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FILIPINO DELEGATE TO CONGRESS
Cnjiy by Waidun K>* vtL , » julo Ocampo ue Leon, the delegate selected by the Filipino assembly, .is like his colleague, a lawyer by profession, a native of Manila and a member of a v.ell-to-do family. He was also a Filipino patriot, was iqiprisoned by the (Spaniards and afterwards exiled by the Americans, but after two years was 'allowed to return to Manila. He gave up politics for a time and devoted him jcclf to his law practice, but he became director of La Patria and drifted back Into public affairs and was elected to the assembly by the Nacionalistas. Mr. Ocampo is practically a pure-blooded Filipino. The majority of the assembly (were anxious to have their delegate a true representative of their race. Mr. Ocampo was further favored both by his radically patriotic record and by his present conservatism. The assembly leaders considered it good policy to tehd a moderate nationalist to Washington. These two delegates will en deavor to obtain from congress the reduction of the import duty on Filipino sugar and tobacco. They say the cattle plague has killed off 90 per cent, of the working animals, and that the Filipinos are in a worse position than *hey have been for 30 years. They are also interested in the Japanese question, being, like all the Japcated Filipinos, suspicious of the Japanese. TO SAVE THE BUFFALO. lAPPEAL ISSUED FOR PRESERVA TION OF AMERICAN BEAST. Plan Proposed Is to Have Herds Es tablished on Suitable Ranges Under Government Auspices. Meriden, N. ll.—The American Bison society, with headquarters In this city, hue issued an appeal for the p<•r|x»tnation of the American buf falo To best preserve the animal the society has planned a systematic campaign of ambitious proportions. The president of the United States is the honorary president of the organ ization. and the honorary vice-presi dent is his excellency Karl Grey, gov ernor general of Canada. The secre tary is Krneat Harold Haynes, whoso post office address Is Sunset Ridge, Meriden, N. H. The following is an extract from an address issued by the society: GRIP GERMS FROM MARS. lowa Weather Prophet Puts the Blame on Sister Planet. Waterloo, la. —Interpo!ated in his predictions for February. John C. Busby, a weather prophet of Indepen dence, advances a theory to explain thi! presence of th« grip germ. The 1 native habitat of the germ, he says, is the planet Mars, which is now very near to tho earth, and the germs have leaped through the intervening spare, lie believes that Mars is Inhabited by human beiugH like ourselves, who. he would Infer, have suffered recurrent attacks of the prevailing malady for years. Mr. Mushy draws a gloomy picture for February, hut one which will cheer the iceman's heart. He says the posi tion of the plauets augurs much cold ami stormy weather. Mr. Busby is the man to whom was imputed tho movement last summer to form a weather prophets' organization to regulate tho price of sunny days. Wear Gems Outside Furs. New York. —A new fashion set by Mrs. Btuyvesant Fish interested the tea drinkers in the Flaza the other afternoon. Mrs. Fish arrived at the Fifty-eighth street entrance of the Plaza when the rooms were thronged. She wore a long coat of broadtail fastened by n diamond ornament of great size. Ex cept for these gems there was no dash of color to relieve the costume. ; In a (lash this innovation had sunk deep in the hearts of other women, and tho way in which jewels were quickly shifted after Mrs. Kish had been seen, seemed to Indicate that in future gems will not hide their light under fur coats. HOMES IN CHARLESTOWN, IND. Some Built Nearly a Century Ago and Still Good. Jefferson vllle. Ind. Charlestown, nearly three-quarters of a century the county seat of Clark, probably lays claim to possessing more old houses, •some of them within a few years of a century old. than any other town In the state. These houses are mostly of ,brick, and seme of them, apparently, good for a century more. Among them is one owned by Louis Badger, which was built by Isaac Selby, an early day county official, and for a time It was occupied by Gov. Jonathan (Jennings, whose home, after retire ment from office, was near Charles jtown Tills house was built about (1812. Another house, erected about the same time, and perhaps earlier, be came the property of Capt. Daily in that year, and has remained in the possession of the family ever since. The Chris. Badger house is supposed to have been built in 1812 by Andrew “The American bison or buffalo, our grandest native animal, is in grave danger of boroniing extinct, and it is the duty of the people of to-day to preserve for future generations this picturesque wild creature, which has played so oonsplQqous a part In the history of America. We owe it to our descendants that all possible effort shall now be made looking to the per petual Increase and preservation of this noble animal, whose passing must otherwise soon be a matter of uni versal and lasting regret. "It is conceded, particularly by all authorities, that, owing