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The Elk Mountain pilot. [volume] (Irwin, (Ruby Camp), Gunnison County, Colo.) 1880-19??, October 02, 1919, Image 6

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Skin Drawn Tight Helps Work With Knife.
{Prepared by the United States Depart
ment of Apiculture.)
Farmers who devote the little extra
time necessary in skinning animals
carefully—possibly only three to five
minutes In taking off the skin of a calf,
or Ift minutes In the case of a beef hide
—can Increase the value of the hide
several times, say specialists of the
United States department of agricul
ture. This is of utmost Importance in
view ef the present urgent demand for
leather, and the Increase in price which
unscored hides bring on the market.
It la essential and even necessary to
exercise the utmost care In removing
skins from farm animals.
Country hides and skins make up
more than one-third of all the hides
and skins produced In the country, hut
too often the value of country hides
for leather making is less than that
of packer hides. The tanner pays more
for packer hides than for those ob
tained from farmers or country slaugh
terers. This Is due In part to bettor
facilities In the Inrge packing houses
for curing and storing the hides, hut
principally to the fact that such hides
have been taken off properly. The tan
ner knows that country hides are fre
quently removed by unskilled work
men and are often cut and scored.
When such hides come from a tanner,
scores show very plainly and In many
ca> ®s one-half of the thickness of the
leather Is lost hy such defects. Im
perfections can be avoided and the
fanner can make more money hy care
ful use of the skinning knife, hy keep
ing the hides clean and free from blood
and by proper storage and packing.
How to Bk!n Animals.
When animals are skinned on the
farm, the operation should he per
formed on a clean, hard spot under a
tree. If possible, or. If done Indoors,
In a room with a concrete floor. The
llmh of a tree may be used for sus
pending the carcass, but when the
hides are removed Indoors a block and
tackle must he provided.
The animals should he cleaned pff,
curried and brushed thoroughly. In or
der to remove all dirt. The skinning
knife should be sharp, though it should
oot be used any more than Is absolute
ly necessary. The use of the knife
inayTVe avoided In taking off calf skins,
except on the head, neck, legs and
flanks, as the body skin may he drawn
or fisted off. Where It Is necessary to
use the knife, the skin should he drawn
taut with one hand, while the knife is
used with the other, special care be
ing taken to hold the back of the blade
close to the skin. If this is done there
is less danger of cutting or scoring the
skins. In lieu of the knife, some butch
ers use a sharpened wooden stick
shaped like a man’s thumb, and employ
a knife only on the portions of the
body mentioned.
The first operation In removing a
The County Agent Will Tal:e a Chance at Anything.
(Prepared by the United States Department of Agriculture.)
A county agent in one of the eastern states believes in diversified activi
ties. He reports as follows for one month's work: Burned up 90 gallons of
gasoline, five quarts of oil. had six punctures and one blow-out. Trailer broke
away and upset load; pig fell out of the car and was caught with difficulty,
afterward Jumped from sty and was run over by an auto. Buried three pigs
with all the profits and lost *2B besides. Tore best trousers getting over
pasture fence; broke watch crystal loading corn planter; but outside of a few
minor troubles had a very aatisfactory month s work.”
1 hide la to skin the animal's head,
cheeks and face. This should he done
while the animal Is still suspended.
Always keep the hide free from meat,
as one of the common faults of country
hides is the presence of more or less
meat, usually cheek meat. The next
I step in the operation Is to lower the
animal on Its hack and remove the
skin from the legs. Following this, the
hide should be ripped down the belly
from the sticking cut to the tall, mak
ing a neat, straight rip, free from
Jagged edges. The shies are then
skinned, working forward to the brisk
et ancT then hack to the Inside of the
hind leg. Lift away the hide with the
fre** hand and stretch It tightly hy
pulling outward and upward against
the knife or wooden stick.
Injury Dona By Blood.
Blood Is objectionable on hides, par
ticularly in the summer, as It Is like
ly to cause the hair to slip from rot
| ting or decomposition when the hides
are packed. This may result in hav
ing otherwise good hides placed In the
No. 2 grade on the market. Care
should be taken to avoid placing any
hides In the pack until they nre free
from animal heat. Allow them to He
folded from three to five hours or suf
ficiently long to allow the animal heat
to get out of them. If this is not done,
patches of decomposition may result,
anti such hides, though carefully re
moved, may he reduced In market
value at least one cent or more a
Preparing Hides for Market.
The preparation of hides and skins
tor market Is of great Importance, for
If they are not properly prepared and
shipped they are subject to great de
terioration. As a rule, hides are fold
ed with the hair side out. It Is es
sential to fold In the head and neck
on the body of the hide, flesh surface
together, and to turn In the tall In a
similar manner. Then a narrow fold
should he made on each side by throw-,
log back the body edges and legs, keep
ing the lines of the folds parallel.
