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©he |hiomt JMirror.
Yol. <4. No. 23. A DAY. I’ll tell you how the sun rose, — A ribbon at a time. The steeples swam in amethyst, The news like squirrels ran. The hills untied their bonnets. The bobolinks begun. Then I said seftly to myself, “That must hare been the sun!” But how he set I know not There seemed a purple stile Which little yellow boys and girls Were climbing all the while. Till when they reached the other side, A dominie in gray Put gently up the evening bars, And led the flock away. Prisoner Reform. The subjoined questions were sent by the Boston Herald to several gentlemen inter ested in the work of the reformation of criminals: What are the elements or factors which enter into the reformation of criminals? Is the reformation of criminals dependent upon religion? And if so, to what extent? The following is the reply made by Gardiner Tufts, the Superintendent of the Massachusetts Reformatory: An answer to the first question, “What are the elements or factors which enter into the reformation of criminals?” must relate to the criminal’s own action in reformation, and to the action of other persons for his reformation. Not without considerable elaboration and space can we separate the statements we shall make concerning the action by, and the action for, the criminal in the work of reformation, and therefore we shall let them run together; besides some of the statements include both that which belongs to the criminal and that which re lates to other persons. The elements which •enter into reformation are: Good treatment; fair dealing; the criminal’s recognition of bis own criminality; his desire for reform; his willingness to be reformed; a recogni tion of criminals as fellow-beings; a recog nition of criminality as a human fraility; a belief that criminals are reformable—that they can amend their lives as other people amend their lives; a perception that crimi nals are to be reformed as any other persons are reformed; a perception that all crimi nality is the same inessence and centre; a recognition of the fact that crime is offense against human law; a recognition of the fact that criminals generally are more weak than wicked; a perception that criminals are deficient in goodness rather than excessive in wickedness; power of will; habit of in dustry: knowledge, industrial, mental, moral and spiritual; the overture of the gos pel; a uew life; time; the indeterminate sentence. The second question—“ls the reformation of criminals dependent upon religion?”— will admit of two answers. The criminal of this discussion is an otfeuder against hu man law. If only that, he may cease from such offending; he may become reconciled to such law; he may reform in the partic ular of his offense against human law, in dependent of religion. Men may cease to do evil and learn to do well, in limited ways, without religious motives therefor, but the limits of such reform are narrow. When persons are criminal in the thoughts and intents of their hearts, their hearts need to be changed in order to make their lives right. When the turpitude of individuals is greater than the iniquity of their particular criminal acts (which is gen erally the case), then is their reformation dependent upon religion—for thoroughness, completeness and permanency. Religion is reform in entirety; and reform is the means of attaining and maintaining religious life. The work of religion is to overcome- what ever there may be of personal evil within the individual, and also, his tendency to •vil; to reform thoughts and habits, conduct and life. Upon two commandments hang all the law and the prophets. The first: “Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind.” And the second is like unto it: *‘Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself.” -Complete and sure reform is dependent upon the religion of these commandments. Stillwater, Minn.,Thursday, Jan. 18, 1891. Obedience to the first puts man iu right re lations to his God, and gives him true in spiration and noble aspirations. Obedience to the second commandment puts a man into right relations to his fellow-men. Under its sway no man marauds or men aces. or in any way harms his fellow-men. It is utterly impossible for a man to be a criminal or commit a crime who loves his neighbor as himself. If a person is a crim inal, he ceases to be such the moment he loves God with all his heart, and his neigh bor as himself. The man from that moment is reformed, and not entirely so before such a moment. The gospel of which these two command ments are the essence (which is religion) is the one thing whiclf has lifted up, renovated and reformed individuals and peoples the world over. It is the only one thing that has gone alike to hut and hall, to king and peasant, into prison and throughout free dom’s realm, with transforming power, everywhere making the bad good. In the wide, the general, the individual accom plishments of the gospel is the affirmative answer to the question: “Can criminals be reformed?” and it also brings the affirmative answer that complete and enduring refor mation of criminals is dependent upon re ligion* Religion, being necessary for the regeneration of those not criminals, is es sential for the complete reformation of those who are criminals. —Emily Dickinson. The third question, as “To what extent is the reformation of criminals dependent upon religion?” has had answer in part in what we have said upon the second ques tion. It is dependent to the extent ot com pleteness and security. Reform may begin at various different points of character. It may be of low origin. It may at the begin ning be without religious motive or stimu lus, but somewhere on the route “from its origin to its consummation” it must embrace