to the uncer tainties of human life and tho changes In fortune and in policy among pri vate individuals and private corpora tions, the buffalo cannot be perpetu ated for centuries, and preserved from ultimate extinction, save under gov ernment auspices. At present nearly all the buffaloes In the United States are in private hands, and with few STATUE OF SHERIDAN Oopgrrlglit l»y W»ldoD Fawcett. The above photograph is a model of the monument which is to be erected to the famous cavalry leader in Washington. The statue depicts the general in the act of reining In his horse and returning a salute of his men. Unlike any of the other statues in the national capital this one will not be placsd upon a high pedestal, but will stand within three feet of the ground. McKeever. In 1830 it was a barracks for troops, and housed the Rangers. Another two-story brick house near by was erected by Rev. James Gar ner, a pioneer Methodist preacher, and the house known as the Alpha home, was constructed by a man named Faulkner, who built a second house about the same time, still in use and in good preservation. At the time the majority of these houses were built, town lots In Charlestown sold higher than in Louisville, Ky., on ac count of the elevation of the ground and consequent healthfulness. Foot Goes to Cemetery. New York. —Frederick H. Metzger of Jamaica, L. 1., whose right foot was amputated at St. Mary's hospital, asked that the member be given de cent burial. "It was a good foot." he said, “and I mean to do right by it now.” He was hurt by locomotive. The foot was burled in the Lutheran ceme tery. exceptions are for sale to anyone of fering a reasonable price. Many are sold every year, some for propagating purposes, and others to the butcher and tho taxidermist. Moreover, most >f them are in a few comparatively large herds, and should contagious disease at any time strike one of these, so great a percentage of the now remaining buffaloes might be wiped out at one blow us to make the perpetuation of the remainder prac tically an impossibility. "In the belief that Americans gen erally will be found in sympathy with a carefully planned movement to savo what might well be termed their na tional animal, and in order that all who desire may take part In the work of preservation, there was recently or ganized in New York city the Ameri can Bison society, which in accord ance with its constitution has for its object "the permanent preservation and Increase of the American bißon. "This society will seek to have es tablished in widely separated locali ties, under government auspices, sev eral herds of buffalo, on suitable ranges (preferably government land), such ranges to be chosen from a large number that have been recommended by competent persons. These herds, under proper management, should in crease until the race was no longer in danger of extinction. "With this end In view, the Ameri can Bison society has now begun an active campaign. A bill calling for national aid in the establishing of sev eral buffalo herds Is already under consideration. In the meantime the society purposes to make a deter mined effort to organize the interest of the public in the fate of the Ameri can buffalo, and presently bring it to bear In such a manner that it will re sult in the governments of both the United States and Canada taking ac tive measures to insure that animal's preservation and Increase. "The officers of the society are pre pared to do the work incidental to this campaign, but, in order that this work may be carried on promptly and vigorously, they must have the sup port of those whom they believe to be in sympathy with them. This sup port can best be given by joining the American Bison society and by urging others to join it. The work to be done requires money, and for this the so ciety depends entirely upon member ship fees and dues and occasional pri vate subscriptions. "The extinction of the buffalo would be an irreparable loss to American fauna; more than that, it would be a disgrace to our country. The passing of any great and noble animal 1b a calamity which all thoughtful persons should seek to avert. But the buf falo has a special claim upon us, inas much as the great service he rendered the country In early times were repaid with indescribable brutality and perse cution. By a series of cold blooded massacres never equaled by any other nation calling itself civilized, a great race of animals numbering countless millions was reduced to numbers so pitifully small that for a time It was regarded as practically extinct. The least we can do now to partly atone for this ruthless slaughter Is to Join In measures to prevent what must other wise be the final result of perhaps the greatest wrong ever Inflicted by man upon a valuable wild animal." Cuts Off Leopard’s Tail. Paris. —A novel surgical operation has Just been performed on a leopard. Paul, at Pezon's menagerie, by Prof. Dramard of the Military Veterinary college. The animal recently while eating his dinner also bit his tail, gan grene set in and it became necessary to amputate a portion of the tall to save his life. The leopard was lassoed, thrown on its back, a piece of soft wood was given it to gnaw, and while held by ten men the veterinary pro ceeded with the ablation of a portion of the tail and cauterized the wound. The animal roared considerably, but the operation was declared success ful. Splinter in Body Twenty-Two Years. Allentown, Pa.