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Vol. 3. No. IY. LOOKING FORWARD. We always look for better things And hope the future's gilded wings Will bring the joys for which we've sighed, Which flit for ever from our side. To-day the clouds hang dark and low, We hope the evening sunset glow Will end this misery and pain. Foretell of days we sought in vain. O, will the coming days bring cheer, Uplift our souls, silent from fear? Or will our cherished dreams pass by And light and hope within us die? If hope be dead this life were drear: But hope’s not dead, an angel’s near And bids us forward, onward go. The sun will shine e’er long 1 know. The mists shall rise and float away, The flowers will bloom, and joys will stay. And earth be fairer tban before For all the trouble which we bore. We murmur at the same dull sound; Some day our hearts shall leap and bound We shall be free, and storms be o’er When earth and time shall be no more. And then the hopes for which we’ve sighed Will bud and bloom and there abide, And then we’ll know the reason why The clouds arose and filled our sky. —N. B. Fowles, in Minneapolis Spectator. Personal Economies. In this country, we naturally go to New England, and, alas! to an earlier time, for examples of personal economy and thrift. Almost any New Englander can recall a country minister who, on his little yearly salary of three or four hundred dollars, managed, by the help of his wife, to live respectably and comfortably, educate a large family for self support and social use fulness, and lay up something every year against the rainy day which comes in all men’s lives. We have wondered how it was done, but we know it was done, and that he died at last the possessor of a nice little property. New England has been noted for its hard soil and its hard condi tions generally, yet there is no other spot on the face of the earth that contains so much human comfort to the square mile. Every man born on New England soil tries and expects to better his condition during his life, and he goes to work at the begin ning with this definitely in view. The rich men of New England are men who began their prosperity with humble savings. Whatever their income was. they did not use it all. Twenty-five or fifty dollars a year was considered quite worth saving and laying by. These small sums, placed at in terest, accumulated slowly but surely, until the day came at last when it was capital, to be invested in business with large profits. A fortune acquired in this way was cohe sive, strong and permanent. We are quite aware that something was lost in the habit of these small economies. Men grew small quite too often, and pinched and stingy, by the influence of the habit of penny savings. This has been brought against New England as a reproach, but New England has replied, with truthful ness and pride, that no people of the coun try or of the world have been more benevo lent than her own economical children. She points to the vast sums she has ex pended on Christian missions, and to the great public charities whose monuments crown her hill tops, and shows that at the call of Christianity and humanity her purse, filled witlrsuch painstaking and self-denial, flies open and empties itself to fill the meas ure of the public need. At any rate, we know that there is not a state in all the West that has not gone to New England for the money to build her towns and her railroads, and that if she has ever been lag gard in her hospitalities, such as she has practiced have been at her own expense, and not at that of her creditors. New England is rich —and this, after all, is what 1 am trying to say—notwithstanding a hard soil and an inhospitable climate. Circum stances were against her from the begin ning, and economy was what enabled her to conquer circumstances, and to lift her self to the commanding position of wealth and influence which she holds to day. The men who had an income of 8300 a year, at the beginning lived on 8200. Those whose income reached 81,000 lived on half that sum, and so on. They practiced self-de nial. They had no great opportunities for making money, and knew that wealth could -only come to them through saving money. The old farmer who, when asked what the “ IT IS NEVER TOO LATE TO MEND.” Stillwater, Minn., Thursday, Dec. 3,1891. secret of his wealth was, replied: “When I got a cent I kep’ it,” told the whole story of New England thrift and comfort. Now, if we look around us we shall, in the light of this New England example, learn why it is so many men and women drop into pau perism With such fearful rapidity on the first stoppage of income. We know very few men of fixed incomes who do not live up to the limit of these incomes, whatever it may happen to be. A man who this year has a salary of 82,000 uses it all, and when it gets up to 83.000 or 84,000 he uses it all in the same way. It seems to make no dif erence how much he receives—the style and cost of living expand immediately so as to absorb all that comes. Those who have no fixed income, and are engaged in trade, adopt the style of the prosperous men around them, and strain every effort to bring up their income to meet the require ments of that style. Every family, instead of endeavoring to see how small they can make their expenses, endeavor to see how large they can make them, or how large their income will permit them to be. The fixed purpose to save something out of every year’s income, and so to graduate expenses that something shall be saved — the policy of rigid self-denial for the pur pose of accumulating property, even though it be slowly, does not apparently exist in this community. So, when the bread win ner is disabled, or dies, his family drops into abject and utterly helpless poverty in a day, and all life is embittered thencefor ward, simply