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PRESIDENT ON PANAMA
SenJs Special Message to Co gress Giving Re sults of His Observation; in Canal Zone-- Rep ies to Critics and Makes Recomm ndat'ons. Tho following is tho text of Prcsklml | Roosevelt's rpe« i y mess igo to congios* on tlic (iiibjivt of tin* Panama ciinnl: To ilm* Epiuilc hikl House of Kopnumnta • lives: In tlic iiionlli of November I visited the Isthmus of I'an.imn. going over lie ' until Zone with considerable (are: und j also visited the cities of I’amimti and ; Colon, which tiro not In the zone nr , under Hie I idled Htates lluk. l»Ut as to which the United Htates through its agents. exercises control for lertuln sanitary pitr|tones. I ciiose the month of Nov. rt.IKT lor my visit partly Itecauso it Is the ralnest inonlli of the year, the month in which the work Boon forward at the gre.ilosi dlsad vantage, and one of the tw • months which the medical department or the French Canal • ompnny round most unhealthy. Following the Introlnotion to the mes sage the president giv. * a reohme or his programme during the days he was on the isthmus, und then says: At the outset I wish to pny tribute to tho itiiioonl of work done by the French Canal company under very diffi cult circumstances. Many of the build - In KM they put up were excellent and are still in use. ttimigli. naturally, the houses are now getting out of repair and are helm; list'd as dwollngs only until other houses can l.e built, and much ot the work they did In the Culebra cut. and some of the work they did In dig ging has been of illre< t and real benellt. This country has never made u Itetter Investment than the fin.uno.oun which It paid to the French company for work and betterments. Inilading esjteclully tho l’anaina railroad. An Inspect lon on the ground nt the height .if the rainy sc ison served to con vince me of llie wisdtt a of congress In refusing to adopt cither a high-level or a Sea-level canal. There Seems to be a universal agreement among all people eooi|>cieiit In Judge that the Panama route, (lie one •-m illy chosen. Is much sill erlor to both the Nicaragua and Darien routes. Preliminary Work Being Done. The wisdom of tici canal management h is been - town in nothing more clearly than In tie way In which the founda tions of he work have been laid To have ylel led to the n Itural Impatience of 111-li-formed outsiders and begun all ! I I nils of experiments in work prior to a j Ihnroujrti sanitation of the Isthmus, and to a fairly satisfactory working out or the problem of getting an I keeping u | sufficient labor supply, would have been . disastrous. Toe various preliminary I measure* had to lie taken first: and these could not be taken so as to allow ns to login the real work of construe- I thin prior to Januury I of the present ; year. It then becum- necessary to have j the typo of the cuu.il decided, and the | truly delay has been tho necessary delay i until the 29th day of June, the date ! when tho congress definitely and wisely I settled that we should have an s.'.-foot ! level canal. Innuedlatoly after that the work began in hard earnest and has I been continued with Increasing vigor j ever eince; and It will continue so to progress In the future. When the con- j tracts are let the conditions will be such as to Insure a constantly Increasing amount of |»©rformaiice. Successful Sanitation. The first great problem to lie solved, j upon the solution of which the success of ; I lie rest of the work depended, was the problem of sinll.it ion This was from the outset under the direction of Dr. 1 W. C. t lor gas. who :* to !*• made a ful member of lIM commission. Il must be remoibliered that Ills work was not men sanitation as tic- term Is understood In our ordinary muidclp.il work. Through out tho zone and m the two cities of I’unan .i and Colon. In addition to the sanitatum work prop. r. he has hud t.> do all the work that the Marine hospital service do. s as regards tho nation, that the health department officers do in the various i.ib-s and cities, an.l mat t'ol. Waring did in New York when In cleaned i:s st reels. Tlie results have been asl cm ling. The isthmus had been a bywoid for deadly unhcalthf ulucs* Now. after two yours of o.ir occupatlo:. the conditions as regard* sickness an i •he death rate conparo favorably with • cusorutbly be.ilthv localities In the United St it»*s Fspectnl care tins bed dcidied to imniinirli.g tlic risk due to tin praKnm of ttnsse specie* of mosquito,-- which ha v< • ls»en found to propagate malarial and yellow rovers. In all tin sottlonients. tlie little temporary towns or cities composed of the while nml black employes, which grow up here and there in the tropic Jungle us the needs of the work dictate, the utmost care Is exercised t<* keep the eomlltioriM healthy Everywhere are to Ikj seen the drulnngc •Iltclics which in r-vtnovlng tlie water have removed th.- breeding places of the mosiiuitoes. while the whole Jungle is int away for a considerable space around tlic habitations. thus destroying the places In which the mosquitoes take shel ter. Those drainage ditches and clearings are In evidence in every settlement, und. together with tho invariable presence of mosquito screens around the piazzas, and of mosquito doors to the houses, not to speak of the careful fumigation that has gone on In all Infoctod houses, ilo.ibtless ex pin In the extraordinary absence of mosquitoes. As a matter of fact, but a single mosquito, and this not of the dangerous species, was sec n by any member of our party during my three days on tin Isthmus. Equal earn is taken by the InsjK-ctors of the health de partment to secure cleanliness In the houses and proper hygienic conditions of every kind. I inspected between 20 and 30 water-closets, Ihilli those used by the white employes and those used by the colored laborers In almost every ease 1 found the conditions perfect. In but