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The depletion of the timber lot and
the gradual decrease in the supply of lumber, with the consequent increase in the cost of wood, make the erection of fences on the farm a matter of con cern, lor the landholder heretofore has looked upon wood ns a proper material for the construction of an effective fence. Metal—that is. fence wire— hag almost entirely replaced the rails which at one time were considered necessary to make a fence stock-proof. We still find, however, that timber is, in most localities, the cheapest material for fence posts, though the supply avail able is becoming scarcer each year, and it Is possible that in the future it may be necessary in every section or the country to use posts made of Iron or concrete, even as is now done in many places. An essential feature of a rail fence Is a comparatively short panel, but now that wire is, in the majority of cases, taking the place of the rail, it is questionable whether as many posts are necessary as was the case when rail were used. Recent tests were made at an English experiment station to de termine upon the best method of con structing a fence. One point considered was whether a fence constructed with a dropper is as efficient and durable as one constructed entirely with posts. A second point under consideration was the minimum number of posts required in the construction of an efficient and durable fence when droppers are used and the character of the dropper re quired for best results. The dropper is a thin vertical brace used to strengthen the stretch of wire between posts. As metal is admittedly more durable than wood, an endeavor was made to obtain a suitable rigid metal dropper, but with out success. NOTCH THE CORNER POSTS LOW. An error that farmers sometimes make in erecting a fence is that they place the corner supports or struts too near the top of the post, and conse quently at too great an.angle with the line of the fence, so that when the wires are stretched tightly the post is pulled out of the ground, notwithstanding that huge bowlders are piled against the post or hung on it, in an endeavor to keep it in the ground. One fence which has been found to prove very satisfactory consists of square posts and top rail, with three or four rows of plain wire fastened on the outside edges of the post, instead of through holes bored in the uprights. To these wires is fastened ordinary poultry net ting with, say, an inch and a-half or two-inch mesh. This netting may be strained very tight and will lie as flat as a board, the appearance of the fence being thereby greatly improved. While the use of hardwire in the construction of fences is regretted, ow ing to the injury w’hich it sometimes inflicts upon the live stock, there is no doubt that its employment under cer tain conditions prolongs the life of a fence, deterring stock from rubbing against it and unduly straining the plain wires. It has been argued thal stock soon get to understand how dan- A PLEASING FENCE OF TIMBER AND POULTRY WIRE. Serous barb-wire is, and when in a quiet condition are rarely injured by it; but once excited by panic or play they forget its danger and often suffer In consequence. While there may be some styles of woven fence which will enable the farmer to discontinue barb wire, the new material must have suf ficient elasticity to recover from occa sional very severe and unusual strains and also sufficient to respond to our varied conditions of heat and cold, and ao require no straining after its erec tion. The American fence manufactur ers seem to be ahead of the Europeans to the production of wire fences, for It FENCES AND GATE POSTS. GUY ELLIOTT MITCHELL. is possible to obtain from them fences constructed entirely of metal at small cost While the tin progressive farmer is content to have a few bars to let down in order to admit of the passage of teams or wagons, no fence is complete without an entrance, and therefore without a gate, for at best bars are only makeshifts and a loss of both time and temper. It is surprising how common they are when excellent and serviceable light gates can now be pur chased very cheaply and even where the lack of money is an obstacle to this a handy man can, with the aid of an axe, a hammer and some nails build and hang a strong useful gate with no A SUBSTANTIAL ROAD GATE. other outlay than the expenditure of a few hours’ labor and certainly in less time than is required in the continual putting down and up of the bars. Experiment has showu that it is ad visable to have the openings of the farm gates 1C feet wide or thereabouts in order to admit of the transfer