religion. It must embrace the heart in or- - der to crown and make whole its work, “for out of the heart are the issues of life.” The reform of every part, power or faculty of man, except his heart, are good occur rences, but it is not a complete work if the wrong heart is not converted—not turned to right purpose and action. In the ref ormation of criminals religion is consumma tion and fixedness: it is the essential new affection. The religion of reformation is not a form of doctrine, but it is loving God with all the heart and our neighbor as our self, and to this extent is the reformation of criminals dependent upon religion. A reformatory system is based upon a belief in the essential oneness of criminal and non-criminal persons as sentient beings. Its methods proceed from the belief that the crimes of criminals are, in origin, develop ment, and continuance like the offenses of any other persons; that rectitude is gained or regained by the same means by all persons; that for all defilement there must be, essentially, the same cleansing for each one in order that every one may become pure in heart and correct in life. All criminal ity is of one malady—that of sin; and its remedy is the same as that for perversity, turptitude and all transgression whenever or wherever or however found—that for sin. Reformatory action must be along the line of a common humanity. Within the reformatory purview is the great number and variety of persons who have offended against property, person and public morals, whom the law has designated as criminals. They have been given many names. Penology classifies them as pro fessional, habitual and accidental criminals. To the reformatory view they are, as a body, a people of needs; are persons who have come to criminality by reason of men tal, moral, physical or industrial lack. It is generally found that they are barren of the very things which abound in good peo ple, which has enriched their lives with honesty, honor and truth, and given them aspiration and heavenly hope. Therefore the reformatory method is that of implant ing, rather than uprooting, one of enrich ment rather than that of impoverishment. The endeavor is to make the person robust in integrity, rather than feeble in criminal ity; to implant a right affection, the expul sive power of which shall drive out the wrong. The reformatory looks for a man in every prisoner, and, finding him, it seeks to qual ify him with that liberty wherewith other men have been made free from that which was wrong in their lives and purposes. The reformatory deals with' the offender rather than his offense —his phases of char acter, his physical, moral, mental and spir itual needs. The reformatory plan does “ IT IS NEVER TOO LATE TO MEND.” not proceed upon the fact that a man is a murderer or a thief or a drunkard: but upon the facts that he is a man astray from recti tude, and is to be brought back thereto; that he is a person who is wrong and is to be made right; as one whose trend of life needs to be changed and can be changed. It seeks to have the prisoner go from im prisonment changed in purpose, corrected in thought; enlightened in understanding, purified in heart, strengthened in will, equipped with skill and endowed with in dustry; habilitated or rehabilitated, as the case may be, with the qualities and forces of a perfect life. For the accomplishment and furtherance of these ends a reformatory is an educa tional institution. Its inmates are taught in schools of letters; in trades schools; are trained physically and directed spiritually. At all points they are summoned, and by all ways of wisdom they are allured to the highest planes of life, thought and action. The motives ot two worlds are set before them. The agencies of civilization and religion are employed in their behalf, and for work-day-life they are equipped with manual skill and industrial knowledge. Written for The Mirror. Indian Marriages. As there are different tribes of Indians so are there different ceremonies attending the marriages of men and women. Among the Pawnees the form is simple but always about the same. The wife is a servant and the man gets her,not for a companion, but for a menial. There is no drudgery too labori ous, no labor too degrading or humiliating that he will not require her to perform. When a young man makes up his mind that the duties of his home are too numerous and too laborious for him to perform he looks around for some strong, able-bodied woman in his tribe—her personal beauty is of no consequence, but she must be strong and healthy. When he finds such a one he dresses himself up in all the finery he can command, and with his coat, fur side out, well up around his face so as to conceal his features, he enters the lodge of the woman he has decided upon and seats himself on the floor. No one speaks to him and he speaks to no one. After sitting for a short time he gets up and goes out This is re peated the next day and unless he is re ceived with some degree of attention he withdraws, understanding that his atten tions have not met with favor, but if the woman should meet him and offer him the seat of honor on a bear skin, or some other skin of equal value, then he understands that he is acceptable as a suitor, and he lowers his coat and reveals his features. At this stage of the proceedings the father of the girl appears, his price is stated, usually one or more horses, a sun and some blankets. If the young fellow is able to meet the demand the marriage is agreed upon then and there. He is then told to go home and make a feast inviting all of his relatives and have them discuss the desira bility of the match. The father of the girl does the same thing and the character and standing of the expectant groom is thor oughly examined into. If each report