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L'A'SGOW WEEKLY TIMES.
"ERROR CEASES TO BE DANGEROUS, WHEN REASON IS LEFT FREE TO COMBAT T." Jeffm"." i:iitoecn A: ricopieiuToits. Volume V. KLASWOW, IUIStOUKI, THURSDAY, Il ICTIIU It 31, I 8 IS. TV umber IS. ritLSIIHVl'S MUSS AUK. Fellow- Citizens of the Senate and ' House of Representatives: Under the benignant providence of an Almighty God, the representatives of the States and of the people, are again brought together, to deliberate for the public good. Tho gratitude of the nation to the sovc reign Arbiter of all human events, should be commensurate with the boundless bles sings which we enjoy. Peace, plenty and contentment, reign throughout our borders, and our beloved country presents a sub lime moral spectacle to the world. The troubled and unsettled condition of some of the European powers, has had a neces sary tendency to check and embarrass trade and to depress prices throughout all commercial nations; but, notwithstanding these causes, the United States, with their abundant products, have felt their effects less severely than any other country, and all our great interests are still prosperous and successful. In reviewing the great events of the past year, and contrasting the agitated and disturbed state of other countries with our own tranquil and hap py condition, we may congratulate our selves, that wo are the most favored peo ple on the face of the earth. While the people of other countries aro struggling to establish free institutions, under which man may govern himself, we aro in the actual enjoyment of them a rich inheritance from our fathers and while enlightened nations of Europe aro convulsed and dis tracted by civil war, or intestine strife, we settle all our political controversies by the peaceful exercise of the rights of freemen, at the ballot bos. The great republican maxim, so deeply engraved on the hearts of our people, that the will of the majori ty, constitutionally expressed, shall prevail, is our sure safe-guard against force and vi olence. It is a subject of just pride, that our fame and character as a nation continue rapidjy to advance in the estimation of the civil ized world. To our wise and free insti tutions, it is to be attributed, that, while other nations have achieved glory at the price of the suffering, distress, and impov erishment of their people, we have gained our honorable position in the midst of an uninterrupted prosperity, and of an in creasing individual comfort and happiness. I am happy to inform you, that our re lations with all nations are friendly and pa cific. Advantageous treaties of commerce have been concluded within the last four years, with New Greneda, Peru, the two Sicilies, Belgium, Hanover, Oldctiburgh, and Mecklenburgh. Pursuing our example the restrictive system of Great Britain, our principle foreign customer, has been re laxed; and a more liberal commercial poli cy has been adopted by other enlighled na tions, and our trade has been greatly en larged and extended. Our country stands higher in the respect of the world than at any former period. To continue to occupy ihis proud position, it is only necessary to preserve peace and faithfully adhere to the great fundamental principle of our foreign policy no interference in the domestic concerns of other nations. We recognize in all nations the rights which we enjoy ourselves, and to change and reform their political institutions according to their own will and pleasure. Nor do we look behind existing governments capable of maintain ing their own authority. Wo recognize alfsuch actual governments, not only from the dictates of true policy, but from a sa cred regard for the independence of na tions. While this is oursctlled policy, it does not follow that we can ever be indifferent spec ntorof the Drocress of liberal principles. The Government and the ponplo of the United Stales witnessed, with enthusiasm and delight, the establishment of the French Ucpublic, as we now hail the efforts in pro cress to unite the States of Germany in a .nnru.lrniinn similar in many respects, to our own federal Union. If the great and enli"htened German States, occupying, as they do, the central ana commanding po sition in Europe, shall succeed in establish ;nr mrh ft confederated Government, se enring at the same time to tho citizens of each State local uovernmenis auupwu iu nprnliar condition of each unresti tct ed trade and intercourse with each other it will be an important era in human events. Whilst it will consolidate and strengthen the power of Germany, it must ,.oi?;!.ltu nromote the cause of peace, commerce, civilization, and constitutional liberty, throughout the world. With all the Governments on this conti nent, our relations, it is believed, are now on a more friendly and satisfactory footing than they ever have been at any toimer pe riod. Since the exchange of ratifications of the treaty of peace with Mexico, our intercourse- with the Governments of the Mexican Republic has been of the most rrini ohoraniflr. Tho Envoy Extraor- A.