one ease did I find them rea'ly bad. In this . use. affecting a settlement of unmar ried white employes. I found them very I mil Indeed, but the buildings were all 1 inherited from the French company and ! wire being lined temporarily while other ; buildings were In llie course of construe- | lion; and right near the defective water ; ■ loset a new and excellent closet with a i good sewer pipe was In process of eon- ' struetlon and nearly finished. Neverthe- f loss this ilid not excuse the fact that the : bad condition bad been allowed to pre vail. Temporary accommodations, even If only such ns soldiers use wbon canine I . In tho floht, should h ive been provided. Orders to this effect were Issue I. I ap is-ml tho report of Dr (largos on the In- , cl,lout. I wus struck, however, by the fact that in this Instance, as In almost every other where a complaint was made which proved to have any Justification whatever, it appeared that steps had al ready been taken to remedy the evil complained of. and that the trouble was mainly due to the extreme difficulty, and often Impossibility, of providing In every place for tlie constant Increase In the numbers of employes. Generally the pro vision Is made In advance, but It Is not pusslM-i that this should always be the case; when It is not there ensues a period of time during which the condi tions are unsatisfactory, until a remedy ian be provided; but I never found a case where the remedy was not being provided a* speedily as possible. Improvements In Cities. Tlie sanitation work In tti© cities of Panama and Colon has been Just as important as In the tone Itself, nnd In inuny respects much more difficult, be cause was necessary to deal with the already existing population, which naturally had scant sympathy with revolutionary changes, the value of which they were for a long time not able to perceive. In Colon tin popula tion consists largely of colored labor era who. having come over front the West Indies to work on the cant l. abandon the work and either the brush or lie Idle in Colon Itsilf, thus peopling Colon with the si ruble among the imported laborers. HE FOOLED THE HOLDUP MEN. Intended Victim Dumps His Money Into Mailbox and Thus Saves It. A West end man had an experience recently that ■"“‘K' llls h * lr * t * nd end and had it not boon (or his quick wit In dovisla* • »«*“* °* (totting out of the difficulty it might hnvc cost him dearly, -r- tho D-luth Wow.-Trlbune. He is tho treasurer of s local ioujw and was returning hams (wo • | for the koiii] ii ml st<-"dy men of course ronllnim at the work. Yet nstonlsh ! Iirr proitrikh hits ImMi made in both <• tl« •>. in I *a nil hi a 1*0 per cent of tho I :.treels that urc to he paved at all are already paved with mi excellent brick i pa v« nu nt laid In |p-av> oncreto. a few | of the .Struts being still In pro ess of ! pa v I ii if. The Hewf r and water services j in the city urn of the nio.st modern hy gienic type, some of the service hav- Ing Just hot n completed. In Colon the conditloiiH are peculiar, and it l.< as regards Colon that most of the very bitter complaint has been made. Colon Is built on n low coral island, covered at more or less shallow depths with vegetable accumulations or mold, which affords sustenance ami strength to many varieties of low lying tropical plants. One-half of the surface of the Island Is covered with water at high tide, the average height PRESIDENT ON A STEAM SHOVEL mxn .itersl'graiili, -••py right. by UiHlerwo.*i A I'mlerwooU, N. V. At Pidro Miguel. Culebra Cut. President Roosevelt was photographed seated on one of the immense steam shovel* used in the work of excavating. •»f the land being l'4 feet nbove low ltile. The slight undulations fiiml «h shallow, natural res« rvolrs or fresh water breeding plains for every varie ty of mosi|ulto. and the ground t- mis to he lowest In the middle. When tin town was originally built no attempt was made to till the low ground. either <n tin streets or on the build n? sites, so that the entire aurfaee was pra nl re became imppssallo ccrt?!n of the str«»# ts were ormlelv Itmirovid bv flll nr especially bad n ml Imp s witli soft ■nek or other material. In September '1*05. a systematic « ffort was begun to formulate a gen* ral plan for the prop r sanitation of the city: In February • st tcmt*orary relief measures w« re 'akin, while in July the prpn-cution of : he work was begun In good earn-st Pile r- sults are already xlslhle in tl»e sewering, draining, guttering and p:«v nx of the streets. Some four months will he requir'd h« fore the work of «ewcrage and street Intprovem* nt will ! •e completed, hut the progress already nude Is very marked. Ditches have •••eh dug through the town, connectin g •.he salt water on both sides, and into i liese thT ponds which have served ns • reeding places for tho mosquitoes, are trained. These ditches have answered i heir purpose, for they are probably the chief cause of the astonishing limlnutlon of mosquitoes. More ditches >f the kind are being constructed. Colon Water 8upply. It was not practicable. with the •»rce at the commission’s disposal anil n view of the need that the fore.