fa vorably the purchase price, is paid, some one throws a blanket over the head of the bride and she is led to the lodge of her hus band, and there she becomes the slave of one with whom she has had but little to say. Polygamy is practiced and the num ber of wives is limited only by the financial condition of the man. Usually he takes the next sister when she reaches a marriage able age, preferring to take her for sisters live together more peaceably. A son-in law never speaks to any of his wife’s rela tives, believing that by so doing he treats them with the greatest possible respect. Among the Indians, mothers-in-law never stir up strife and break up homes as is sometimes the case among white people. If the mother wishes to visit her daugh ter, on reaching her lodge if she finds her husband in she will not enter but will defer her visit until she is sure he is not at home. A son-in-law feels it his duty to supply the parents of his wife with game until he has a family of his own, then he leaves them to shift for themselves until another daughter is married. Gen. R. W. Johnson. Tbe Giftle’s Power. “Is there anything of interest in the pa per this morning, dear?” "Nothing special. There is an editorial appeal for the starving Irish; and. ah, yes I see that our soldiers bare been victorious over the starving Sioux!—Puck. Five Gents. A Decrease of Prisoners. Is the relative increase in the number of criminals greater in this country than in Great Britian? Most readers, we presume, bearing in mind such dark pictures as those drawn in General Booth’s “In Darkest England,” would answer this question in the negative. But the affirmative was maintained In a recent address by Major Robert Stiles, President of the Prison As sociation of Virginina, to which our atten tion has been called. Major Stiles, who has made a special study of the prison sys tems of England and this country, says that in the last decade fifty-six out of one hun dred and thirteen convict prisons in Eng land have been closed, while the number of male prisoners has decreased twenty eight per cent, and of female prisoners, forty five per cent, during the same period. An other striking fact, going to show that of those now in prison in Great Britian a large majority belong to the incorrigible, hopeless class, is that out of one hundred and thirty prisoners in one convict prison in 1886 only ten were first offenders, and of another body of prisoners, also taken at a venture, seventy-five per cent, were old offenders. In contrast with this the speaker asserted that in his own state, Virginia, serious crime has nearly doubled in the last nine years. We notice also, as a fact having the same significance, that in the report lately read before the Massachusetts Prison As sociation it was declared that at least 150,- 000 persons are directly or indirectly con nected with the criminal classes in that state, and that the cost of police courts and prisons requires a tax of nearly three mill ion dollars annually. The moral drawn by Major Stiles and by the Secretary of the Massachusetts Association is the same. The latter says: “It costs money to keep a man out of the criminal and pauper class, but it will cost more to let him get into it, and the rescue of one family will be a suffi cient compensation for all the cost of time, effort, and money which are involved in maintaining a local prisoners’ aid associa tion.” Major Stiles confirms this view by attributing the advance in England to the six hundred and sixty-three reformatory, preventive, and child saving iustitutions in successful operation there. If we add to the influences of industrial schools, reform atories. and prisoners’ aid societies, the principle of indeterminate sentences wisely administered, we have formulated, it seems to us, the only practical solution of the problem-of dealing with crime before it is matured and obdurate. —Christian Union. Very Expensive Drugs. We would, perhaps, wonder less at the fancy charges made by physicians and sur geons who have rare and exceptional cases in charge if we only knew the cost of drugs they use in special diseases. Eor the bene fit of the army of "the curious” we have prepared the following list of scarce and expensive drugs: Three-pound bottle of alkaloid of aconi tine, $480.50; quarter ounce vial of cheli donine alkaloid, a new drug used in skin diseases, scrofula, and dropsy, $88; cocaine, about $l2O per pound. A five-ounce bottle of “true cotion” will cost about $350, or about S7O an ounce. Crystals of elaterin, a poison used in cases of hydrophobia and lockjaw, prepared from a plant called South American Indian arrow, is worth about $145 per ounce. Among other costly drugs we might men tion the following, and the different sized bottles and vials in which they are sold: Agaricin, 4)4 ounces, $43.75; colocynthin, 534 ounces, $114.75; coniine hydrochlorate, 434 ounces, $98.45; cyclamin, 3% ounces, $54.04; dieitoxin, 134 ounces, $87.40; gen tlsin, 134 ounces, $91.15; heliotropin, 6 ounces, $61.25; dydrastine hydrochlorate, 634 ounces, $194.80; papayotin, used as a solvent for the, diphtheric membrane, 13- ounce bottle, $189.50. Besides the above there are various prep arations made from the Calabar bean, the cost of which is amazing. They are chiefly used in diseases of the eye. One is called physostigmine alkaloid, and costs $137.50 per ounce vial. Physostigmine crystals are still more expensive, being sold in 234* ounce bottles at a cost of $503.15. Still an other preparation of the Calabar is phys ostigmine calicylate crystals, an aristocratic drug that surely furnishes a fitting capsheaf for this pyramid of costly stuffs, which is furnished to the consumer who is able to pay at the reasonable charge of $1,810,020 for a 2-ounce vial. — St Louis Republic.