-., Mini.ier Plenipotentiary of IIIIUI J U !' .- - w dm ITnlted States to Mexico, has been re 1 nrwl imcreHitcd: and a diplomatic representative from Mexico, of similar rnW has been received and accredited by ihi Government. Tho amicable relations hfiivuprn the two countries, which had been suspended, have been happily restored, and are destined, 1 tru3t, to bo Ion? pre served. The two "republics, both situated on this continent, and with contiguous ter ritories, have every motive for sympathy of feeling and of interests, to bind them to rrpiher in neroetual amity. This gratifying condition of our foreign relations, renders it unnecessary for mo to call your attention more particularly to them. It has been my constant aim and desire to cultivate, pcaco and amity with all na tions. Tranquility at home, and peaceful relations abroad, continue the true, perma nent policy of our country. War the scourge of nations sometimes becomes inevitable, but is always to bo avoided when it can be done consistently with the l ights and honor of the nation. One of the most important results of tho war into which wo were recently brought with a neighboring nation, is tho demonstration it has afforded of the military strength of our country. Before the late war with Mexico', European and other foreign pow ers, entertained imperlecl ana crroncus views of our physical strength as a nation, and of our ability to prosecute war, and a war out of our own country. They saw that our standing army on the peace es tablishment did not exceed 10,000 men. Accustomed, themselves, to maintain in peace large standing armies, for the pro tection of thrones against their own sub jects, as well as against foreign enemies, they had not conceived that it was possible for a nation without such an army, well dis ciplined and of long service, to wage war successfully. They held in low repute our militia, and were far from regarding them as an effective force, unless it might be for temporary defensive operations, when in vaded on our own soil. The events of the late war with Mexico have not only unde ceived them, but have removed erroneous impressions which prevailed, to some ex tent, even among our own countrymen. But this war has demonstrated that, upon the breaking out ot hostilities, not anticipa ted, and for which no previous prepara tions had been made, a volunteer army of citizen-soldiers, equal to veteran troops, and in numbers equal to any emergency, can, in a short period, be brought into the field. Unlike what would have occurred in any other country, we were under no necessity of resorting to drafts or con scriptions; on the contrary, such was the number of volunteers who patriotically tendered their services, that the chief diffi culty was in making selections, and dis criminating who should be disappointed and compelled to remain at home. Our citizen-soldiers are unlike those'drawn from the population. They are composed indis criminately, of all professions and pursuits of farmers, lawyers, physicians, mer chants, manufacturers, mechanics and la borers and this not only among the offi ccrs, but the private soldiers in the ranks. Our citizen-soldiers are unlike those of any other country, in other respects; they are armed, and have been accustomed from their youth up, to handle and use fire-arms; and a large proportion ot them, especially in the western and more newly settled Slates, are expert. They are men who have a reputation to maintain at home by their good conduct in the field, and they are intelligent; and there is an individuali ty of character wh ch is found in the ranks of no other army. In battle each private mnn, as well as every officer, rights not on ly for his country, but for glory and dis tinction among his fellow-citizens, when he shall return to civil life. The war with Mexico has demonstrated not only the ability of the Government to organize a numerous army, upon a sudden call, but also to provide it with all the mu nitions and necessary supplies, with dis patch, convenience, and ease, and to direct its operations with efliciency. The strength of our institutions has not only been dis played in the valor and skill of our troops engaged in active service in the held, out in an organization ot tnose executive branches which were charged with the gen era! direction and conduct of tho war. While" too great praise cannot bo be stowed upon the officers and men who fought our battles, yet it would bo unjust to withhold Irom those otliccrs necessarily stationed at home, who were charged with the duty of furnishing the army, in proper time and at proper. places, with all the mu nitions of war and other supplies ncccssa ry to make it effectual, the commendation to which they are entitled. Tho credit due to this class of our officers is the greater, when it is