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KILLING FEVER TICKS.
Promising Experiments Undertaken by the Agricul tural Department GUY ELLIOTT MITCHELL. To stamp out Texas cattle fever. This is the hope of the Department of Agriculture. The Department has been working on the problem for some time, and it has almost been proved to the satisfaction of officials that the tick which causes the fever can be eradicated from a pasture simply by keeping cattle out of that pasture. The tick is not a herbivorous insect, ajid it will die out if the pasture is kept free of cattle. It is believed that if one pasture on a farm is always kept free of cattle over what might be termed the life period of the tick, it will furnish perfectly safe pasturage for uninfected animals in case fever breaks out in the rest of the herd. Of course, the Department of Agri culture has no right to go into a State and enforce the free pasturage policy, and the matter cannot be, or at least is not, always dealt with satisfactorily by State officials. But in cases where the Department is officially invited to come into a State and take charge of cleaning it up, it is quite ready to do so. Tentative arrangements have al ready been made for this work with the authorities *n some States, and it is believed that it will be quite pos sible to stamp out the fever and al low the free interstate transportation CATTLE INFECTED WITH TEXAS FEVER*’ of cattle, which is now prohibited. The saving in money and the convenience to shippers of this arrangement can easily be understood. To Introduce Cattle from India* While this quarantine and extlrpa tlon work is going on, a similar experi ment on different lines directed to the same end will soon be under way. There have been imported to some of the Texas ranges specimens of the Indian sacred cattle, and It has been found that they were immune to the Texas fever. Apparently there is an oil in the skin that is repugnant to the tick. At any rate they will not har bor the parasite. The half-bloods and even animals containing but one-six teenth part Indian blood have been found immune, and they make just as good beef cattle as can be found. There are very stringent laws against the importation of foreign stock into this country without thor ough examination and quarantine; therefore it is risky to import stock from so far away as India without especial provisions for its examination. Mr. A. 8. Borden of Pierce, Tex., has arranged, however, with the Agricul tural Department to make a large Im portation of the immune Indian cat tle, and has already left for British India to pick them out The Depart ment of Agriculture will send a spe cial veterinary after him, and the first shipment of about 100 head will be BYE CROWN ON WEIL MANURED LAND. TYPICAL CROP WHERE MANURE IS 10ASTED. examined before they are shipped, and then quarantined on one of the small islands off the gulf coast till It Is de termined that there is no danger of their bringing into this country some strange bovine affliction even worse perhaps than Texas fever. After the animals have been thor oughly proven, they will be introduced among the Texas herds, and It is hoped UWLT $l.OO. SPECIAL 60 BAY OFFER TO INTRODUCE OMR NEW EXCELSIOR SOUR TELESCOPE. Mg ~ 5555? —«»■“ Si-^^/S^^w^lr^s^rs^nswfJi’cfsres that they will produce a fever-resisting strain that will be a valuable acquisi tion to the cattle men of the South west These two experiments of Uncle Sam’s farm department hold out a promise of very great importance to the live-stock industry, and conse quently to all meat consumers. The Manure Pit. Where is the wise farmer who would sell to his neighbor a load of his finest corn or a load of some green crop for a dollar bill, Yet there are thousands of agriculturists all over the country who are doing practically this very thing when they dispose of their barn yard manure for $1 a load. Others are wasting the most valuable constitu ents of the manure they save. The manure produced on the farm is its most valuable asset. There are in the United States, in round numbers, 17,000,000 horses, 61,- 000,000 cattle, 47,000.000 hogs and 45.