Stacking Up Hides.
In building up a pack of hides the
outer edges should he kept a little
higher than the middle, so that the
liquid or brine, formed by the dtssolv
. Ing of the salt In the natural moisture
of the hides, may be absorbed by them.
If the pack is low outside, or Is built
slanting like a shed roof, the brine
will seep out. causing the hides to
shrink In weight. In preparing hides
for market use salt that Is free from
large lumps or dirt. Dirty salt will
stain the flesh side of the hides. One
pound of salt to each pound of the hide
is the rule.
If the hides are to be stored, they
should be placed In mol (60 to 65 de
| grees Fahrenheit) cellars, from which
j the outside air Is excluded.
O wad some power
the oiftie aie us
To see oursel’s as
ithers see us!
Robert Burns
IHE * "Official Congressional Directory,
Sixty-Sixth Congress," which is now
off the government press, might very
well curry the subtitle, “As Congress
Sees Itself." For It contains as usual
a biographical sketch of each senator
and representative—with one excep
tion. And these biographies are auto
biographies. To be sure, there Is a
sort of censor who Is supposed to see to It that
the authors do not hand themselves too many
flowers. This functionary came Into being be
cause a former Kansas senator a few years ago
made the whole country snicker. But human
nature Is the same—in congress as out —and most
of the contributors to this exceedingly interesting
volume seem to be possessed with the Idea that
they must explain why they are exactly the men
for the place—so exactly that they were of neces
sity elected. And as the Ideas of the qualifica
tions of a member of congress are about as
muny ns the writers, the autobiographies do not
lack variety.
The one exception referred to Is Representa
tive Jumes O’Connor of Louisiana; he simply
gives his name. In contrast, many other mem
bers need nearly half a page to set forth the de
tails of their wondrous past.
Of those whose portraits are herewith given,
“Uncle Joe” Cannon’s account of himself is con
densed. even luconlc; Champ Clark’s Is about
three times as long. Incidentally It may be said
that the attitude of brotherly love of the two
former speakers is for plctorlul purposes strictly.
“Joseph Gurney Cannon. Republican, of Dan
ville.’’ the directory says, “was horn at Guilford,
C-. May 7. 1836; Is a lawyer; was stute’s at
torney In Illinois, March, 1861. to December,
1868.’’ Then it Is stated that he was elected to
the Twenty-second congress, and that he was
elected speaker In the Fifty-eighth, Fifty-ninth,
Sixtieth and Sixty-first congresses. That's all
there Is to the seven lines of his uutohlography.
Champ Clark takes 20 lines. Outstanding
facts set forth in It are that he was the “youngest
college president In America “a hired farm
hand;’’ “led In the Baltimore Democratic na
tional convention of 1912 for the presidential
nomination on 29 ballots, receiving n clear ma
jority on nine ballots."
Senutor Arthur Capper of Kansas worked as a
reporter on the New York Tribune and he has
become the second largest publisher of period
icals In the United States. After obtaining an
education In the common schools of Garnett.
Kun., he learned the printing trade on the Gar
nett Journal, went to Topeka In 1884 and became
a typesetter on the Topeka Dally Capital, “of
which he Is now owner and publisher.’’ Incident
ally. It may he stated that he owns Household,
Copper's Weekly, the Missouri Valley Farmer,
the Farmer’s Mall and Breeze, the Nebraska
Farm Journal and the Oklahoma Farmer. His
publications are said to have a combined circula
tion of about 1,729,000. And he Is Intensely In
terested In the repeal of the postal zone law,
which Is regarded as exceedingly beneficial by
the publishers of the country dally and weekly
Representative John Miller Baer of North Da
kota sets forth that he is the first Nonpartisan
elected to congress; Is married to the “daughter
of the North Dakotn flaxseed king;'* that he has
a son who Is the eighth John M. Baer In un
broken sequence horn in America, and that he
resigned from a postmasterslilp to engage In car
tooning and Journalistic work.
Senator Nelson of Minnesota and .Senator
Bankhead of Alabama are veterans of the Civil
war. The latter merely says of this: “Served
four years In the Confederate army, being
wounded three times." Senator Nelson says;
“Was a private and noncommissioned officer In
the Fourth Wisconsin regiment during the Civil
war, and was wounded and taken prisoner at Port
Hudson, Ln.. June 14, 1863.”
There nre five other veterans of the Civil war:
Union. Senator Francis E. Warren of Wyoming.
Representative Henry Z. Osborn of California
and Representative Isnne R. Sherwood of Ohio;
Confederate. Senator Thomas S. Martin of Vir
ginia nnd Representative Charles M. Steelman
of North Carolina.