of the j Fence Distorted l by Improperly ! Placed Corner Supports farm implements from one field to an other. Where some fields are planted with small green crops from which the farmer desires to keep his poultry it is thought best that the bottom rail of this gate should be within an inch of I the ground so that the poultry cannot 1 crawl under. The gate should be quite neparate and distinct from any post* used in the construction of the fence, as a better effect is obtained without additional trouble if they are slightly higher than the uprights In the gate and higher than the fence posts adjoining the gateway. The main entrance to the farm and also the gateways around the dwelling may he still further improved if a little addi tional trouble is taken to square the gate postH and round off the tops. No gate can be said to be finished until it is painted, for not only does painting aid in giving a tidy appear ance, but prolongs the life of the wood. It will be better and a saving: of time if the timber after being cut up for tlie gates is given a couple of coats of paint before being put together. After the gate is completed and hung, it can be given a final coat. The first or priming coat should be very thin; in fact, may be nearly all raw linseed oil. The second and last coats wUI, of course, be a littlo thicker, and in order to dry hard, and with a little gloss, should contain a small quantity of tur pentine and boiled oil. While tastes may differ as to color, results have shown that white seems to give the most satisfaction, while the iron work painted black will make a slight con trast, adding to the improved appear ance of the gateway. STILL USE DASHER CHURNS. Even in this Day off Creameries, But ter Is Made in the Oood Old. Fashioned Way. The chances are ten to one or better that the butter you buy at the grocery store now was made in a creamery, for the great bulk of the butter consumed in this country is made in milk estab lishments. But there is still some but ter made by hand, and “we still sell churns right along.“ The greater number of the individ ual churns now sold, said a churn manufacturer in Chicago recently, in speaking of the growth of the cream ery business, are of the cylinder type, operated by a crank, turning within the churn a wheel with paddles, some times like the paddlewheel of a steam boat; but we still sell as well, churns of the old-fashioned type, such as our grandmothers used, and such as their grandmothers used before them. 1 might add that the old-fashioned dasher churn Is still, as it has always been, painted blue. Who still buys these old styles hand churns in the day of machine-made butter? Why. so to speak, the oldest people, and the most modern, too. They are bought by small farmers keeping only one or a few cows, who naturally continue to make their own Where the C< Cl ner Support II |Prevent th«? !' II from Pullin Jf Out. butter, and who make It, of course, with a hand churn. Some of these farmers might make more butter than they would require for their own m-e; and the surplus they would sell, as they would their surplus eggs, to rue country store. And you find larger farmers, too, farmers perhaps keeping many cows and selling the bulk of their milk to a creamery, still continuing to make the butter that they need for them selves and making it, as they have al ways done, in a hand churn. Such churns are sold to people liv ing in suburban or country homes and keeping cows, who make their own butter because they prefer to, anyway, and they are bought by various people everywhere who want sweet, or un salted butter and who make It for themselves in hand churns. America exports churns to the West Indies and South America and to New Zealand and Australia and to dairying countries in various other parts of the world; but we still supply our own people with the old-fashioned dasher as we did twenty years ago. TO TACKLE HAZERS. Tim hnzlng IrliilH at Annapolis, fob lowed by the lonx discussion of the subject In anil out of Congress, hove served to widely advertise the Acad emy, and, as a result, there hits been an unusual rush of applications from ambitious young men who aspire to be eomawdmlrnls. Many of the applicants breathe defiance to all hazcrs and re cite Instances of their physical pow ers lo demonstrate their fitness for ap pointment. One of the letters recently received at the Navy Department ran as follows: "I play football, hnvc been captain of the basketball team those last two years. I am also an expert with box ing gloves, and would like to have some of the Annapolis fellows try their hazing tricks on me, I Imagine they would have to get