- 000,000 sheep. Experiments have shown that if these animals were kept in stalls or pens throughout the year and the manure, both liquid and solid, carefully saved, the approximate value of the manure produced by each horse annually would be $27, by each head of cattle sl9, by each hog sl2 and by each sheep $2. The fertilizing value tot TUI the manure produced would, therefore, be tor horsea, $459,000,000; cattle, $1,169,000; hogs, $564,000,000; and sheep, $90,000,000, or a total of $2,272,000,000. These estimates are based on the values usually assigned to phosphoric acid, potash and nitrogen in commer cial fertilizers, and art. possibly some what too high from a practical stand point On the other hand, no account Is here taken of the value of manure for Improving the mechanical condi tion and drainage of soils which Is almost as Important a consideration as its direct fertilizing value. It Is generally conceded that at least one tblrd of the value of manure Is lost by presedt wasteful management or a total loss to the country of over $750,000,000. Return Full Value to the Soil. If a farmer desires to maintain the productiveness of his land. It Is es sential that the amount of potash, pMbsphorlc acid and nitrogen removed through the selling of meat, milk, grain, bay, fruits, vegetables, etc., should be restored through an Intel ligent conservation of the barnyard manure. It seems to be a bard matter to In duce the average farmer to abandon the time-honored practice of piling manure in the open air, exposing It to leaching by ralna and fermentation by hot mid-aummer nuns, and adopt ra tional scientific methods. He also hesi tates to Incur the necessary expense of building suitable receptacles for the storage of manure, frequently assum ing that this expense Is greater than It really la. Manure Is considered a waste and II Is hard for him to put into practice the new idea that the manure should be as carefully pre served from unnecessary loss, as should any other farm product, after he has for twenty years stored the farmyard manure under the eaves upon the slope which forms one border of the running brook. Experiments made by various Gov ernment experiment stations show that the construction of sheds or covered yards for the protection of manure is well worth while. The manure from the horse and cattle stables and the sheep and calf pens should be spread out evenly over these yards, covered with coarse litter, and the whole kept firmly packed by allowing animals to run over It, thus preventing Injurious fermentation. To Save All the Fertility. A more elaborate and expensive style of covered yard, a plan for which Is furnished by the Department of Agriculture, provides not only for the required protection of both animals and manure, but also affords an ex cellent grain chamber where feed can be Btored for convenient use. Under the side roofs is also afforded a chance for the storing of small tools and a great variety of articles that are con tinually in the way when lying about the farm buildings. It also provides splendid protection to animals when housed at night during the summer, this roof protecting them from heavy showers In the night and affording good chance for exercise In the win ter, as all the sides, except that toward the Bouth, can be protected against cold winds through tempo rary boarding. Many stables are so situated that by adding a cheap lean-to. a manure “pit" Is easily produced. The out. side boarding of the lean-to should be, for a part of the way at least, put horizontally and hung In the form of flat doors, so that the manure can be easily loaded on a wagon standing on the outsido of the building. A great number of farmers who have adopted manure sheds and covered A CONVENIENT COVEBED BARNYABDI yards have obtained unsatisfactory re-11 suits, but the Department of Agrlcul ture believes that this Is probably due 1 1 to the fact that these structures have J generally been loosely put together, i i allowing a free circulation of air, i which has dried out the manure. On i this account barn cellars, so common : In New England, possess decided ad- 1 ■ vantages as receptacles for manure, i The common practice of allowing , swine to “work over” the manure in : these cellars is a wise one, since It : mixes the manure and keeps it well packed and moist In fact. If these . cellars are provided with Impervious tottoms to hold the liquid manure, : this system of storage Is probably tho most perfect practiced. I Manure the Best fertilizer. Barnyard manure Is the most ef-' fective means at the disposal of tho average farmer to permanently im prove his soil. No other fertilizer pos sesses to so great a degree the power of restoring worn out soils to produc tiveness and giving them lasting for tlllty. It provides actual fertilizing constituents; It Improves the physical properties of the soil, Increasing tho amount of humus, which Is generally deficient In worn soils, bettering its texture and Increasing Its water-ab sorbing and water-holding power. Ex periments have shown that the Influ ence of manure may be perceptlblo twenty years after application. It dl-i rectly represents fertility drawn from I the soil and must be returned to it If productiveness Is to be maintained. In many cases It has been demon*. Btrated that the value of the manure obtained in cattle feeding