because no self-denial had been practiced while the worker lived, or was able to work. The man of small or modest income looks around him and sees many who are rich and who are not obliged to think of every penny they spend. He regards himself as their social equal, and wonders why it should be necessary for him to be so pinched in hfs spendings and so plain in his surroundings. He does not consider how much, and ex actly what, the wealth which moves his envy has cost. He may be sure that some where, at the foundation of all the wealth he sees, there was once a man who prac ticed rigid self denial, and studiously lived within his income, and saved money al though his income was small. All fortunes have their foundation laid in economy. The man who holds the money to day may have inherited it through the accident of birth, but it cost his father or his grand father years—perhaps a life-time —of econ omy and self denial. There is no royal road to wealth any more than there is to learning. It costs hard work, and the re linquishment of many pleasures, and most men may have it who will pay its price. If they are not willing to. do this, why, they must not complain of their lot when their day of adversity comes; and they ought to have the grace to make themselves just as little of a nuisance as possible to those who have secured a competence and paid the honest price for it. Rameous. Does Imprisonment Reform? Does imprisonment reform? Able prison managers have been trying to solve this problem for the last twenty-five years. Although making a great deal of progress they have fallen short. As an eminent prison chaplain has said, “Put yourself in the prisoner’s place.” He had tried it very often, but could not succeed. To have the same thoughts, trials and hardships as a convict has is impossible. Put a man in prison, assign him to his work, and then leave him to himself —what can be expected of him? He has nothing to work for, no object in view, except that of gaining the diminution of sentence allowed by the law. Society says the convict is treated too well. That is all bosh. Take our Southern pris ons where they have razor-back hog and corn bread three times 365 days in the year, eat, sleep and work in the same clothes un til they drop off with filth, never hear of a church and forget what a Bible looks like, the punishment a strap—seldom used if enough work is performed, but if not, “39” hard. There are more prisoners in those states in proportion to population than there are on this side of Mason and Dixon’s line. Does punishment reform? One Southern railroad built by prisoners has a good sized convict graveyard strung along its right of way. Kindness and humaneness lift up the man: brutality and inhumanity degrade and crush him. “Spare the rod and spoil the child” is an old proverb, but it is not true. When 1 went to school I was punished with the rule or gad. Teachers do not; use those instruments of torture to day, but show the child wherein it is wrong and what the con esquence will be. Major Salter, ex warden of the Chester (111.) penitentiary, a kind and humane man. said that the more privi leges the men had the less punishment he had to inflict and the more cheerfully they performed their work. He tried both ways during his seven years in office. The last two years he established a “sociable” for all the prisoners—about ; 600—in the chapel three nights of each week. They had a convict band, played checkers and dominos. They had a good time in general for two and a half hours. He was well pleased with the outcome. He had 100 outside of the walls at a time, and but two men be trayed his confidence. Ex Warden Cross ley of tbe lowa penitentiary tried reforma tiou on the same plan. Although a strict man, he believed in reformation through kindness. I could name several more who hold similar views. Every convict has some object in life. Kill ambition and you kill t lie man. Let the convict know that you have his individual welfare at heart, then you are in a lair way to gaining a reformatory power over him. A man cast into prison for a term o! years goes through the same routine every day. There is nothing to look forward to except his release and a few paltry dollars. He becomes hardened. For instance, his near friend comes to see him: they meet and shed tears. They separate; the triend returns to society and the world, the convict goes back to his task. After a month or two they meet again; the friend weeps; the convict does not. Why this change? It is because the convict has become hardened. He be comes more so as time goes on. His sen tence expires; he goes out into the world. What shall he do? If his history is known he cannot get work. Society has established Prisoners’ Aid so cieties. A leader in one of these societies advertised for a coachman, and an ex con vict answered' in person. The “society leader” asked for his reference. He an swered, “1 am a good hostler, and l want work. Give me a trial?”- The “society leader” wanted references. The ex con vict replied. “My references are at Jol iet.” The “society leader” took out a 810 bill, and, banding it to the ex convict, said: “Take this, my man, and may God bless you. I don’t think I will employ a coach man, for 1 have plenty of time myself.” He did not want to trust his horses with an ex-convict. So much for those who love the ex convict. What practical work can be done for the convict? After a prisoner has served a por tion of his time, during which he has been allowed a per cent of his earnings, turn him out on parole and put him at some work for which he is fitted. Hold back a portion of his prison earnings until his final discharge. Surround him with Christian influences, for it is one of the most powerful agencies in reform. If a man studies the Bible and lives near its teachings he is in little danger of getting into prison. You say the pa roled man will betray the state’s trust. Re member, he is released on conditions, is, in fact, only a trusty. By the Bertillion sys tem of identification it is made almost im possible for a mau to escape, and if he should escape, his earnings held would help pay the cost of his recapture. If he lives up to the conditions of his parole, at the end of his sentence, minus good time, give him the money held back from his earnings with which to start independent life anew. During his probation he has learned how to work for himself and has formed regular habits. He has been making a man of him self while preparing for liberty. 