- Iiould be used In the larger town of Panama, to begin this work before early last winter. Water mains were then laid In the town and water was furnished to the people early In March from a temporary reservoir. This reservoir proved to he of Insufllcl- nt capacity before the end of the dry season and the shortage was made up by hauling water over the Panama railroad, so that there was at all time-* 'in omnlo aiimilv of the Very best water. Since that time the new reser voir hack of Mount Hope has been practically completed. I visited tills I reservoir. It Is a lake over n mile | long and half a mile broad. It n »xv carries some 500.000.000 gallons of first-class water. I forward herewith a photograph of this lake, tog* tli« r with certain other photographs of what I saw while I was on the Isth mus. Nothing hut a cataclysm will hereafter render It necessary In the dry season to haul water for the use of Colon and Cristobal. Colon Pavements. I rode through the streets of Colon seeing them at the height of the rainy season, after two days of almost un exampled downpour, when they wire at their very worst. Tnk* n ns a whole they were undoubtedly very had; as bail as Pennsylvania avenue in Washington before Grant's admin istration. Front street Is already In thoroughly satisfactory slinpe. how ever. Some of the side streets nre also In good condition. In others the change In the streets Is rapidly going on. Through three-fourths of the town it ts now possible to walk, even during the period of tremendous rain In low shoes without wetting ones feet, owing to the rapidity with which the surfaco water Is carried away in the ditches. In the romulning one fourth of the streets the mud ts very deep—about as deep as In the ordinary street of a low-lying prairie river town of the same slae In the United States during early spring. All men to whom I spoke were s unit In saying that the conditions of the Colon streets were 100 per cent better than a year ago. The most superficial examination of the town shows the progress that has been made and Is being made In ma cadamising the streets. Complaint was made to me by an entirely reputable man ns to the character of some of : the material used for repairing cer tain streets. On Investigation the com plaint proved well founded, hut it also I appeared that the use of the matt rial I In question had been abandoned, the ! commission after having tried It In on or two streets finding It not appro- I Pr Tlie" result of the Investigation of [ ingc with a considerable amount of money in his possession, fortunately the greater part of which was In cur rency. He got off a car quite a distance out In the West end and turned off a side street toward hla home, when ho no ticed that he was being followed by two auspicious looking men. Quick as « flash he pulled an envelope out of t.u pocket, addressed it to himself. *lM|>ed It. put the currency inside It It. l* I. moot -.imnl'ilnl wn« tvideal of what (•cctirrrd when I Investlg-ited most of the other honest con,plaints made to me. That Is win re the complaints were rot made wantonly or malicious ly. they almost always proved due to failure to appreciate tho fact that time 'van necessary In the creation and completion of this titanic work In a tropic wild, i-rn-ss. It is impossible to avoid some nilstakis In building n giant canal through Jungle-covoreil mount.ilns and swamps, while at the same time sanitating tropic cities, and provld ng for the feeding and general • ire of from 20.000 to .10.000 workers. Tho ci-inplalnts brought to me. either of ins rilcl. nt provision In earing for some of the laborers, or of failure to finish the pavements of Colon, or of failure to supply water, or of failure to build wooden s'dewalks foi the use of the laborers In the rilny season, on ln\estl-cutlon proved, almost with out eveentton. to 1.0 due merelv to the int, r Inability of tho commission to do cverytnlng at once. Unjust Criticism. Caro nnd forethought have been exer cised by tho commission, and nothing Imn reflected more credit upon them than their r-ifusal either to go ahead too fast or to bo deterred by the fear of criticism from not going alu-ad fast enough. It Is curious to note the fact that many of the most severe critics of the commission crltlciso them for precisely opposite rea sons, some complaining bitlurly that the PRESIDENTIAL PARTY LEAVING HOTEL tram »t«r*ngraph, copyright, by Underwood A Underwood. 9. Y. Hnotograph or the President and Mrs. Roosevelt and party leaving the Tivoli hotel at Colon taken during the recent inspection ot the ceojp by the chie* executive. work Is not In a more advanced condl- | . Hon. while the other* complain that It has : been rushed with such haste that there ' > has l»een Insufficient preflhration for the , • hygiene and comfort of the employe*, i As a matter of fact neither criticism In | l Just. It would have been imimssible to < go quicker than the commission has ! gone, for such quickness would have , i meant Insufficient preparation. On the < other hand, to refuse to do anything un- , i til every possible future contingency had j i tw>en met would have caused wholly un- i warranted delay. The right course to j i follow was exactly the course which has been followed Every reasonable urepura- 1 , tlon was made In advance, tho hygienic t conditions in especial being made ns j ■ nearly rerfeet as possible; while on tho : other hand there has been no timid re- | , fusal to push forward the work boewuso ; of Inability to anticipate every posslbl emergency, for. of course, many defects can only be shown by the working of the system In actual practice. In addition to attending to the health ‘ of the employe*. It Is of course neces sary to provide for policing the zone. This Is done by a police force which at present numbers over 2A) men, under Capt. Hhanton. About one-fifth of the men are white and the others black. 