real busy if they tried to stand me on my, head and make me eat soap." CONSOLIDATED SCHOOLS. Assistant Secretary hays Points Out Necessity for More Thorough Farm Education. Is in Effect a Country high School. The consolidated school question Is a feature of the country school educa tion problem which is % rapidly coming to the fore, especially in the northwest, and it promises much for better farm education. The proposition is that six or seven or ten of the cross-roads schools »in any rural district shall be combined into one larger school and were it not for the question of trans portation of the scholars to and from the central school, it would undoubted ly meet with universal favor. From an educational point of view the ad vantages of the consolidated school, plan are very great. Assistant Sec-. retary of Agriculture Hays is au on | thusiastic advocato of the plan and states that where the plan has been, put into operation the beneficial re sults have been manifold. The ques tion has been agitated to a consider able extent in his own State of Minn esota, due largely to his own efforts Professor Hays is thoroughly alive to ! the fact that a better scheme of edu cation is needed for the farm boy if he is to keep his foremost position among the world's agriculturists. FOR BETTER FARM EDUCATION. The time. Professor Hays says, has gone by when an “ordinary” school education will serve for the farm boy The three R's are not sufficient to enable him to succeed in life. He must have special education for farming Just as the young man or woman who is to ent* r professional Life has special in struction along the lines he expects to follow. And so tho consolidated school comes in. with its belter educa tional facilities. Canada has taken an advanced stand on this question and is consolidating her country schools. In a word the farmers children are being given the advantages of a high school education As President Creelman. of the On tar. o Agricultural College has pointed out. the system undoubtedly is, from a standpoint of dollars and cents, more expensive, for the first few years at lea.-* : but the rural ratepayer has It to decide for himself whether he would rather pay five dollars more per year and secure for his boy or girl such Increased benefits as the consolidated school can give or leave them In the hands of an inexperienced girl teacher «ho perhaps does her best in a little on-roomed school, without facilities ( of demonstration of any kind. PRACTICAL FARM SCIENCE. j One of the most Important features of t.nese schools is the school garden. *:.• re practical farm science is taught ir. a practical way Such gardens are r however, confined to the con s' !a*e<l schools, but are now b*-ing Y- • in connection with a number of t more progressive district schools lx . irious parts of tho country. They I are usually from two to three acres in area, divided into experimental and individual plots for each of the pupils, ranging la size from six feet square to six by ten or even twenty. The general plan of laying out each garden involves (1) a belt of native trees and shrubs surrounding the grounds; (2) a half-acre playfleld for the boys: (3) a lawn bordered with shade trees for the girls: Mi a shaded walk each for boys and girls, about a hundred yards long; (5) an attractive approach to the school, consisting chiefly of a piece of open lawn, with shrubs and flowers on either side; (G) a suitable reservation for Individuals and class plots; (7) an orchard plot or border: (8) a forest plot in which the chi*-f native trees are grown from the seed. PLANTS GROWN BY PUPILS. J The ordinary range of vegetables and a selection of flowering plants are grown in these gardens, the pupils themselves furnishing the necessary work. In the large schools two hours each week are found sufficient for j the garden work, and fine hour in ' the smaller. In both casea under the supervision of the teacher or a special ; Instructor. The school garden serves a double purpose, since it not only provides the most practical form of nature study but acts as a valuable In centive in tho general school work. It Is no uncommon sight during the sum mer season to see a public school In session out of doors, not with slate and pencil but with- hoe and shovel. The pupils thoroughly enjoy It. They are allowed the proceeds of their plots as their own property and in addi tion may take home the plants left over from thinning out The class plots are reserved as a source of rev enue for the school and as a supply. In some cases, for the school lunches. Former Iron Master Andrew Car negie has Indorsed the idea of phonetic spelling—making the words sound as they read, or read as they sound— either way. —naianaag —B——BMM ofi'ctA. 3 tfc JU 'tyo rLt hfvy c"V Sj»*£*vy.fr' smjutm nfltsitto aw *‘^6C tA>-Vr? i fviv /ru> ujtJktA. . 