1 know men in the East who owe their salvation to the fact of their having been sent from pris on under the protection of a parole. Some years ago a member of the noted Savage Club of London was standing on the steps of the club house. A man stopped and asked, “Does a gentleman belong to your club with one eye named Walker?” "I don’t know.” was the reply. “What was the name of the other eye?”—Selected. Professor (a little distracted): “I’m very glad to see you. How’s your wife?” “I regret it, professor; but I’m not married.” “Ah, yes: then, of course, your wife’s still single?”—Selected. Points About the Electric Lamp. Many hundred pounds of platinum, worth about as much as gold, are lost every year in worn out incandescent electric lamps. Millions of these bulbs are produced yearly, and are used up in from 600 to 1,000 hours each. Most of them, when the life of the lamp is exhausted, are much as they were when the lamp was first sent out from the factory. The little loop of carbon, which is the soul of the contrivance, is broken and useless, but the bulb often remains in tact, and the two little threads of platinum that convey the current to the vacuum within are as good as though they had never been used. One of the many hopeful and ingenious men occupied day and night in solving electric problems, has found a prof itable way of saving this platinum. It sounds like a small matter, but it will be worth many thousands of dollars yearly. A fortune awaits the man that shall in vent a method of saving the bulbs them selves, or contrive a bulb that shall be as nearly as may be a true vacuum, and yet admit of replacing a worn out carbou loop. The present bulb is the nearest approach to a vacuum known to science. The little button or point at the end of the bulb marks the place at which the vacuum was sealed. That is the thickest part of the bulb. Other parts are rarely more than 1-32 of an inch in thickness, but they bear with ease the atmospheric pressure of fif teen pounds to the square inch to which they are constantly subjected. Now <and then, however, they collapse—or I ‘explode,” according to the erroneous popular notion — apparently without cause. For the most part the collapse comes because of some change in the internal conditions. Every bulb is known to contain a slight trace of highly rarefied air. If there were much of it the carbon loop would instantly be con sumed when the current was turned on. As it is, the carbon does undergo some com bustion. If one of the bulbs contains a lit tle more air than another, and if the carbon be slightly defective, there may be a little more than the usual amount of combustion. The trace of oxygen present in the highly rarefied air joins with the carbon to form carbonic acid gas; this produces a slight change in the internal conditions, and if the bulb has a weak point the atmospheric pressure from without crushes in its frail sides. The dim and smoky look of some long used incandescent lamps is due to this combustion of carbon. Infinitesimal por tions of the burning carbon fall upon the inner surface of the bulb and are welded to the glass. It is generally believed that a perfectly spherical lamp best endures the constant air pressure to which it is sub jected; but the common pear shaped lamp has been adopted partly because of its beauty, partly because it is more easily and less expensively made, and partly because it, will hold a longer loop of carbon than the corresponding sphere. On all lamps sent out from the factory is marked the candle power. This is for the information of the consumer. There is another mark on the lamp less conspicuous and not especially addressed to the con sumer. This mark is found on the white plaster covering the upper end of the bulb. It indicates the number of volts that will produce the registered candle power. The ordinary 16-candle power 'lamp is marked from 116 to 123 volts. The average is per haps 120 volts. The lamp may be run at a mufth higher voltage and with higher result ant candle power, but the carbon will not long endure the strain. It is burning the candle at both ends, so to speak. The elec tric light stations are provided with an ingenious device for guarding against such a strain. Should some accident happen whereby a large part of the lamps run by one current was cut off in a body, the ef fect would be to subject the others to a higher voltage than they were designed to stand. When such an accident happens the pressure indicator at the station comes into play. This is a device for measuring the voltage of a current. Just above and attached to the instrument is an incan descent lamp run by the current that the pressure indicator measures. When an ac cident happens this lamp suddenly intensi fies its glow. This serves to call attention to the fact of something unusual, and indi= cates a higher voltage than the system of lamps is designed to endure. At the same time the gauge of the pressure indicator marks the number of volts. The attendant instantly regulates the dynamo until the in dicator registers the proper number of volts. —N. f. Sun. Wm. Y. Rive Gents.