1 In different places I questioned some 20 or 30 of these men. taking them at ran dom. They were a fine sot. physically and In discipline. With one ♦ xception ull the white men I questioned had serve l in the American army, usually In the I and dropped It In the mall box. Then he started on a brisk walk. i Suddenly there came a command I from behind him. "Hands up!” Up went his hands and the robbers w*ent through his pockets. He smiled 1 grimly as the holdups secured only a few dollars in silver, and he thought with pleasure of the money he had put In the mall box In Undo Sam's care. The robbers went away com plaining of the small amount they se cured, and the treasurer went home. Vhlllppincs. and belonged to the best typo of American soldier. Without ix ception tho black policemen whom I questioned had served either in the Brit ish army or in the Jamaica or Barbados police. They were evidently contented, and were doing tlielr work well. \v Here possible the polio men are used to con trol people Of their own color, but In any emergency no hesitation l* felt In using them Indiscriminately. , , .. Inasmuch as mo many both of the white nnd colored employs have brought their families with them, school* have been established, the school service being un der Mr. O’Connor For I t<> white pupils white American teachers are omp.oyeu. fur the #Vorc*d pupils there are also some white American teachers, one Spanish teacher, and one colored American te n n •;r. most Of them being colored teacm r* from Jamaica. Barbados and at. h"" 1 - The rchoolrooms were good, and It was a pleasant thing to see the pride thut tm teftchers were tal.mg in their work und their pupfit Care of Employes. Next In Importance to the problem of sanitation, and Indeed now of equal Im portance. is the problem of securing and caring for the mechanics. luborers and other employe* who actually do tho work on the canal and the railroad. I bis great task lias been under the control of Mi. Jackson Smith, and on the whole has been wed done. At present there are some 6,000 white employes and some 19,000 co’ored employes on the Isthmus. I went over the different place* where the different kinds of employes were working! I think I saw representatives of every type both at their work and in their homcH; and I conversed with prob ably a couple of hundred of them all told, choosing them at random from every class and Including those who came especially to present certain grievances olmost invariably expressed fur greater content nnd satisfaction with the con ditions than did those who called to make complaint. Nearly 6.U00 of tho white employes had come front the United States. No man can see these young, vigorous men energetically doing their duty without a thrill of pride in the.n ns American*. They represent on the average a high class. Douhthss to congress the wages paid them will scum high, but as a mat ter of fact the only general complaint which 1 found had any real basis among the complaints made to nte upon the Isthmus was that, owing to the peculiar surroundings, the cost of living, and the distance from home, the wages were really not as high as they should be. In fact, almost every man I spoke to felt that he ought to he receiving more money—a view, however, which the aver age man *vho stays at home In the l Tilted States probably likewise holds as regards himself. I append figures of the wages paid, so that the congress can Judge the mutter for Itself. Later I shall confer on the subject with certain repre sentative labor men here In the United States, ns well as going over with Mr. Stevens, the comparative wages paid on the zone und at home; and I may then communicate mv findings to the canal committees of the two houses. Chinese and Other Labor. Of the 19.0 U" or 20.000 day laborers employed on Ho canal n few hundred are Spaniards. Thi se do excel!* nt work. Their for. man told me that they illd twice as well as the West Indian laborers They keep healthy and no difficulty is experienced with them in any way Some Italian labor ers are also employed in connection with the drilling As might be ex pected. with labor as high priced as at present In the United States. It has not so far pr I practicable to g. t any ordinary I r • r* from the United States. The Aim • :e.iii wage-Workers ■»n the Ist, inn • the highly paid skilled mechanic- of the tvpes rn. n Honed previously. A steady effort is filing made to ■-■cure Italians, und es pecially to pro. ure mor. Span birds, because of tin very satisfactory re sults that h iv. •■■one from tin Ir em ployment nml 'Heir numbers will he Increase! as I, ~ possible. It has not proved po ‘hie. however, to get them In anything like the numbers needed for the wyili. and from present ipp, nranees w. Uuull In the math have to rely, for !!. ordinary un-Mll.d work, partly ••.-■u colored I ibor, r.- from tho \vc-t Indies, p.art.v upon Chinese labor. It c< rtalnlv on girt to In- unnecessary t • point out that Un- American workingman In the United States has no concern whatever In tin question ns to whether the rough work ■ on the isthmus, which Is performed by aliens In any event, is done by aliens ; from one country with a black skin or fiy aliens from another country with a yellow skin. Our business I* i to dig the canal as efficiently and as quickly as possible; provided always Hint nothing is d u,,( * that Is Inhumane i to any laborer*, and nothing that in terferes with tho wage* of or lowers the standard of living of our own workmen. Having In view this prin -1 dple. I have arranged to try several thousand Chinese laborers. This Is de si rnblc both because we must try to find out what laborer* are most effi cient. nnd. furthermore, because we i should not leavo ourselves at the mercy of any one type of foreign labor. At present) the great bulk of the unskilled labor on the Isthmus l* done by West India negroes, chiefly 1 from Jamaica. BarbadM, *nd the other English possessions. One of the gov ernors of the lands In question has “''•'wn an unfriedly disposition to our work nnd has thrown obstacles In the • way of nur getting the labor needed; i md ir i« M(hlv undoilmhip to give any outsider* the Impression, however 111 founded, that they are Indispensa ble and can dictate terms to us. The West India laborers are fairly, but truly fairly, satisfactory. Some of 1 the men do very well indeed; the bet- Xext n*y the letter containing the money was delivered safely to hla of fice. Poor Mother! “I saw the doctor at your house this morning," said Naybor. "Yes." replied Popley. “that boy of mine climbed out on the bach roof when we told him not to—” "And fell off end broke hla —” "Nary a fall! but my wife tried to whip him for It. end now aho’« a nervous and physical wreck.” ter class, who are to be found ns fore men. as skilled mechanics, as police men. are Rood men; and many of the ordlnarv rt»iv *nhor#»r«« nr.. n]«o good Work of Construction. But thousands of those who are brought over under contract (at our expense) go off Into the Jungle to live, or loaf around Colon, or work so bad lv »rt»r til*. Oral t !