—Henry Walker of Emaus, underwent an operation at his home, and a splinter nearly three Inches long was removed from his ab domen. Mr. Walker does not know how the splinter became lodged In the ab domen, but for the past 22 years he had been having pain in that part of bis body. PEOPLE TO BLAME HAVE THOUGHTLESSLY AIDED IN CENTRALIZING INDUSTRIES. EVILS NOW CLEARLY SEEN Unequitable Distribution of the Earn ings of the People Inevitably Fol lowed—Growth of Small Towns and Communities Retarded. During the last few months of 1907 the people had a striking example of the effects of too much centralization. While all over the United States there was prosperity, a few embarrassed concerns In Wall street, New York, brought about a financial stringency that became generally felt. For years the agricultural sections have been sending money by the millions to the great financial cehters. Here it was used for the building up of great trusts and combinations, which were greatly overcapitalized. On this watered capitalization the people have been compelled to pay ponderous divi dends. One natural law Is that of concentrnl ization, segregation, and in these mat ters Nature carries on its work well, but unnatural concentration, like oth er infractions of natural laws, bring quick punishment. The centralization of industries which has been going on since the trust era started has brought about an unequitable distri bution of the earnings of the people. It has retarded the growth of towns and communities. It has brought in its wake many evils that affect work ers in every field. Yet for these evils the masses of people are to blame. Every man, woman and child who la bors and who sends the products of that labor to other places than the home community assists just so much in centralization of business and financial power. Every resident of a rural community who sends his dol lars to the large city helps along the trust builders and the centralizers. While tho mail-order evil Is one that is serious, it is only so as it is a means of centralization of business, and the consequent sapping from com munities the wealth that should be re tained In them. The commercial enterprises are the life elements of the rural towns. When these enterprises are destroyed, the town deteriorates. With the dis appearance of the town goes the home markets, the good schools and the churches and the other public con veniences that the town affords. With the going down of tho town, real es tate values are depreciated, and de pression conies to all the community. How would the farmers fare if the towns were wiped out and only the large cities allowed to exist? What kind of markets would the farmers have for all their produce? How does the average farmer And dealing with city concerns at the present time? When a shipment of eggs is made to the city commission man, does the farmer get as good returns as he does from the home dealers? How about other produce? It is the home mar kets that afford the growers of pro duce protection. When the calm thinker who is engaged in agriculture considers all these little matters, he will find that in home patronage lies the keystone of his success. How would the agricultural districts be as living places were there no home towns? But this Is what the situation would he if all the people of a com munity sent to some foreign place for all the goods required. Home is a word dear to all good citizens. That man lacks patriotism whose inclination it is to opposo the progress of the place where he re sides. By making better the home town, we are improving the com munity of which we are a part. We cannot Improve with out benefiting ourselves. We cannot give patronage to concerns in the large cities without giving Just so much help to the trust builders and the business centralizers. All these things are worthy of the most serious consideration of every citizen. Knock the Knocker. No enterprising, growing com munity, nor any other kind of a place, has any use for the malcontent, usually known us a “knocker." Many of tho worst specimens of knockers are not the ones who by their words injure the home town, but are the ones who without good reason send away all the money they have to spend to some distant place, thus robbing the home town of the support that it should rightly have. It Is the business that keeps the town alive. Anything that decreases the volume of business injures the place. One may claim that their money is earned by hnrd work, and that the right to spend it wherever they wish is theirs. But there is such a thing as princi ple. and by principles are men gauged by their fellow men. The "knocker” is one who values principle as noth ing worth preserving or