tain hl» or her self-respect. The president asks for tli- enactment Into law of n shipping Mil that will place American Interests on the seas on a par with those of other countries, and urges especially that something be done that will establish direct steamship commu nication with South American ports. Currency Reform. Amendments to the present currency laws arc asked for. and after showing that present laws are Inadequate I.cause of the wide fluctuation of Interest . Purges, he says: •'The mere statement of these facts shows that our present system Is seri ously defective. There Is need of a change Unfortunately. however, many of the proposed changes must be ruled from consideration because they are complicated, nre not ••asy of compre hension. und tend to disturb existing rights and interests We must also rule out any plan which would ma terially Impair the value of the I'nlted States two per cent, bonds now pledged to secure circulation, the issue of which was made under conditions pe culiarly creditable to the treasury. I do not press any speeial plan. Various plans have reeently been proposed by • xpert committees of bankers. Among the plans which are possibly feasible and which certainly should receive your consideration is tfint repeatedly brought to your attention by the pres ent secretary of the treasury, the es sential features of which have l>c. n approved by many prominent hankers und business men. According to Mils plan national banks should he per mitted to Issue a specified proportion of their capital In notes of a given kind, the issue to be taxed at so high a rate as to drive the notes bark when not wanted In legitimate trade This plan would not permit the issue of currency to give hanks additional profits, but to meet the emergency pre sented by times of stringency. Need of Automatic System. ••I do not say that this Is the right system. I only advance it to empha sise my belief that there is ne« d for the adoption of some ayatem which shall he automatic and open to all sound banks, so as to avoid all pos sibility of discrimination and favorit ism. Sueh a plan would tend to pre vent the apasma of high money nnd speculation which now obtain In the New York market; for at present there ia too much currency at certain seasons of the year, and Its accumu lation at New York tempts hankers to lend It at low ratus for speculative purposes; wherea* at other times when the crops are bing moved there Is urgent need Tor a large but temporary increase In the currency supply. It must never be forgotten that this question concerns business men gen erally quite as much as bankers, es pecially is this true of stockmen, farmers and business men In the west; for at present at certain seasons of the vear the difference In interest rates’ between the east and the west Is from six to ten per cent., whereas in Canadu the corresponding difference is but two per cent. Any plan must, of course, guard the Interests of west ern and southern bankers as carefully as It guards the Interests of New York or Chicago bankers; and must be drawn from the standpoints of the farmer and the merchant no less than from the standpoints of the city banker and the country banker. The law should l»e amended so ** to specifically to provide that the funds de rived from customs duties inay be treat ed by the secretary of the treasury as he treats funds obtained under the In ternal revenue laws. There should be a considerable Increase in bills of small denominations Permission should be given banks, if necessary under settled rec.rlclions. to retire their circulation to a lrrger amount than I3.000.0tt) a month.” He again asks for free trade with this country for the Philippines und in the same connection reviews the work done by this country in the Islands, and says ”!f we have erred In the Philippines It has been in proceeding too rapidly In the direction of granting a large meas ure of self-government.” American citizenship should he con ferred on tile citizens of Porto Rico. The harbor of Ban Juan In Porto Rico should be dredged and Improved. The of the federal court of Porto Rico should be met from the federal treasury. The administration of the af fairs of Porto Rico, together with those of the Philippines. Hawaii and our other Insular possessions, should all te direct ed under one executive department; |>y preference the department of state or the department of war. Naturalisation of Japs. President Roesevelt scores San Fran cisco and ether Pacific coast cities for their treatment of the Japanese, and makes tke following recommendations: Our nation fronts on the Pacific. Just a a it fronts on tin* Atlantic. We hope to p!av a constantly growing part in tile great ocean of the orient. We wish, as we might to wish, for a great commercial development in our deal ings with Asia: und It is out of the question that we should permanently have such development unless we free ly und gl-dly extend to other nations the same measure of Justice and good treatment which we expect to receive In return. It Is only a very small body of our i itizrnx that uct badly. Where the federal government lias power it will deal summarily with any such. Where the several states have power I earnestly ask that they also deal wisely und promptly with such eon duet. or else tills small body of wrong doers may bring shame upon the great mne>< of their innocent und right thinking fellows—that Is. upon our nation ns a whole. flood manners should he an international no less than nn Individual attribute. I ask fair treatment for the Japanese as I would ask fair treatment for Germans or Englishmen. Frenchmen. Russians 01 Italians. 