considered, that.no army in an cient or modern times, was ever better ap pointed or provided than our army in Mex ico. Operating in an enemy's country removed two thousand miles from the seat of the Federal Government, its different corps spread over a vast extent of territo- ry, hundreds and even tnousanus or mues apart from each other nothing short of the undying vigilance and extraordinary energy of these officers, could have ena bled them lo provide the army at all points, and in proper season, with all that was re quired for the most efficient service. It is but an act ot tustice to declare, mat the officers in charge of the several exocu live bureaus, all under the immediate su pervision of the Secretary of War, per formed their respective duties witn aotiity, energy, and efficiency. They have reaped less oi tue giory oi the war, not having been personally ex posed to its perils in battle, than their com panions in arm?; but without their fore cast, efficient aid and co operation, those in ilm field would not have . been provided with tho ample means they possessed, of achieving for themselves, and their country, unfading honors, won for both. When all these facts are considered, it may ceaso to bo a matter of so much amuzemcnt, how it happened that our no bio army in Mexico, regulars and volun- lepra, were victorious upon evei y u. no- field, however fearful tho odds against them. The war with Mexico has thus luiiy a vuloped tho capacity of Republican Gov. ernments to prosecute successfully, a ne cessary foreign war, with all the vigor usu ally attributed to more arbitrary forms of government. It has been usual for writers on public law to impute to republics a want of that unity and concentration of pur pose, of vigor of execution, which are gen erally admitted to belong to the monarchi cal and aristocratic forms; and this fea ture of popular government has been sup posed lo display itself more particularly in the conduct of a war carried on in an en emy 8 country. J he war with Mexico has developed, most strongly and conspicuously, another feature of our institutions. It is, that with out cost lo tho government, or danger to our liberty, we have in the bosom of our country freemen available, in ajust and ne cessary war particularly, a standing army ot two millions ot armed citizen-soldiers such as fought tho battles of Mexico. But military strength docs not consist alone in our capacity for extended and suc cessful operations on land. I refer to the Navy an independent arm of the Nation al defence. If the services of the Navy were not brilliant as those of the army, in the late war with Mexico, it was because they had no enemy to meet on their own element. While tho army had an oppor tunity of performing more conspicuous service, the Navy performed their whole duty to the country. For the able and gal lant services of tho officers and men of the Navy, acting independently as well as in co-operation with our troops in the con quest of tho , California, the capture of Vera Cruz, and the seizure and occupation of other important positions on the Gulf and Pacific coast, the highest praise is due. Their vigilance, energy and skill, rendered tho most effective in excluding the muni tions of war and other supplies from the enemy, while they secured a safe entrance for abundant supplies for their own army. Our extended commerce was nowhere in terrupted, and for this immunity from the evils of war, the country is indebted to the Navy. High praise is due to the officers of the several Executive bureaus, navy yards, and stations connected with the service, all under the immediate direction of the Sec retary of the Navy, for the industry, fore sight and energy with which every thing was directed and furnished, to give efficien cy to that branch of the service. While this harmony existed in directing the prep aration ot the navy as of the armv, there was concert of action and purpose between the heads of the two arms of the service By the orders which wore from time to time issued, our vessels of war, on tho Pa eificand the Gulf of Mexico, were station ed in proper time, and in proper position to co-operate efficiently with the army, By this means, their combined power was brought to bear successfully upon the ene my. The great results which have been developed and brought to light by this war, will be ot immeasurable importance in the future progress of our country. I hey will lend powerfully to preserve us from foreign collisions and enublo us lo pursue uninterruptedly, our cherished policy peace with all nations, entangling alliances with none. Occupying, as we do, a more command ing position among nations than at any for mer period, our duties and our responsibili ties to ourselves and our posterity, are cor respondingly increased. This will be the more obvious when wo consider the vast additions which have recently been made to our territorial acquisitions, and