protecting. Sometimes it is ignorance, the lack of knowledge, which Impels people to do things contrary to their own in terests and tho Interests of their neighbors; but it matters little how these things are brought about, the evil effect is just the same. Adulterated Foodstuffs. The chemist in charge of the labora tory of the department of agriculture at Chicago has been paying careful attention to the purity of foods. Re cently he made a statement that one great spice company annually ground up 600 tons of cocoanut shells and fla vored the same with essential oils and then sold the powdered stuff for pure spices. He related about another con cern which sold SIOO,OOO worth of 3plcea annually, only five per cent, of which were pure. The common arti cles used for adulteration of spices are sawdust, brick dust, burnt grains, cocoanut shells and other kinds of shells and barks. It Is the aim of the United States government to put an end to this adulteration of foods. Since the government has become active in tracing down such frauds a number of unscrupulous grocery houses have been compelled to go out of business. BUILDING UP THE CHARACTER. A Few Word* to the Youth Who Would Make the Most of Life. It Is well that the majority of us value being well thought of. Few young men. anxious to make the most of life, care to have what Is common ly known as a “bad reputation." Do you, young man, ever stop to think that there are immutable laws that control the universe and all therein? Do you ever consider that light Is only the evidence of a luminous body? That the brilliancy of the diamond is merely the rays reflected from the perfectly crystalized carbon? Reputa tion is only the reflection from char acter as It Is variously projected upon the screen of public opinion; but rep utation is not character, any more than the light is the luminous body, but is merely the effulgence, the re sult of character. The imitation diamond for a time may rival In splendor and brilliancy the reflections of light of the genuine gem, but this brilliancy is soon dulled. The same with reputation, which sometimes attaches to character which will not stand the test of time, or the scrutiny of the exacting ©ye of justice. Week after week wo read In the pages of the press of the downfall and disgrace of men high in public estimation, and who, until their duplicity wus exposed, were men of most excellent reputation—reputation reflected falsely from an unclean char acter. Character is the mold of moral con sciousness. It Is the outgrowth of the heart carefully nurtured by truth and love and directed by intelligence solely influenced by that which is moral in man. It Is by reputation that we are to be judged by those with whom we are thrown in either business or social Intercourse. Our own acts are the standard by which we will be either praised or con demned. Our own acts are the indica tions of the spirit within. Though we may be most excellent In character, sometimes we may be falsely estimat ed; may acquire through some misun derstood circumstance a reputation un desirable. Hut character ever counts. It is sure to bring to the front its worth. The diamond may be robbed of its brilliancy for a time by grime and dirt, but it Is nevertheless a dia mond. Your true worth may be ob scured for a time, but it is sure to become known. Character is the greatest thing the young man has to guard. It Is the only sure foundation upon which hopes can be rightly based. He who is true to himself cannot be untrue to others. Would you have character and repu tation, you must work, constantly, un ceasingly, as conscience becomes dead ened and degenerate when not exer cised, and conscience directs the building of character. There are qualities In man that mark his great ness and his superiority—the moral and the mental, and it is by the exer cise of these that greatness and suc cess are gained. AUTOMOBILES FOR THE FARM. Tillers of the 801 l to Be on Equality with People of Towns. One of the large companies en gaged in the manufacturing of farm machinery proposes placing on the market at an early date an automobile especially designed for farm use. This machine will be sold at a reasonable price, and will be put out in various styles ranging from a runabout to a heavy farm truck, which the farmer can use in transporting his grain and other produce to the markets. Transportation of farm produce to the railroad stations and the markets is a question of economy. It is esti mated that at the present time It costs the farmer about nine cents per hundred pounds to carry his grain a distance of 12 miles to the railroad station or market place. ' It is ex pected that, the Installation of auto mobiles for hauling purposes will de crease the expense to three or four cents per hundred pounds. The com ing of the farm automobile means fur ther improvement of roads. Already the automobile and the rural deliv ery of mail has worked wonders in the way of stimulating interest in road improvement. Once the farmers become automobile users they will be more energetic workers, in fact, enthusiasts for