1 ask it ns due to humanity and civilization. I ask it us due to ourselves because we must act up rightly toward all men •*I recommend to the congress that nn act be passed specifically provdlng for the naturalization of Japanese who come here intending to become Americnn cit izens. One of the great embarrassments attending the performance of our In ternational obligations is the fact that the statutes of the I'idled States gov ernment are entirely Inadequate. They fall to give to the national government siiftlcicntly ample power, through United States ' courts and by the use of the army and navy, to protect aliens In the rights secured to them under solemn treaties which are the law of the land. I therefore earnestly recommend that the criminal and civil statutes of the United States be so amended and added to as to enable the president, acting for the United States government, which Is responsible in our international rela tions, to enforce the rights of ullens un der treaties. Even as the law now Is something ran be done by the federal government toward tills end. and in the matter now before me affecting the Jap anese. everything that It Is In my power to do will be done, and all of the forces, military nnd civil, of the United States which I may lawfully employ will be so employed. There should, however, be no particle of doubt as to the power of the national government completely to perform and enforce its own obligations to other nations. The mob of a single city may at any time perform acts of lawless violence against some class of foreigners which would plunge us into war. The city by Itself would be power less to make defense against the for eign power thus assaulted, nnd if Inde pendent of tills government It would never venture to perform or permit the performance of the ads complained of. The entire power and the whole duty to protect the offending city or the offend ing community lies In the bands of the United Stutes government. It is un thinkable that we should continue a pol icy under which a given locality may he allowed to commit a crime against u friendly nation, and the United States government limited, not to preventing the commission of the crime, but. In the last resort, to defending the people who have committed it against the conse quences of their own wrongdoing.” Cuban Intervention. The rebellion in t'uba and the Inci dents leading up to the establishment of the provisional government is reviewed, and the president says; "When the election bus been held nnd the new government Inaugurated In peaceful and orderly fashion of the provi sional government will roine to nn end. I take tills opportunity or expressing upon hehnlf of the American people, with ull possible solemnity, our most earnest hope that the people of Cuba will realise the Imperative need of pre serving Justice nnd keeping order in the Inland. The United States wishes noth ing of Cuba except that It shall prosper morally nnd materially, und wishes noth ing of the Cubans save Hint they shall he able to preserve order among them selves nnd therefore to preserve their Independence. If the elections become it farce, and If the Insurrectionary hnblt becomes confirmed In the Island, it Is ab solutely out of the question that the island should continue independent; and the United States, which has assumed the sporsorshlp before the civilized world for Cuba's career as a nation, would again have to Intervene and to see that the government wits managed In such orderly fashion as to secure the safety of life and property. The patli to he trodden by those win* exercise self-gov ernment Is always hard, nnd we should have every charity and pattern •• with tin* Cubans its they tread tills dlfll* ill purth. I have the utmost sympathy with, und regard for. them: but I most earnestly adjure them solemnly to weigh their re sponsibilities and to see that when their new government Is started It shall run smoothly, and with freedom from fla grant denial of right on the one hand, und from Insurrectionary disturbances on the other.” Conalderahle space Is devoted to the International conference of American re publics am! the visit of Secretary Root to South America, and points to the fact that our efforts in behalf of the nations of that country are appreciated by them. On the subject of