represents largely, if not entirely, the profit of feeding. There are sound, scientific reasons for the high esteem in which farm manure is held. It contains all the fertilizing elements required by plants in quickly available fofms that insure plentiful crops and permanent fertility. It supplies nitrogen, phos phoric acid and potash, and it also ren ders the stored-up materials of the soil more available, makes it more fri able and warmer, and enables it to retain more moisture. THE WASTE OP BARNYARD MANURE. Rattlesnake Den . Wo were lumbering in central Penn sylvania during the summer of IS7O, our portable steam mill standing in a piece of woodland, near a small stream and w'ithin a short half mile of a rocky ledge, known as “Rattle snake Den.” During the hot days, rattlers were constantly met, and “Harry," who drove the dally stage through tho "Nar rows,” had won quite a local reputa tion from having killed moro than a score since the melting of the snows. The pretty young wife of our en gineer had charge of the boarding bouse, and after the noon meal was served, the dishes cleared away and the house put in order, she was ac customed to bring her sewing into the shade near our Planer, which was the cleanest and coolest part of the mill, and sit for an hour or tw*o before com mencing the preparation of the sup per. She was a sweet, attractive sight that hot afternoon of which I speak, her beautiful arms and neck rival ling the whiteness of her simple frock, the only female in our camp of rough, brawny men, but one whom any. of us would have defended from all harm at any risk. Some of the men were rolling up the logs on the skid, some sawing them into boards, others carrying the boards to tho yard, while my partner, Manuel Motz, was personally tending to the more skillful work at the planer. In I front of which nnd facing It, Mar aat.' I was Just then acting as engineer 1 and firomnn, and ns I happened to look In their direction, to iny horror, saw-an immense rattler, colled within a foot or less of May’s back, his body swaying to and fro, and his angry eyes t shining liko sparks of Are. I was lit erally paralysed with terror, for though but twenty feet away, it seemed as If the blow would be struck bo fore I could take oven tho first step. Mots must have seen tho snake at tho same moment, for I heard his voice clear and sharp above the roar or all the machinery, "May, thcro’s a rattle snake that will strike If you move; sit perfectly still." As ho spoke he grabbed from a beam the bull whip, I which we used for our ox team, and | with the slightest movement of his powerful wrist snapped It at the rep tile, as If striking at a fly. I remem ber I thought what a fool action that was, why didn’t ho dnsh forward and at least attract its attention! But I looked again and tho body lay quiv ering and twisting, but with a broken neck. "Pretty close call, May,” he said cheerily, "but Its easy when you know the trick." May had been perfectly cool and obedient tilt the danger was past, and then, womanlike, she quietly swooned away, and fat a day or two we did our own cooking. Automobiles are now running a mite in lass than half a minute, and two miles la one minute. BEWARE OF NOSTRUMS Which hkn Ist* th* ihKb t* con • coaokiat am liable to create a habit fer streng 4riak. vmn piucma •* iubmiw lathe surest means of curia* disease. .The action of nearly every drug Is three if not four times treater If absorbed by the Sin— than if swallowed. "SI HOLMAN’S Jk LIVER PAD |& W A 1 Is the only Aalto and *ase fWT I method ot treating: liver and atom. I lUgdM I ach complaints. I'he tonic prop -1 perries of the Holman Liver Pad Tllaoi «««■* enter I the system through the nerves and circulation, Jmt where yon need It. For the cure of all complaints due to a disordered coir dldon of the Stssisfh. Live* or ItMneya iu action in restoring a healthy condition is wooderful. The Holman Liver Pad causes to be removed from the system all neleons. leaving the various organs free to jM-rform their under natural conditions, this For the positive and absolute Car* of Mslsrla the Holman I Jver Pad has never been known to fall. It la a Positive Preventive of Yellow Fever, Typhoid Fever, Smallpox, Diphtheria and Biliousness. Having used your Pads for some months pest, both in my practice and family, I unhesitatingly recommend them to die profession and public for all diseases of die liver and stomach. Toe Pads have never failed to dive 1 me entire satisfaction, very respectfully, Atlanta Ga. wTn. JUDSON, M. D. Fun thtatj. If yoo desire to give the Holman Liver Pad a Free 1 Print mail the coupon to . Mslnaa Pod tsnaaay, yg Cortland St., New York. OOUPOHI. ■OLMAI PA» CMVART. 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