high-class highways. Another use of the automobile in agricultural districts is its employ ment by merchants for delivering goods to patrons in the country. In a number of eastern states enterjVis ing merchants send out their clerks with automobiles in the morning to solicit the orders of the people resid ing on the nearby farms, and use the automobile for delivering goods in the afternoon. Merchants who have adopted this plan have found it prof itable and their business greatly in creased, not considering the adver tising received by this innovation. Parable of the Foolish Citizen. Once there was a good man who labored hard on the farm, and on each Sunday went religiously to church. In time he gained sufficient wealth to move into a near-by town, where ail his children were afforded a chance for acquiring an education. For all his supplies he sent to a dis tant city. He opposed every proposi tion to pave the streets of the place, to Improve the very schools his chil dren attended, and when the assessor visited him he was verily a pauper for taxation purposes. This man was a highly moral man, a pillar in the church, and even worked a soap-club deal in order to secure for the Sun day school an organ. At last he died. It is recorded that he entered the pearly gates for which he long hoped and prayed. The streets were golden, and there was beauty on every ■•Cde. He marveled; became enraptured with all he saw. To some angels standing by he spoke: "This place must have cost a pile of money?” "Yes," replied one of the white-winged attendants, "but it has been paid for below. Each one coming here must help bear the burden of taxes —” Just then a saintly-looking man approached with a book, and the new arrival from the farm took one look at him, and believing him to be the assessor, bolt ed out through the gate—and then woke up. FARM&CARDEM WAGON SCOOP BOARD. How the Farmer Can Make On# for Himself. This is my description of a scoop board for a wagon, writes a corre spondent of Farmers' Mail and Breeze: First, get two 8-Inch boards about 2V6 The Scoop Board Closed. feet long and taper down on one end about four inches. Then get two 2x4s two inches longer than your wagon box is wide. Use eight-penny nails in nailing the floor to the 2x4s and six or eight-inch boards for the floor of The Way It Open*. scoop board. Nail together and bore a flve-eightß-inch hole through the out side floor board about eight inches from the end for the rods. Use three eights or one-half-inch rods with one Joint about feur inches from the upper side boards at the ends and nail two cleats on the up x-' Sy./ per and lower side of the flve-elghts-inch holes so It won’t split out when scooping from the board. Bolt a 2x3 to the end piece of the wagon box, using bolts three eights by 6Vi Inches long. Bore two holes in a piece of side board iron or thin iron about one inch wide and eight inches long for screws, bending It as shown In small end. to fasten the rods and hold them in place to keep the board closed. MORE ROTATION NEEDED. Farmers Who Have Not Adopted Sys tern Should Do 80. Some of our farmers have adopted systems of rotation, but more need to do so. We have as yet too many farmers that are growing one crop on the same area continually. Where th«re is rotation, it Is noted that the rotation frequently consists of the fre quent changing of two crops, like corn and oats. A wide rotation is better than a narrow one, for by the wider system of rotation a greater number of crops can be grown. Thus, a rota tion that includes clover, potatoes, peas, beans, corn, wheat and oats, is far better than a rotation of corn and oats only. Although rotation will not of itself keep up the fertility of land, it assists greatly in keeping the land in a good condition, by keeping it free from weeds and predatory insects. Many farmers already grow half a dozen crops on their land and could easily change their methods so that these crops would follow each other on the same fields rather than each srop growing in a particular place year after year. To keep up the land, rotation of crops should be combined with a good system of fertilizing, says Farmers' Review. On the great fertile prairies of the west the farmers have become •o accustomed to farming without put ting manure on the land that they have already continued the practice 100 long. Even new land will not stand this process forever. PROFIT ON SMALL FARM. An Instance Where Twenty Acres Proved Very Remunerating. Many farmers bewail the fact that they haven't got room enough and that they can not make money on a 20-acre farm. A farmer of the middle western states has made the following figures of what he produced on 20 acres in one season: Hogs $528.00 Wheat 45.00 Strawberries £2.00 Eggs 110.00 Fall pigs, worth 75.00 Total $840.00 We bought corn to amount of.. 150.00 Balance $690.00 This 20 acres used to be veiy poor land. QUIET THINKS. Can you tell what things cost? It is not a good plan to feed grown up fowls too much soft food, as it tends to make them dyspeptic. Here is a sensible Nebraskan: "When times are out of