>>•<.<• or four da VS ns to cause a serious diminution of the amount of labor performed on Fri day and Saturday of each week. 1 questioned many of these Jamaica labor*.rs as to the eomlit'ons of their work and what, if any changes, they wished. I Ived many complaints r mm them, but as regards most of these complaints they themselves con tradicted one anoth* r. In all eases where the complaint was ns to their treatment by .any Individual it proved on examination that this Individual was himself a West indlu ntan of color, either a policeman, a storekeeper, or in assistant storekeeper. Doubtless there must he many complaints against Americans; hut those to whom 1 spoke did not happen to make any such com plaint to me. The work is now going on with a vigor nnd efficiency pleasant to wit ness. The three big problems of the '•anal are the La Boca dams, the Oatun dam. and the Culebra cut. The Cule bra cut must in* made, anyhow; but of course changes as to the dams, or at least us to tin* locks adjacent to l lie dams, mnv still occur. The La Boca dams offer no particular prob lem. the bottom nmterlnl being so good that there is a practical certain ty. not merely as to what can be achieved, but as to the time of achieve ment. The Oatun dam offers the most serious problem which we have to solve; and yet the ablest men on the isthmus believe thnt this problem Is certain of solution along the lines proposed; although, of course, it ne cessitates great toil, energy, and in tMllgenee. and although equally, of course, there will be some little risk in connection with the work. The risk • rises from the fact that some of the material near the bottom Is not so good as could be desired. If the huge earth dam now contemplated Is thrown across from one foothill to the other we will have what Is practically a low. broad, mountain ridge behind which will rise the Inland lake. This irlifleial mountain will probably show less seepage, that Is. will have greater r••straining capacity than the average natural mountain rung*-. The exact lo •allty of the locks at this dam —as at the other dams—ls now being de termined. In April next Secretary Taft, with three of the ablest engin eers of the country—Messrs. Noble. Stearns and Itipiey—will visit the .sthmus. ami the three engineers will make the final and conclusive exami nations as to the exact site for each lock. Meanwhile the work is going ihead without a hr* ak. The Culebra cut docs not offer such great risks; that is, ttie damage liable to occur from occasional land slips will not represent what may he called major dis inters. The work will merely cull for In telligence, perseverance, ami executive apaclty. It is. however, the work upon tvhlch most labor will have to be spent. The dams will be composed of the earth aken out of the cut amt very possibly the building of the locks nnd dnms wi.l lake even longer than tile cutting In 'ulebra Itself. In Culebra Cut. The main work is now being done In :he Culebra cut. It was striking and mpressive to see the huge steam shovels u full play, the dumping trains carrying • way the rock and earth they dislodged, rhe implements of French excavating machinery, which often stand a little •v.iy iroin the line of work, though of ex ♦•lf**nt construction, look like tiie veriest o.i s compared with these new • team .T.ovcl*. Just as the French dump ng cars seem like toy cars when corn mil witn the-long lr.ii.is of huge ears, mi| eJ by swain plows. whVh are now ■ use. Tills represents the enormous Ivance tiiat lias been n.ni- in in.tchin ry during the past *|Utri*-r of a cen ury. No doubt a ciuaiter of a century tehee title new machinery, of winch we re ndw so proud, will similarly see in oui >f date, but It Is certainly serving its purpose well now. The old French cars uni to he entirely discarded. We still iave in use a few of the more modern, .ut not most modern, ears, which hold hut 12 yards of earth. They can be <m loye I on certain lines with sharp urves. But the recent ears hold from 1 "i lo it" yards apiece, and tnstOflfl of the •I<l clumsy methods of unloading them, i steam plow is drawn from -end to end of the whole vestlbuled train, thus im mensely economizing labor. In the rainy reason the steam shovels can do but little in dirt, but they work steadily in roek nnd In the harder ground. There were some 25 at work during tiie lime I was on the Isthmus, nnd their tremendous power and efficiency were most impres sive. New Records for Excavation. As soon ns the type of canal was de cided this work heg.ui in good earnest rhe rainy season will shortly be over and ihen there will l»e an Immense increase in the amount taken out; hut even during the last three months. In the rainy sea on. steady progress is shown bv the fgures: In August. 212, 1 <«l cubic yards; m September. 2*Jl.oto cubic yards, and in October. 