their great importance and value. Within Itsa'tlian four years, the anncxa lion of lexas to the Union has been con summated, and conflicting titles to the Ore gon Territory south of forty-nine degrees of north Latitude, being all that was in sistcd on by any of my predecessors, has been adpisted; and New Mexico and Up per California have been acquired by trea IV. The area of these several territories, according to the report carefully prepared bv tho commissioner of tho General Land Office, from the most authentic informa lion in his possession and which is herewith transmitted, is one million one hundred and ninety-three thousand sixty-ono square miles, or seven hundred and sixty-three millions five hundred and fifty-nine thou sand and forty acres. These estimates show, lhat the territories recently acquired and over which our exclusive jurisdiction and dominion have been extended, consti lutes a country more than half as large as lhat which was held by the United Slates before this acquisition. If Oregon be ex cluded from tho estimate, there will still re main within the limits of Texas, New Mex ico and California, eight hundred and fifty one thousand five hundred and ninety- einht souare miles, or fivo hundred and forty-five millions one hundred and twenty thousand seven hundred and twenty acres, being an addition equal to more than one third of all tho territory owned by the United Stales bcfoie this acquisition, and including Oregon, nearly as great an ex- lent of territory as the whole of Europe, Russia only excepted. The Mississippi, solately a frontier of our country, is now only its centre. With the addition of tho late acquisition, the United Stales are now estimated to be nearly as large as the wholo of Europe. ' It is estimated by the Superintendent of the Coast Survey, in the accompanying re- nort. that tho extent ot tho sea coast oi Texas on the Gulf of Mexico, is upwards of 400 miles; of the coast of Uupper Cal ifornia on the Pacific, 070 miles; and of Or egon, including tho straits of Fuca, of 650 miles making Iho whole extent of sea coast on the Pacific 1020, and the whole extent on the Pacific and the Gulf of Mex ico 2,000 miles. Tho length of the coast of the Atlantic from the northern limits of the United States around the Capes of Florida to the Sabine, on the eastern boun dary of Texas, is estimated to be 3000 miles; so that the addition of sea coast, in cluding Oregon, is very nearly two thirds as great as all possessed before, and inclu ding Oregon, an addition of 1,870 miles; being nearly equal lo one half of the ex tent of coast which wo possessed before. We have now three great maratimc lionls, on (he Atlantic, the Uult ot JMcxico, and the Pacific, making in the whole an extent of coast exceeding 0000 miles. This is the extent of the sea coast of tho States, not including bays, sounds, and small irreg ularities of the main shore, and of the sea islands. If these be-included, tho length of tho shore line of coast, as estimated by the superintendent of tho Coast Survey, would bo 330G3 miles. It would bo difficult to calculate the val ue of these immense additions to our ter ritorial possessions. lexas, lying contiguous to the western boundary of Louisiana, embracing within its limits a part of tho navigable tributary waters of the Mississipt, and an extensive sea coast, could not long have remained in the hands of a foreign power, without en dangering tho peace of our south-western frontier. Her products in the vicini ty of tho tributaries through these streams, running into and through our territory, and the danger of irritation and collision of in terests between Texas, as a foreign Slate, and ourselves, would have been imminct, while the embarrassments of commercial intercourse must have been constant and unavoidable. Had Texas fallen into their hands, or un der the influence and control of a strong maratimc or military or foreign power, as she might have done, these dangers would have been still greater. Ihcy have been avoided by her voluntary and peaceful an nexation to the United Slates. Texas from her position, was a natural and most indis pensable part of our territory. Fortunate ly, she has been restored to our country, and now constitutes one of the States'W our confederacy, with an equal footing with the original States. The salubrity of the climate and fertility of the soil, peculiarly adapted to tho production of some of our most valuable and staple commodities, and her commercial advantages, must make her soon one of our most populous Stales. New Mexico, though situated in the in terior, ond without a sea coast, is known to contain much fertile land, and to abound in rich mines of the precious metals, and lo he capable of sustaining a large population. From its position, it is iho intermediate and connecting territory between our settle ments and our possessions in Texas and those on the Pacific coast. Upper California, irrespective