Senator Warren, fought In the same battle In
which Senator Nelson was wounded and cap
tured. Senator Warren served as a private and
noncommissioned officer In the Forty-ninth Mas
sachusetts regiment. He received the Congres
sional medal for gallantry on the battlefield at
the siege of Fort Hudson. These two veterans
find pleasure frequently In “fighting over” the
battle which meant so much to them.
Representative Osborne served In the Ninety
second New York regiment. He enlisted at the
age of sixteen.
Senator Martin was educated at the Virginia
Military Institution. While there much of his
time was spent In the cadet battalion of the Insti
tution serving the Confederate states.
Representative Stedman served with General
Lee’s army throughout the war. He was wounded
three times. Enlisting ns a private he was mus
tered out ns a major.
Representative Sherwood was a fighter nnd Is
proud of it. His autobiography reads In part:
“Democrat of Toledo; was horn In Stanford.
Dutchess county. N. Y.. August 13, 1835; was
educated at Hudson River Institute. Claverack,
N. Y.. nt Antioch college, Ohio, nnd at Pough
keepsie Law college; enlisted April 16. 1861. as a
private In the Fourteenth Ohio Infantry and was
mustered out ns a brigadier general October 8.
1865. by order of the secretary of war; was In
43 battles nnd 123 days under fire, nnd was ten
times complimented In special nnd general or
ders and on the battlefields hy commanding gen
erals for gallant conduct; commanded his regi
ment in all the battles of the Atlanta campaign,
and after the battles of Franklin and Nashville.
Tenn.. upon recommendation of the officers of
his brigade nnd division nnd on the Indorsement
of General Schofield, commanding the army, he
was made brevet brigadier general by President
Lincoln February 16. for long and faithful service
and conspicuous gallantry at the battles of Re
saca. Atlanta. Franklin and Nashville; member
of Loyal Legion and G. A. R.”
So only seven Civil war veterans are members of
the Sixty-sixth congress—54 years after the close
of the memorable struggle between the North and
South. Soldier representation In congress was
at its peak between 1880 and 1800.
The fact that the period between 1880 and 1800
marked the larger soldier representation In con
gress Indicates that most of the soldiers .who
were in their twenties at the close of the war In
1865 did not begin to aspire to congressional
service until had reached thlrty-flve or forty
years of age. Many of them were between forty
and fifty when they took their seats.
There has been much conjecture as to how
soon the veterans of the War of 1917, as the
recent world war has been officially designated
by the war department, will occupy a majority
of seats In congress. As a majority of those who
actually saw foreign service, which will be the
larger political factor as the years go by, were
between twenty and twenty-five years of age. It
may be safely calculated that It. will be at least
15 years before there will be another soldier
congress. That will be In 1934. It may be sooner
If the newer custom of electing young men is
continued. The average age of congressmen has
decreased In recent years. Several of the pres
ent members are In their early thirties. The West
shows the greater tendency to elect young men.
Two veterans of the War of 1917 are already
in the house —In fact, were In It when they put
on the uniform. They are F. H. Guardla of
New York, who was a major In the air service,
and Royal C. Johnson of South Dakota, who
fought in the trenches and was wounded. King
Swope, a returned soldier, has been elected a
representative from Kentucky to fill a vacancy
and has Just taken his seat. His election has
set the politicians wondering, inasmuch as he
was elected on the Republican ticket In a Demo
cratic district and his platform was opposition to
the League of Nations.
Representative Lucian Walton Parrish of the
Thirteenth Texas district not only had the dis
tinction of winning a $50 gold prize as the best
debater In his last year at the University of
Texas, but won his election by the use of a “fliv
ver.” He says: . prior to entering the
race for congress he had never sought or held
public office or emolument; he hnd. however,
been active in public affairs, as president of the
school board, as president of the chamber of
commerce of Henrietta, and had held other like
positions of trust. C. F. Spencer of Montague
county and E. I*. Haney of Wichita county were
his opponents In the race for congress, and both
of them were seasoned politicians. Mr. Haney
having represented five of the 12 counties In the
congressional district in the legislature of Texas
and Mr. Spencer having been county attorney of
Montague county, and at the time he entered
the race was district Judge of Denton. Montague
and Cooke counties, and besides was reared In
Wise county, giving him an extensive ac
quaintance In these four counties of the dis
trict. while Mr. Parrish was practically unknown
in any part of the eastern district. With Mr.
Spencer in the east and Mr. Haney* In the west,
all the political prophets were quite sure Mr.
Parrish had no chance to win. However, with
characteristic determination, he made an untir
ing and vigorous campaign. In an automobile he
went day and night, speaking from one to four
times a day. and reached practically every com
munity ln the 12 counties. When the result of
the first primary was known, Mr. Parrish was
winner hy 253 votes."