325.U*X» cubic yards. In October new records were established for the output of Individual shovels as well us for the tonnage haul of individual loco motives. I hope to see tiie growth of a Healthy spirit of emulation between the different shovel nnd locomotive crews. Just such u spirit as has grown on our buttle ships between the different gun . tews in matters of marksmanship. I'asslng through the cut tiie amount of :iew work can be seen at a glance. In one place the entire side of a hill had Ik-cii taken out recently by 27 tons of dynamite, which were exploded at one blast. At another place 1 was given a presidential salute of 21 charges of dyna mite. On the top notch of the Culebra cut the prism Is now as wide as it will be; all told, the canal bed at this point tins now been sunk about £JO feet below what it originally was. it will have to be sunk about 130 feet farther. Through out the cut the drilling, blasting, shovel ing and hauling are going on with con stantly Increasing energy. the shovels being pressed up. as If ti ey were mountain howitzers. Into the must un likely looking places, where they eat their way into tiie hillsides. Railway Improvements. The most advanced methods, not only in • (instruction, but In railroad manage ment. have been applied in the zone, with corresponding economies In time and cost. This has been shown In the handling of the tonnage from ships into cars, and from cars into shins on the Panama rail rood, where, thanks largcly to tiie efficiency of General Manager ftierd, the saving In time and cost, has been noteworthy. My examination tend ed to show that some of the departments liad idoubtless necessarily) become over developed, an*l could now be reduced or sutMirdinated without Impairment of effi ciency and with a saving of cost. The chairman of the rommissiun, Mr. Shonts. has all matters of tills kind constantly in view, and is now reorganizing the gov ernment of the lore, so as to make the form of administration both more flexible ami less expensive, subordinating every thing to direct efficiency with n view to t lie work of the canal commission. From time to time changes of this kind will un doubtedly have to he made, for it must be remembered tiiat in this giant work of construction, it Is continually neces sary to develop departments or bureaus, which are vital- for the time being, but which soon become useless; Just as it will be continually necessary to put up build ings. and even to erect towns, which In ten years will once more give place to jungle, or will then be at the bottom of tiie great fakes at the ends of the canal. Critics and Doubting Thomases. It Is not only natural, but Inevitable, that a work as gigantic as this which has been undertaken on the isthmus should arouse every species of hostility and erf Mel am. The conditions arc so new and so trying, and the work so vast, that it would be absolutely out of the ques tion that mistakes should not be made. (Checks will occur. Unforeseen difficulties will arise. From time to time seemingly well-settled plans will have to be changed. At rre*«*nt 25.000 men are en gaged on the task. After awhile the number will be doubled. In such a mul titude It is Inevitable that there should t>e here nnd there a scoundrel. Very many of the poorer class of laborers lack the mental development to protect them selves against either the rascality of others or their own folly, and It is not possible for human wisdom to devise a plan by which they can Invariably be Frogs March to Winter Quarters. For the.first time in years the resi dents of northern Chester county to day saw a frog parade. Fully 100 frogs of all ages, ranging from frogs a Bcore of years old to this spring's youngsters, left the schoolhouse pond in Warwick township this morning and marched along the road to the falls of French creek, where they took up their winter quarters. Migrations of frogs In large bodies are seldom seen, especially at this sea son of the year. It Is believed by old 1.. started. In a place which has beei for ages s byword for unhealthfulnes* and with so large a congregation « I strangers suddenly put down and sot ti hard work there will noT and then lx outbreaks of disease. There will non and then be shortcomings in administra tion; th-i/e will be unlooked-for accl dents to delay the excavation of the ci f or tiie building of tiie dams nnd locka Finch such Incident will he entirely nat. ural. and, even thougli serious, no or*! of them will mean more than a little extra delay or trouble. Yet each, wlir-s: discovered by sensation mongers and re tailed to tlinlil folk <>r little faith, wil serve tin ati excuse for tiie belief tin' the whole work is being badly managed. Kxp* riments will continually he tried in housing, in hygiene, in street repairing In dredging and in digging earth ant rock. Now nnd then an experiment will he n failure; uud among those who heal of it. a certain proportion of doubting Thomases will at once believe thnt tlx whole work is a failure. Doubtless her* anil there some minor rascality will lx uncovered; hut as to tills. I have to say that after the most painstaking inquiry I have been unable to lind a single reput able person who had so much as heard of any serious accusations affecting th« honesty of the commission or of anj [•••sponsible officer under It. I append a letter dealing with tiie most seriou* charge, tiiat of the ownership of lots lc Co.on; the charge was not advanced by a reputable man, ami is utterly base less It Is not too much to say that tht whole atmosphere of the commission breathes honesty as It breathes efficiency And energy. Above all. the work ha* been kept absolutely clear of politics. 1 have never heard even a suggestion ol spoils politics in connection with it. I have investigated every complaint brought to me for which there seemed to he any shadow of foundation. Ir two or three cases, all of which J have indicated in the course of thlt message. I enme to the conclusion tlial there was foundation for the com plaint and that tiie methods of ttW commission in the respect complain i of could he bettered. In the other In stallers the complaints proved abso lutely baseless, save in two or three instances where they referred to mis takes which the commission had al ready found out and corrected. Slander* and Libelers. So much for honest criticism. Thor* remains an immense amount of a* reckless slander as has ever been pub lished. Where the slanderers ore ol foreign origin 1 have no concern with, them. Where they nre Americans. 