of the vast mineral wealth recently developed there, holds, at this day, in point of value and importance, to the rest of the Union, the same relation lhat Louisiana did when lhat fine tearitory was acquired from France forty-five years ago. Extending nearly 10 degrees of latitude along the Pacific, and embracing the only safe and commodious harbor on lhat coast for many hundred miles, with a temperate climate and extensive interior of fertile lands, it is scarcely possible lo estimate its value until it shall be brought under the government of our laws, and its resources fully developed. From its position, it must command the rich commerce of China, of Asia, of the Islands of the Pacific, of West ern Mexico, of Central America, the South American States, and of the Itussian pos sessions bordering on that ocean. A great emporium will; doubtless, speedily arise on the California coast, which may be destined to rival in importance New Or leans itself. The depot of the vast com merce which must exist on the Pacific, will be at some point on the bay of San Fran cisco, and will occupy the same relation to ihe western coast of that ocean as New Orleans does to the Valley of the Mississip pi and the Gulf of Mexico. To this dopot, our numerous whale ships will resort with their cargoes to trade, it fit and obtain sup plies. This trade will largely contribute lo build up a city which will soon become a centre of a great and rapidly increasing commerce. Situated on a safe harbor, suf ficiently capacious for all the navies, as well as the marines of the world, and convent enl lo excellent limber for ship building owned bv the United States' it must become our great Western depot. Itjwas known that mines of the precious metals existed to considerable extent in California, al tho time of its occupation. Recent discoveries render it probable, lhal these mines are more extensive and valua ble than was anticipated. The accounts of iho abundanco of gold in lhat territory are of such an extraordinary cnaracler as would scarcely command belief, were ihey not corroborated by the authentic report of officers in Ihe public service, who have vis iied the mineral districts and derived the facts from personal observation. Rcluc tant to credit the reports in general circu lationas lo the quantity of gold, the officer commanding our forces in California visit - ed the mineral district in July last for the purpose of obtaining accui a'o information on the subject. His report to Ihe Yrar De partment of the result of his examination, and the facts obtained on the spot, are herewith laid beforo Congress. When he visited tho country there weicubout 1,000 persons engaged in collecting gold. There is every reason to believe lhat the number of persons so employed hat since been augmented. The explorations already peace, on the 6ih of July lost, and invoked their made warrant the belief thai the supply junction. Congress adjourned without making any very large, and that gold is found in various points in an extensive district of country. Information received from officers and other sources, though not so full and mi nute confirm the account of the command er of our military force in California. It appears, also, from these reports, that mines of quicksilver are found in the vicinity of uiegoKi region, une ot them is now be ing worked, and is believed to be one of ihe most productive in the world. The effects produced by the discovery of these Jrich mineral depnsites, and the suc cess which has attended the labors of those who have resorted to them, have produced a surprising change in the state of affairs in California. Labor commands a most ex1 orbitant price and all other pursuits but that of searching for the precious motals are abandoned. Nearly the whole male popu lation of the country have gono to the gold district. Ships arriving on the coast are deserted by their crews, and their voy age suspended for want of sailors. Our commanding officer there entertains oppre hensions that soldiers cannot be kept in ihe public service without a large increase of pay. Desertions in his command have be come frequent, and ho recommends lhat those who shall withstand Ihe strong temp tation and remain faithful shall be reward ed. This abundance of gold, and the all en grossing pursuit of it, has already caused in California an unprecedented rise in the necessaries' of life. That we may the more speedily and ful ly avail ourselves of the undeveloped wealth of these mines, it is deemed of vast importance, thai a branch of ihe mint of the United States, be authorized to be es tablished during iho present season in Cali fornia. Among oilier signal advantages which would result from such an establish ment, would be the raising the gold lo its par value in that territory. A branch mint of ihe United Stales at that great com mercial depot of the west coast, would con vert into our coin, not only ihe gold derived