fix and folks are out of work, the old farm is the best to tie to.” When one has to take a pick to dig cut his corn to get it to the sheller, it’s time to think about growing a variety of com that will get ripe and sound. Keep sowing clover. Both the hay and seed crops have paid well and the demand for good seed has not slack ened. Be careful to get a good, clean quality. A whole lot of may be mixed up in a bushel of dirty clover seed. Too much live stock is quite as bad for the farmer as too much land. Do not crowd the stock and do not keep more than can be fed well. If you have more than this sell the surplus speedily. ALFALFA IN THE NORTH. Discussion of the Best Methods •$ Se curing a Stand. Alfalfa for Wisconsin and the pos sibilities of growing this wonderful plant in our northern latitudes was the theme of an interesting and help ful address by Prof. R. A. Moore of the University of Wisconsin before the 1908 meeting of the cheesemakers’ association. Prof. Moore believes that alfalfa, while yet in its experi mental stage in Wisconsin, has come to stay. A thing most important in the pro duction of alfalfa is testing the seed for germination. In recent years al falfa seed has tested as low as ten per cent, germinating quality. Much of the germination power is ruined in the way alfalfa seed is occasionally han dled through heating before being separated, etc. The remedy for farm ers is. of course, to put the seed through a germinating test before seeding. The usual process may be followed, taking for example 100 seeds and placing these on a moistened pad of cotton cloth, a similar pad placed on the top of these between two plates, where they may be left at the proper temperature for a few days to germinate. Then remove the top plate and pad and count results. If the seed tests below 80 per cent, you may begin to feel suspicious of it. In securing this crop in these north ern latitudes the farmer should first learn how, experimenting in a small, though practical way. Put in an acre, or a half acre, to begin with, and then start in to get conditions right. Do not seed on low, level valley. Select a gentle slope. An ideal soil for alfalfa is a clay loam on top of gravel. This plant wants a soil it can penetrate. You, who are at all ramiliar with alfalfa, will remember that it sends down a taproot occasion oily 10 to 15 feet and more. Where al falfa will be grown to advantage in the near future in Wisconsin is In the older, subdued soils of the south cen tral counties. Further north in the state its development must necessa rily be slower. Alfalfa is easy on a soil. It is a legume and has the power of taking nitrogen from the air, a most wonder ful and valuable consideration. In preparation of the soil we like to sow alfalfa in rotation with other crops. We like to use a thin nurse crop of either oats or barley, preferring bar ley, If this does well on the land. Make a fine seedbed in the spring and sow one bushel of oats or barley to the acre and 20 pounds of good alfalfa seed. Put in only one or two acres at most at the beginning, and not 40 acres. We must largely learn by doing, even though w*e understand the principles of alfalfa growing. It is often found best to cut this crop the first year, in order to prevent the nurse crop from smothering the young alfalfa plants. Cut the oats the Drat year for hay and you may possibly cut a second crop of alfalfa the same sea son. In harvesting, cut In the morning after the dew Is off the ground and on a fair day. In the afternoon rake into windrows and cock It up, even If it appears quite green to the eye. You will thus save the leaves through ex cessive drying off. They will not crack and become lost. I favor the use of hay caps to protect alfalfa from sun and air. It keeps the plant palata ble to stock. We like, if possible, to let alfalfa go through the sweating process in the cock before taking to the barn. REPAIRING BUGGY WHEELS. Holder Which Will Make the Task an Easy One. Make a box eight or ten inches square at the bottom and six Inches square at the top, 2>/ a to 3 feet tall, as Fig. I—Wheel Ready to Paint. shown in fig. 1. Have your blacksmith make a screw hook and eyebolt of half-inch iron of a combined length to match the box. Screw the hook into Fig. 2—Support for Wheel. the shop floor, explains the Prairie Farmer, place the box over it, catch the eyebolt into the hook, place the wheel on top of the box with a board washer and tighten the nut on the eye bolt to hold the wheel while at work, as in fig. 2. Immense Stock Business. The Union Stockyards. Chicago, have now been doing business for 42 years. A report has Just been made of the number of animals of all kinds received during that time. The totals for each class of animals follow: Cat tle. 84,804,114; calves. 4.525.305; hogs, 246,859,208; sheep, 79.605,895; horses. 2,309,556; grand total, 418,004,078. During the year just closed the re ceipts were: Cattle. 3,306,314; calves. 421,934; hogs, 7.201.061; sheep, 4,218,- 083; horses. 102,087. The number of carß used in hauling these animals fr market totaled 287,981.