1 feel for them the heartiest contempl and indignation; hecuuse. in a spirit of wanton dishonesty and malice, they are trying to Interfere witli and hamper the execution of. the greatest work of the kind ever attempted, and are seeking to bring to naught the ef forts of their countrymen to put tc Die credit of America one of tiie giant feats of tiie ages. The outrugeou* accusations of these slander* rs con stitute a gross libel upon a body ol public servants who. for trained intel ligence. expert ability, high clinrnc t« tr un«l devotion to duty, have nevet been excelled anywhere. There is nol a man among those directing tiie work on the isthmus who has obtained III* position on any other basis than merit alone, and not one win* lias used hi* position in any way for Ills own per sonal or pecuniary advantage. Plan to Build by Contract. After most careful consideration w* have decided to let o-:t most of th« work by contract, if we can come tc satisfactory terms with the contract ors. The whole work is of a kind suited to the peculiar genius of out people; nnd our people have devel oped the type of contract *r h< st fitted to grapple witli it. It is of cours* much better to do the work In Hrg« part by contract than to do it ull by the government, provide*! it is pos sible on the one hand to secure to the contractor a suffidevt remuneration to make it wortli while for respon sible contractors of the best kind tc undertake the work; nnd provided on tin- other hand it can be done on term* which will not give an excessive profit to the contractor at the expense ol tiie government. After much con sideration Iho plan already promul gated by the secretary of war w.i* adopted. This plan in Its essent'al features was drafted after car. ful and thorough study and eonsld.r it on. by the chief engineer. Mr. Pt-v. ns. who. while In Die employment of Mr. Hill, the president of the Great North ern railroad, had personal experience of this very type of contract. Mr. Stevens tin n submitted Die plan to the chairman of the commission. Mr. Shonts. who went carefully over it with Mr. Rogers, the legal adviser of tiie commission, to see thnt all legal difficulties were met. He then submit ted copies of the plan to both Secre tary Taft nnd myself. Secretary Taft suhmltt* *1 it to some of the best coun sel at the New York bar. and aft* r wnrdn I went over it very carefully witli Mr. Taft and Mr. Shonts. and we laid tiie plan in its general features before Mr. Root. My conclusion Is tiiat If combine* the maximum of ad vantage with the minimum of disad vantage. Under It a premium will tie put upon the speedy nnd economical construction of the canal, nnd a pen alty Imposed on delay and waste. The plan as promulgated is tentative; doubtless It will have to he changed In some respects before we can come to a satisfactory agreement with ro snonslhfe contractors —1»* rhnps even after the bids have been received; and *tf course it Is possible that wo can n**f come to a agreement. In which case Die government will do the work Itself. Meanwhile the work on the Isthmus Is progressing steadily and without any let up. Single Commissioner Desired. A seven-headed commission is of course a clumsy executive Instrument. We should have hut one commisslon * r with such heads of departments r. nd other officers under him ns wo may find necessary. We should lie expressly perndtt* «f to employ the best engineers In the country as con sisting engineers. I nccompsny this paper with a map showing substantially what the c-<nal '••ill he like when It is finished. When the Culebra cut lias been made and the dams built (If they are built ns at present proposed! there will then he at both the Pacific and Atlantic ends of the canal two great fresh-water lakes, connected by a broad channel running at the bottom of a ravine, ••cross the backbone of the Western Hemisphere. Those best informed be t'eve that the work will he completed In about eight years; hut It Is never safe to prophesy about such a work as tills. ••sT'«*'lallv In the tropica. Confident of Ultimate Success. Of the success of the enterprise T am ns well convinced as one can be of any enterprise that is human. It Is a stupendous work upon Which our fallow countrymen are < neaged down there on the isthmus, nnd while wo should hold them to a strict accounta bility for the way In which they per form it. we should recognize, with frank generosity, the epic nature of the task upon which tliey nre engaged nnd its world-wide Importance. They nre doing something which will re ilnud Immeasurably to the credit of America, which will benefit all the world, and which will last for agea to come. Under Mr. Shonts and Mr. Stevens nnd Dr. Gorgns tills work has started with every omen of good for tune. They nnd their worthy associates, from the highest to the lowest, nro entitled to the same credit that we would g(»-e to **• «* nleVc.i nv*n of n peace will, in Its great and far-reach ing • Itort «t«»H •»« -ntonif »H«. VC TV greatest conquests, whether of peace or of war. which have ever been won by any of the peoples of mankind. A badge is to he given to every Ameri can citizen who for a speeded time has taken part In this work; for par ticipation in It wilt hereafter ho held to reflect honor upon the man par ticipating Just as it reflects honor upon a soldier to have belonged to a mighty «*-my in a war tor righteous ness. Our fellow countrymen on the isthmus are working for our interest and for the national renown In the same spirit and with the same effi ciency that the men of the army and navy work in time of war. It be hooves us In our turn to do all we can to hold up their hands and to aid them In every way to bring their great work to a trlumpnnnt cnnclu- I sion. THEODORE ROOSEVKI.T. The White House. December 17. 1906. residents that the frogs deserted the pond, which has been their breeding place for years, because the water is too low.