from our rich mines but also the bullion and specie which our commerce may bring Irom the whole west coast. Central and South America. The west coast of Amer ica, and the adjacent interior, embrace the best mines of New Mexico, New Greneda, Central America, Chili and Peru. The bullion and specie drawn from these countries, and especially from those of New Mexico and Peru, lo an amount in value of many millions of dollars, are now annually diverted, and carried by the ships of Great Britain to her own ports, to bo received or used by her to sustain her National Banks, and thus contribute to increase her ability to command sn much of the the world. If a branch mint be established at ihe great commercial point of that coast, a vast amount of bullion and specie would flow thither, lo be recoined and pass thence to New Orleans and New York. and other Atlantic cities. The amount of our Constitutional currency at home would be greatly increased, while its circulation would be promoted. It is well known to our merchants trading to China and the west coast of America, that great inconve nience and loss are experienced from the fact, that our coins are not current al their par value in those countries. j The powers of Europe, removed from the west coast of America by the Atlantic ocean, which intervenes, and by the tedi ous and dangerous navigation around the capo of the continent of America, can never successfully compete with tho Uni ted States in the rich and extensive com merce which is opened to us at so much less cost, by the acquisition of California. Ihe vast importance and commercial ad vantages of California has heretofore re mained undeveloped by the Government of Hie country of which it constituted a part. Now thai this fine province is a part of our country, all of tho Slates of the Union, some more immediately and directly than others, are deeply interested in the speedy development of its wealth and resources. No section of our country is more inter ested, or will be more benefitted, than the commercial, navigational and manufactu ring interests. of the Eastern States. Our planting and faiming interests, in every part of ihe Union, will be greatly benefit led by it. As our commerce and naviga tion are enlarged and extended, our ex ports of agricultural products, and our manufactures, will be increased, and in the new markets thus opened they cannot fail to command remuneration and profitable price. Tho acquisition of California and New Mexico; the settlement of the Oregon boundaiy, and the annexation of Texas, extending to ihe Rio Grande, are results which, combined, ore of greater conse quence, and will add more lo the strength and wealth of the nation than any which have preceded them sinco the adoption of tho Constitution. Bui to effect these results, not only Cali fornia but New Mexico must bo brought under the control of regular organized gov ernments. Tho existing condition of Cal ifornia, and of lhal part of New Mexico lying west of iho Rio Grande and without the limits ot lexas, imperiously demand that Congress should, al ils present session. organize territorial governments over them. Upon tho exchange of the ratification of ihe treaty of peace with Mexico, on Ihe MOih of May, ihe temporary govermnent which had been es tablished over Mexico erased to exist. Im pressed with the necessity of establishing teriito rial governments over them, I recommended to the favorable consideration of Contress in niy message communicating the rati Bed treaty of provision for their government. The inhabitants, hy the transfer of their country, had become en tilled lo the benefits of our laws and constitu. lion, and yet were left without any regularly or nanized government. Since lhat time, a very limited power, possest-ed by the Executive, has hen exercised to preserve and protect them from the ineviiablo consequence of a stale of anarchy. The only govcrnmrnt which remained was lhat established by military authority during the war. Regardirg this as a de facco government, and lhat by iho presumed cor.sent of the inhabit tents, it n)igi.t be continued temporarily, they were advised lo conform and submit to it for the short intervening period before Congress again assembled, and could legislate on the subject. The viewa entrained by the Executive on this point, are contained in a communication or ilia Secretary of Slate, dated on the 7th of October Inst, which was forwarded for publication to Cel. ifornia and NevOlexico, a copy of which is herewith transmitted. The small mditary force of the regular army which was serving within the limits of ihe acquiitd territories, at the close of the war, remained ia them, tnd additional forces have been ordered there for ihe protection of ihe inhabitants, and lo preserve and secure ihe rights and interests of the United States. No revenue has been, or could be, collected nt the ports in California, because Congress failed lo authorize