J. Kuhlo Kalanianaole, territorial delegate from
Hawaii: “Republican of Waikiki, district of
Honolulu, island of Oahu; was born March 26.
1871, at Kola, Island of Kauai. Hawaii; was edu
cated ln Honolulu, the United States, and Eng
land ; was employed In the office of minister of the
Interior and In the customhouse under the mon
archy ; Is cousin to the late King Knlukuua and
Queen LUluoknlani, monarchs of the then king
dom of Hawaii, and nephew of Queen Kapiolani.
consort of Kalukaua; was created prince by royal
proclamation ln 1884; married Elizabeth Kahanu
Knauwui, daughter of a chief of the Island of
Maul, October 8. 1S90; was elected delegate to the
Fifty-sixth. Fifty-ninth. Sixtieth. Sixty-first. Sixty
second. Sixty-third, Sixty-fourth, Sixty-fifth und
Sixty-sixth congresses."
Quite a number of members in addition to the
gentleman from Hawaii have considerable to say
about their ancestry. Several trace their blood
back to members of the Continental congress. One
announces that he Is a “direct descendant of the
father of Hunnah Dustin.” An Ohio representa
tive, however, easily leads them all.
Henry I. Emerson of Cleveland, representative
from the Twenty-second Ohio district, sets forth
his ancestry back to the year 1065 ln this country
and had the honor of being elected to the Sixty
sixth congress without s single vote being cast
against him. Here is his story of himself:
' “Republican of Cleveland; was born In Litch
field, Me., March 15, 1871, son of Ivory W. Emer
son, a veteran of the Civil war. Mr. Emerson Is a
direct descendant of (1) Michael Emerson, who
came to this country In 1655 and settled In Haver
hill. Mass., and was the father of Hannah Dustin,
a famous woman of New England; his son (2),
Samuel, was born In Haverhill, hut moved to
Dover, N. H.. where his son (3), Timothy Emerson
was born; (4) Smith Emerson, born at Dover, N.
H., December 26, 1745, was a captain In the Revo
lutionary army and served under Washington at
Trenton and Princeton; (5) Jonathan Emerson
was born at Dover, N. H., but moved to Litchfield,
Me., with his son (6), Andrew Emerson, where (7)
Ivory W. Emerson, the son of Andrew, was born;
served ln the city council of Cleveland in 1902
and 1903; practiced law In Cleveland since 1893,
and has offices in the Society for Savings building;
was elected to the Sixty-fourth congress hy 1,074
plurality, renominated ut the Republican primaries
August 8. 1910, without opposition ; re-elected to
the Sixty-fifth congress by 5,665 majority; was
renominated August 13, 1918, without opposition
at the Republican primaries, and had no opposi
tion nt the election. The Democratic committee
Indorsed Mr. Emerson and the Socialists nominat
ed no candidate against him; was elected to the
Sixty-sixth congress, receiving over 32,000 votes,
and not a single vote being cast against him.’’
On casual examination of the directory it would
seem ns If most of the members are lawyers. W©
find mention of occupations of many kinds —iron
molder, baker, stock rulser, cowboy, tree surgeon,
manufacturer, physician, cheese maker, glass
blower, lumberjack, miner, haggagemaster, farmer,
etc. About 40 members are or have been news
paper men, although It Is to he noted that several
fall to mention the fact.
Among those who own up to newspaper connec
tions, Randall of California simply says “news
paper editor and publisher.’’ Osborne of the same
state gives full details of his work as a printer
and reporter ami of his official connection with
the International Typographical- union.
Senator Medllt McCormick ,of Illinois, a grand
son of Joseph Medill of the Chicago Tribune, says
“writer nnd publisher.” Hardy of Colorado is an
editor nnd publisher and Is president of the Na
tional Editorial association. Cramton of Michigan
Is a newspaper publisher. Champ Clark says
“edited a country newspaper.” Senator Harding
of Ohio, "has been a newspaper publisher since
1884.” Ashbrook of the same state has been pub
lisher of the Johnstown Independent since lie was
seventeen years old. Senator LnFollette of Wis
consin has a magazine bearing his name, but he
says nothing about It In his very brief autobl
ography. Senator Ashurst of Arizona says “has
pursued the following occupations: Lumberjack,
cowboy, clerk and cashier in stores, newspaper
reporter and lawyer." Senator Owen of Oklahoma
says “has served ns teacher, editor, lawyer, hanker *
and business man."
This Congressional Directory is, in all serious
ness, an interesting hook and may be read to ad
vantage by p.d good Americans who are discriminat
ing readers.

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