—Pottstowu Correspondence Philadelphia Press. In Bad Shape. "I heard your new stenographer boasting that he can work the type writer like lightning." “That'a about right. When he gets through with the job it looks very much as if lightning had got its work In on It.” WHEN FRAMING THE PICTURES. Ruts by Which One Is Certain to Get Attractive Combination. Matching the frame to the predomi nating shade in the picture will al ways result in an attractive combina tion, provided the color of the frame Is not too vivid, for the latter must never be more prominent than tho subject, and this mistake is frequent ly made when selecting a brigh* tone in oil and matching it in wood. If possible, get a contrust without bringing the framing too much in evi uence. In‘framing etchings a simple mold ing in oak or gilt is considered cor rect. If tLe latter Is used it must be in the antique finish so fashionable this season. For an etching the plainer the frame is tho better, and those without any carving or orna mentation except for a metal ring that surrounds the opening and a narrow molding at the outer edge aro in great demand. For English and "old” prints tho plain rosewood, mahogany and walnut frames are best adapted. Some of these are brightened by a simple gilt line about one-quarter of an inch in width, placed about the opening. Caro should be taken to show the original margin on these old prints, for the ragged outline stamps them as genu inely "antique.” Portraits and photographs are used with or without mats, in plain wood or brass frames. Oil paintings to give brightness are usually framed in gold. This autumn the style of gold instead of being orlglit is the dull antique finish. Hand-carved frames are also much used, both in the natural wood and in the antique gold, for oils. JELLY ALWAYS A FAVORITE. Process That Will Get Best Results from Ever Popular Crabappie. Wash the apples, remove the blos som end and cut In small pieces. Do not peel or core, for skins nnd seed.l Improve the color and quality of tho Jelly. Cover with cold wator and cook gently until soft. Keep closely covered so they will steam, but do not stir or mash more than necessary. If you wish your jelly clear. When very soft and tho liquid red, turn Into the jelly bag and let hang to drain over night. In the morning measure the liquid. Cook ton minutes, skim, then boll fifteen minutes kgiger. Add sugar, three-quar ters of a pound to each pint of juice. Cook five minutes longer, or until a little poured into a cold saucer, Jollies around the edge, then skim and turn Into glasses that have been rolled in hot water to avoid breakages. Tho sugar should be hot when added to the syrup. The best way Is after measur ing the amount required to spread It on shallow* tins like pie tins and set in tho oven, leaving the door oj»en so that It will not get too hot. It must not be allowed to turn yellow, as It will do If overheated. It should bo just hot enough to hiss when dropped Into the hot syrup. When the Jelly Is quite cold cover with melted paraffin or rounds of paper wet with white of egg or brandy. Then put on the screw top or paste paper over tho top. Label your various Jellies and pre serves legibly, so that you can tell at once what you are getting. If you like your crabappie flavored, add a little lemon juice or pineapple juico whilo cooling. Rose geranium Is nice also. Put a leaf in the bottom of each glass, and its flavor will pervade the whole. Cherry Turnovers. Drain canned or preserved cherries Into a pound of flour, and rub a cup of butter. When like a coarso pow der. moisten with a teacupl-1, or less of Iced water, and work to a paste, handling as little as possible. Roll out upon a flour board, fold up and roll out again, and yet once more. If very cold, still, use at once, ir not. set in the ice chest until chilled. Chop the cherries (from which the pits must have been removed, unless this was done before canning them), add two beaten eggs and the Juico of one lemon. Roll out the paste, and cut into rounds the size of a large biscuit. Put a tablespoonful of the mixture on one-half of the round, and turn the other half over upon the fruit and itself, pinching the edges together. Lay these half circles In a floured bak ing pan and bake to a golden brown. These are good, hot or cold. 81ft pow dered sugar over them before serving. Hot Plates. In cold weather the viands on the table cool so quickly that the family is often forced to eat lukewapi vege tables. which are unpalatable at any time and particularly so on cold days. In order that they may lose their heat as little as possible after being taken from the hot covered dishes the plates should be warmed before being put at each place. They should not be warmed In the over or they .will crack, but If put on the mantel above the range for a while when the meal Is being pre pared they will warm sufficiently tor the purpose. Cleaning Gilt Frames. Water should never be put on gilt frames. They should be wiped with dry cloth or chamois. This applies to all metals and lacquered goods. After a lacquered bed has once been wet and polished it must be continually pol ished, so the best plan Is to keep it dry as long as possible. Roaches are deadly enemies of mirror backs, and yearly ruin many thousands. For this reason the old silver-back mirror Is passing away, and the new ones are coated with a composition that Is proof against insects, but that does not give aa fine reflection as the other sort. Chocolate Chips. Make flrat a candy of molasses for the filling. A good rule calls for one cup of New Orleans mo lasses, two-thirds of a cup of sugar, and butter a heaping tablespoon, boiled together until a little droppeJft In cold water is crisp. Flavor with r little vanilla, pour on to the buttered tins and when cool enough to handle pull thin and cut In small pieces. When perfectly cold dip these pieces In melted sweetened chocolate flavored with vanilla, and lay on waxed payer to dry and harden.