3ia. **A*ao a-4* i? ®i/ia am au> i^°/^Jkr. “I Grow Hair” Free $1.2? Package No Longer Any Excuse For Dandruff, Falling Hair or Baldness. Before and After Using This M&gic Compound. Foao Actually grv»» hair, stop* hair falling out, remove* dan.lt ufl and quickly feature* luxuriant growth to *hinitig tealps, eyebrow » an.l evelaahe*. and quickly rctiore* gray or (ailed hair to it* natural color. 1 don't a»k you to take my w. td lor It; l»-t me tend you a full fi.co pat kage free. \N rite ti>-day. FREE Sl.OO PACKAGE COUPON Fill out the blank lines below. eut out the . tuiann j and mall to J. 6. si -lm Mgr , 640? I'ohi I'M* . f\i,. ■ innau I - W-rt.<nl« >ll istaiuj- • *:;>.r | a# an erl.rno* of (i«>l faitb and belli cover |u< k lng. postage. etc . and the |su Isaac will t<e - at you at once by mail free of ebarvt. | Gir# full addrm*—write plainly. - zrri JOE, THE INDIAN DOG. From Sunset. "Did he ever make friends with the battery boys?” "No," «aid .Sergeant Wright, “he nev er did. I understand dogs, ami 1 know that our dog Joe died of a broken heart at Fort Stevens, at the moutn of the Columbia, and we gave him a sort of Informal military funeral and buried hirn where the monning of the bar is always heard. There had been a battle near the Yellowstone, and the Net Per on hud gradually bad to give way and retreat as the dusk drew' down to hide the damage of the day. Hut ull the war riors did not go. Anmng the rocks up the carton, nine of them lay in one heap, seven In another, at rest at last Four dogs were there doing the Casa biam a act. and a ••>!dlei IllOgd one of them in form and color like a fox. and brought him Into camp. Joe was the name given him. and day after day he was led by some mem ber of the company until the long flf teen-hundred-mile man h was ended. He tolerated the portion of the rations handed him. but never smiled in r< turn, and merely ate to live He con formed to constituted authority us a matter of common sense, and on the long steamboat trip down the Missouri to Omaha. a< ross by rail t<» the Pn« and up the coast to Oregon, he was the same dignified dog. always with an ear askance, anticipating the footstep of his Indian comrade, Hut It never came. No soldier had learned to love him. but all respected hint for fidelity to his dead master. IMMIGRATION LEGISLATION. The Committee on Immigration of the House <»f Representative** has re ! ported a hill raising the head tax on aliens from $1! to $f», requiring each . male adult to possess not less than $2. r , and each female $lf», providing that every immigrant over 1*1 years shall I he able to rend ami write In some lan guage. and placing In the excluded | class Imbeciles, the weak-minded and manual laborers of poor physique. The Department of Commerce and Laboi Is given discretion to admit or exclude immigrants under 16 years of age coming to this country alone. The proposed law. It Is stated, would sift I out a good many undesirable persons. Don’t Die That Way Millions Die Every Year from Mere Ignorance of Nature’s Laws of Health A»k yournclf the nucntlon: "In I.ifo Wnrlli Living r " And the answer will be : “ It dcpenda on your henltli." Tht*n why not tmve good health t If you are nick it Is because sonic* simple, natural law of health bus been violated. Nature is a Stern and Inexorable Judge, and Grants Ao Pardons When Her Laws are llrokeu Better Lourn ThoHO Liiwh. You can’t learn them too soon. You can't learn them all at onco. Bonin right now, nnd Learn a little every month. Srnrl » (limn or Qyo two-rot,t .lanipa to my, p|.| lcr nillMln«. Olilrnon. for on. wtmlo vrars a.ihserliMion for M*mll « Muni'mnkei Mnunr.lnc, nnd rend the Department "Health In tlio Homo ilfnlth from Nntiirn, by ItiKlil'l'htMiKltt nnd ItlKht Llvlnir •• * ‘ Hond It every month - y«;nr in and year onl nnd learn nil about Nature'* Uws of IlMltta, and ItorliinC lull. ■n,l Druif lull., an.l J,,„ ~111 rnjny many „ f l.fi" .ml mod hultli 1.11, -r ,„u ~llirrwl«, would l,av„ l-.-n ,1,a,l f,„ , ,lrd. ,fr „«V Vr'nmH Whuthcr you •"•'"irted or cranial ii.ikli r. Ir. il„. ,1,1,,,, Y,J; counln. Train *‘<J«hhl Health" ns your fnltliful iMsly-uuard l«» kick old •Miilm n,.»»»•• Hrytln, and . Unto tlio .tna tlf In- call. ~lira,l of 11,,’r «,,. ,0,,r •'idnu ri .Hindi*" from Maxwell's Homemaker Mnuiixltiu. NOTE.-If yon do not wlal, 1,, cut 11,0 r0,i,.„, of von, |,a|„ r, ran am,l In v „„r nn Itscrlpt ion on n sepnrnlo piece of paper. ONE YEAR FOR~ 10 CENTS Subaorlptlon Price to Chicago and Foreign Addresses. 