the Panama canal he promises a special message In the near future. Second Hague Conference. In my last message . advised you that the emperor of Russia hud taken the Ini ttutivc In bringing about a second peace conference at The Hague. Under the guidance of Russia the arrangement of the preliminaries fot such a conference has been progressing during the past year Progress has necessarily been slow, owing to ttie gteat number of coun tries to be consulted upon every question that has arisen. It Is a matter of sat isfaction that all of the American re publics have now. for the llrst time, been Invited to Join In the proposed confer- The dose connection between the sub jects to be taken up by the Red frost conference held at Geneva lust summer, and the subjects which uaturudy would come before The Hague conference, made It apparent that It was desirable to have the work of the Red Cross conference completed nnd considered by the different powers before the meeting at The Hague. The Itcd Cross conference ended Its la bors on the 6th day of July, and the re vised and amended convention, which was signed by the American delegates, will be promptly laid before the senate. By the -pedal and highly appreciated courtesy of the governments of Russia und the Nethetlands, a proposal to call The Hague conference together at a time which would conflict with the conference of the American republics at Rio do Janeiro In August was laid aside No other date has yet been suggested A tentative program for the conference has b*en proposed by the government of Russia, and the subjects which It enumer ates are undergoing careful examination and consideration in prepaiatlon for tho conference. The Army and Navy. The message closes with a plea for the maintenance of tho navy at Its pres ent standard, to do which he says would mean the building of one battleship each year. Of the present efficiency of tho army and navy he says: "The readiness and efficiency of both tho army and navy In deullng with the re cent sudden crisis In Ouba illustrates afresh their value to the nation. This readiness und efficiency would have been very much less had It not been for the existence of the general staff In the army and the general board In the navy; both are essential to the proper development and use of our military forces afloat and ashore. The troops that were sent to Cuba were handled flawlessly. It was the swiftest mobilization and dispatch of troops over sea ever accomplished by our government. The expedition landed completely equipped and ready for Im mediate service, several of Its organiza tions hardly remaining In Havana over night before splitting up Into detach ments and going to their several posts. It was a tine demonstration of the valor and efficiency of the general stuff. Sim ilarly. It was owing in large part to the general board that the navy was able at the outset to meet the Cuban crisis with such instant efficiency; shit) after ship appearing on the shortest notice at any threatened point, while the marine corps In particular performed indispens able service. The army and navy war colleges are of Incalculable value to the two service*, and they cooperute with constantly Increasing efficiency und Im portance. "The congress has most wisely provided for a national board for the promotion of rifle practise Excellent results have already come from this law, but It doe* not go far enough. Our regular army Is so small that In any great war w.» should have to trust mainly to vol unteers; and In »uch event these volun teers should already know how to shoot: for If s soldier lias the lighting edge, and ability to take care of himself In the open, his efficiency on the line of battle is almost directly proportionate to excellence In marksmanship. We should establish shooting galleries In all the large public and military schools, should maintain national target ranges In differ ent parts of the country, and should In every way encourage the formation of rifle clubs thruout all parts of the land. The little republic of Switzerland offers us an excellent example In all matters connected with building up an efficient citizen soldiery. "THEODORE ROOSEVELT.” COURSE FOR FARMERS. By Colorado State Agricultural College at Fort Collins. Fort Collins. —The ten days’ farmers’ course of the State Agricultural Col lege will be held this year December 10th to 21st. instead of the last two weeks in January. This change has been made to accommodate the farm ers. who find it a more favorable time to take the practical work which this course offers them. Farmers nnd ranchmen who have re cently come to Colorado will find this work helpful In making them familiar with agricultural conditions in Colo rado since representative farmers from all sections of the state will be present. Study of feeding, breeding, selection, care tnd management of the different, types of horses, cattle, sheep and swine, diseases of live stock, with sug gestive remedies, special grain