the establishment cf Custom Houses, or the appointment of officers for that purpose. The Secretary of the Treasury, by circular letter addressed to Collectors of the Customs on the 7th day of October last, (a copy of which is transmitted) exercised all ihe power with which ho was invested by aw. In pursuance of the act of the 11th Angus last, extending all ihe bent fit of the Post Office laws to ihe people of California, the Pos Master General has appointed two agenl3, who have proceeded, the one lo California and the other to Oregon, with autohrity to make the ne. ceesary arrangements for carrying ils provisions into effect. The monihlyjine of mail steamers, from Pa nama, has been rr quired lo deliver and take mails at San Diego, Monterey, and San Francisco. These mail steamprs, connected it the Isthmus of Panama with the line of mail steamers on ihe Atlantic between New York and Chagres, will establish a regular commercial route with California. It is our solemn duty to provide, with the least possible d-lay, Tor rsew Mexico and California, regular organized governments. The causes of the failure lo do this, at the last session of Con gress, are well known anil deeply to be regretted. With the opening prospects, and increased na tional greatness, which the acquisition of these rich territories affords, how irrational it would be to forego, and to reject, these advantages, by the agitation of a domestic question, which is coeval with the existence of our government itself, and to endanger, by internal strifes, geographical di visions and healed contests for political ower, or for any other causn, tho harmony of the glorious union of our confederation lhai union which commerce of , binds us together ns one people, and which, for s:xty years, fm been our shield ami nroiestion against every danger. In the iyes of the world and posterity, how trivial and in.signifi.-ant will be all our internal divisions and struggle?, compared with this union of the Stales with all ils valor and countless blessings. No pan iot would foment or excite gpocrnphical and sectional divioions. No lover of h;s counlry would deliberately calculate the value of the Union, future generators would look in amazement upon the folly of such a cuur;e. Oilier nations, at ihe present moment, would look upon it with aslou'shruent, and such of those as desire lo ma u'ain and perpetuate thrones ami uiorarchical or aristocratic principles will view ii with exultation and delight, becausn in it they will see the element of (action which they hope must ultimately overthrow our system. Ours is the great exa.nple ol a prosperous and free self governed republic, commanding tho ad. miration and ihe imitation of all lovers of free, doin throughout the world. How solemn, therefore, the duty how impres sive ihe call upon us, end upon all parts of our counlry to cultivate a patriotic spirit of harmo ny, good fellowship, compromise and mutual concession, in ihe administration of the incom. parable system of government formed by our fa thers in lite midst of almost insuperable difficul ties, and transmitted to us wiiu the injunction lhat wo should enjoy its blessings, and hand it down unimpaired to (hose lhat may come afttr us. In view of the high and responsible duties we owe lo ourselves and mankind, I trust you may be able to approach ihe adjustment of the only domestic question which seriously threatens, or probably ever can threaten, to disturb the hatma. ny and successful operation of our system. The immensely valuable possessions of New Mexico and California, are already inhabited by a considerable population, '.tractej by their great fertility iheii mineral wealth their commercial advantages, and the salubrity of the climate. Emigiants from the older States, in great num bers, are already preparing lo seek new homes in these inviting reg'ons. Shall the dissimilarity of domestic insti tutions in the different States prevent us from providing for them suitable govern menu? These institutions existed at tho adoption of ihe constitution; btil the obsta cles which they interposed, were overcome by that spirit of compromise which is now invoked. In conflict of opinions or of in terest, real or imaginary, between different sections of our country, neither can justly demand all which it misfit desire to ob tain; each, in ihe true spirit of our insiitu lions, should concede something lo the oili er. Our gallant forces in tho Mexican war, by whose patriotism and unpatallellcd deeds of arms, wo obtained these possessions as an indemnity for our just demands against Mexico, were composed of citizens who belonged lo no stale or section of our union: they were men from slaveholding and non slaveholding States, from the north and from the south, from the east and from tho west. They wero companions in arms, and fellow citizens of the same common country, engaged in the same common cause. When prosecuting lhat war, they i