230. Per Year C'ut oat this subscription blank, write mime nnd nddress on ||ih>n helow nml si.ml ■■■ 10 cent* (silver or stamp.) and we will mail yon Mnxwelln Home tun kerMu Jhml n vei-s month for twelve months, buu’t delay, but send nt once. very Name Box or Street No. Poe toff ice State Enclosed And —for year#’ subscription. Stain whuthcr n now «r old subscriber You can. suhncrlbe for one. two. throe or five v■,nr, „# m * , Sub port ption Dupt. MAXWELL’S HOMEMAKER MAGAZINE. [*~s cat f 1 T 0 THE lkmi raWr There are ..Illy two Ex- WF' .-'MEbv.. Unalune—w«- (aleiiU-tl r \ugt. anal umi. when mutate ■ll i** *t>b-we m«ke 11 wriw (Iv *i ! - #iu. Wliii •• o’Oon- Jfcv I A I iiur'a Ul«rt" you • *«*r ready made ■ lUIM . fliiim, rli|>|»-r> or V uifonl ii.k .m«. I iifi-r di.u»—«|mii lm. k, iu> la* Inc—uo exer- I !!•>■« t< walk ' ankle and ii.*ren • <*ut I II.I» out Mini M-Ild tv-gay and »r >*lll tell OLU Wst I you bow to to t uimfrit. litre shortage. I.'. L. O’Connor Mlg. Co., 1271 B'way, N. Y. PAINT WITHOUT OIL KnuiMrknhl*' llUcoriTr Time entail osrn lltn t oat of I'ului pm ti-aij.llrr Prr t rot Irec Trlnl I'aokuir uttd lII* llooK Trlllng ill A bom I’alot« n nil t'ainl-tiuklng Arr Mhlli il Frt-r to l.vvr)uiu' Who Wiiira \ I. Rice, n prominent manufacturer, of A llama, N V., has discovered a process of making a neve kind of paint without the u»c of oil. lie call* it I‘owdrpaitlt. It conics to you a dry powder. and all that i* required •* cold water to make a paint weather-proof, fire proof and u» duralde a> oil paint. For many pur pose* it m much better than oil paint, and it indispensable to every property owner It adheres to any aurfuce, wood, stone or brick, %l<uail> and looks like oil paint, yet costs only one fourth as much. *\ rite to Mr. A L. Rice, Manufacturer. :V3d North St . Adams. N. Y.. and he will -end you a Inc trial lockage, together with color card and his valuable book on painting, all freft I' • book is neoesaary to all who use paint It lets you into the scerrt of paint making, exposes fake liainls, tells you how to get the lust results from paint for different purposes, and shows you b->w you can save and make .» good many dollar* W rite to-day, aiiil the book, free trial of oatnt, etc . will be sent you without any cost by return mail. FREEfSf BASEBALL OUTFIT!!CVV YOUR EXACT SIZE I* J 1 SHIRT, handsome gray V | — ~J| \ Itaiine s> 1.1. t>r> ad sti'*ul- S C • iris, f ... «•- arm*, very 1 ■ three button front. d'"i' *• I r*" r C ■ •net. shapely an t dura to. I s . ‘ 1 1 I'ANT’i. Padded or uni d- f « Vl ded (as y*u wish i.doubt* and h i v. y W trip ••• wed.very strong. rad- r* -4- A ■ ) dad pant* thoroughly v l ted I / 1 » ‘ jl! on flips »nd thighs. WlUa twit f v / j \ A straps. knearUttlr*. I / l* » A CAP A ..Urge*.?,!«. 1 Ight fj Afi tlaee fop, lo> g * !•• r / V k 1 tKI.T. New *tv!*. hrh-ht- J / u A * ~ 1 colored, strong, baa itluil ] ✓K. y -■ J / nickel t»*iekin. L Jp , BOYS, ::.:i-i WSjf s<litre>« fnr only ;« p k .»•-• f ULUINK, ton ■ V moU a psrltMS. Het n • $3 SO received lr""l t " • yS and we will |tn» e-Mstety set d Ton this Splendid !«>«>•• ; out flt.guarauteed »•. fit .nd » • rH * hi ranblil* s«ti*f sett n y.ery tv VI !.y- 1> it ki* a r r>. K.XTIt \ I'ltl.'l It M. Any tl r~ letters y-« want tn*de • -ire. «.f f#u. f-r yi.i r iH'l fr«*» *. sent free with the suit If y mi return our Inuney wltblu today* 111 IT|N K M FCJ. rO„ nr <*.d AWud.'l p.re. 143 Mill ht., t opford Jnnrtton, Mata. ■ M _i. . * I'..f i.. M .i » I."- ly i n. i*.* t ami run a fond f iri.aee how J. m l It up yourwelf and tn*» j”U « - au t»uy THE LEADER So 4'. *•». .1 Pnrt>a< • ' .r fill. It ■ r-uiiii*. a- " en . huf '• ’• .rn» s•> fu< ' ic« atr_ ; t Mall Hit h*-r »' »< - ■ r-th« r • rk Wr>»* 0000* \ tiwUrf -roTt.-K It wlllpai you Heaa Wartnmc * VraliUling Company. J 744 T*e>m« Itui 14lag. Chuagu UMawawwMBWMW Sa|S ■ ■ Can e.l»n ■ Lot of Wort I Wf ■■ I I C»n 55 « tut at Mbpol 1111 Can Increase Your Comforts? I MM Cm I"ffttlt Your Profttgl ®lf yr>U ae>-InteeeelMt In those thing* sre'd like to s>»l j uu our new book about ELECTRIC 6TS 4h..is ' ELECTRIC" H *wSo«e Ilorattiana n i: 1 n and a rpiarter of then* arw In D« arxl e***eral Imirl ol |ii aiun-l farmers *e y that they aretl.* t>e«t pM«wtn»erit they *ver mm* They'll nave you m re tnoney, n»- re Work, give Ik4 teraervlr*aixtgri-eler*alisfart| ,uthan any other metal Wheel made- «* Tk*|’r» Made tastae. ■ Hy*Tery lest tl*ey are (ha l*e«t- fl|» hi* unlUst to th* but*. If they work I* •<»•*, your iwmry Aarti. |n.n*t buy wh■ i« n»r wagon until you rca<l our hi**k. It m*y save you many doi ar* and It’* trim. ELECTRIC WHEEL CO.. Boa 263 Qtdnoy, It.