and for age crops of Colorado, tho thorough tillage system for non irrigated lands of Colorado, farm motors; when and how to use them, are a few of the many things which will be discussed by men of experience and ability. To assist farmers In developing, dis tributing and marketing desirable types of acclimated grains, adapted t<> Colorado conditions, a state grain grow assoclation will be organized Monday. December 17th. Kvery grain-growing section of the state Is urged to send as many farmers to represent them In this organization as possible. All railroads in the state offer one and one-fifth fare for the round trip for those attending this farmers' course, ami the grain growers’ meet ing at Fort Collins. The special days of the course will be; Meat demonstration day, Saturday, December 15th. Grain growers’ day, Monday, Decem ber 17th. Thorough tillage day, Tuesday. De cember 18th. Farm machinery day, Wednesday, December 19th. Among the more Important lecturers and teachers who will take part in giv ing tho course are: I). A. Gammulz of I he Wisconsin Ag ricultural, who will conduct the block tests for meat. H. W. Campbell of Lincoln, Ne braska. soils and dry farming. Professor W. M. Jardinc of the Utah Agricultural College, who will lecture on “Drought Resistant Crops,” and Utah’.; work in experiments along that line. J. A. Donahue of Denver and others will tell of the demonstration work now being carried out on the non irrigahle lands of Colorado. lu addition to the class and lecture room work, Dean Carlyle is preparing a program of popular lectures to he given In the evening in the college chap.•! from December 15th to 21st. COAL LAND SCANDAL. Probed by Interstate Commerce Com mission at Salt Lake. Sail Lake. Before the Interstate Commerce Commission nt Salt I«ake Friday, George 1). Holliday testified that nfter long persecution he was com pelled to sell one of the most valu able coal mines in Utah to a Gould coal company, for a fraction of Its value. Previous to the sale ho had been driven from the land by armed men. It bad been jumped by an agent of the coal company, and be bad been threatened by coal company officers when he refused to give It up or sell It. Arthur A. Sweet testified I hat armed men drove him from Ills coal claim and he was persecuted until he sold at a paltry price to the coal company. Later the coal company, he se cured Ids discharge by the Rio Grande Western road. The statement by Department Chief George F. Pollock of the Interior Do pattmHit. which was given to the pi 688 in Washington Thursday, was read Into the record of the commis sion. Just before tho evening adjourn nn nt of the Investigation. Attorney Parley Williams, for tho Union Pacific, read a newspaper clipping In which Mr. Pollock denounces as false the af fidavit of Special Agent MyendorfT that Pollock had been Instrumental in suppressing evidence against tho Union Pacific Coal Company. Mr. Wil liams asked that the telegraphic state ment be received as evidence. Commissioner Clark assented ami J. T. Marchand. attorney for the gov ernment, was also permitted to place on record a news interview in which Mr. Pollock is quoted as calling fh«» Interstate Commerce Commission’s in vestigation a "piece of Impertinence.” Looking Into Car Shortage. Washington. The car shortagi, throughout the United States will be investigated by the Interstate coin merce commission. Commissioner Franklin K Lane, who has been look ing into this subject, said that the commission would first take up tho situation in the northwest among tho wheat carrying roads. Farmers In many states complain they .are unable to get their grain to market In'time to share in the high prices now being paid In Minneapolis and Chicago. The commission has Issued a circu lar asking grain growers to submit, specific information regarding tho amount of freight offered for shipment and the reasons given for not trans porting It. Oklahoma Constitution. Guthrie. Okla. —The actual foima tion of a constitution for Oklahoma was Inaugurated November 30. when propositions were Introduced In tlie constitutional convention for two plonks, providing respectively for rail way regulation and separate coaches for whites and negroes. The rail way regulation bill. Introduced by Delegate Clint Graham, is summarized as follows: Railroad, express, sleep ing car and oil pipe line companies shall be declared common carriers; to provide for stock inspection, to pre vent consolidation and prohibiting free passes. Senator Warren’s Denial. Washington. D. C. —Senator Warren, of Wyoming, who arrived In the city Friday night, made an emphatic state ment In contradiction of the affidavit of SpeciaJ Agent MyendorfT of the gen eral land office, made Wednesday at Salt I.Ake City. In which Mr. Warren and his colleague. Senator Clark, were charged with conspiring with others to put a stop to investigations into charges made in connection with th* entry of coal lands owned by the Union Pacific Railway company.