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Vol. S. No. 42. Crime In Two Countries. A gentleman signing himself “Not an Empirical Penologist” contributes an article to the Elmira Summary in which he admin isters a fitting rebuke to the late utterances of William Tallack, secretary of the London Howard Association. He shows that crime in England is not on the decrease as has been so much boasted of by the Howard Association. We republish the communica tion entire: Editor of The Summary:—Through the news columns of your paper, I learn that Secretary William Tallack of the London Howard Association has again delivered himself of one of his periodic maledictions against American prison systems. I refer to this item: — “A letter written by Secretary William Tallack, of the Howard Association, was published in Lon don, and excited much interest among those con nected officially and unofficially with English prisons. The newspapers printed lengthy com ments on the letter. Mr. Tallack said that after a careful study of prisons in Italy and America, where a system had been adopted of giving prison ers of a hardened type f-ee intercourse with the other prisoners and providing them with comforts and luxuries, he found that the results were de plorable. The prisons of Massachusetts, he de clared, were schools of crime, and had terrible ef fects upon the community. Crime in England, where the prisoners were separated, had, accord ing ito Mr. Tallack. greatly decreased, while in America it was rapidly increasing." To one who has closely followed former attempts of a similar nature made by Mr. Tallack, there is nothing remarkable in this latest indictment, except it be. perhaps, the pertinacity displayed by the writer in venting his spleen on American reformato ries. Here is Mr. Tallack’s main charge:— •‘Giving prisoners of a hardened type free in tercourse with the other prisoners is a cause of the increase of crime in America." Wonderful declaration that! John How ard proclaimed it fifty years ago. To pen ologists, the world over, it is a byword; to all sociologists, a self evident truism. Why, then, at this late day, give utterance to this platitude in connection with the AMERICAN PRISON SYSTEM Does Mr. Tallack wish to insinuate, in penning the above lines, that the American people are so ignorant and debased that they will not be impressed by such an uni versal axiom, but would continue to carry on so important a public institution, ueg lectful of all improvements dictated by modern civilization? If such be his inten tion, this charge is an unpardonable slander. American prison systems are, admittedly, the most progressive of any in the world, and productive of better results than were ever hoped for by the projectors of Eng land’s prisons, notwithstanding Mr. Tal lack’s statement to the contrary. .The claim, made by the latter, of a decrease of crime in England, is flatly contradicted by one of Mr. Tallack’s countrymen, William Douglas Morrison, of Her Majesty’s Gaol at Wandsworth, who avers that England is no exception to the rest of the world in this respect. HERE IS THE PROOF. Mr. Tallack bases his assertion upon the fact that in 1878 the English prisons held a daily average of over 20,000 criminals against 15,000 in 1888. But, as his own countryman states, “the daily average is no criterion whatever of the rise and fall of crime. Calculated on the principle of daily average, twelve men sentenced to prison for one month each, will not figure so largely in criminal statistics as one man sentenced to a term of eighteen months. The daily average, in other words, depends upon the length of sentence prisoners re ceive, and not upon the number of persons committed to prison, or upon the number of crimes committed during the year.” A look at the number of persons committed to ENGLISH PRISONS for twenty years will thoroughly disprove Mr. Tallack’s claim. Here are the official criminal statistics of England for the years 1868 to 1888, as compiled by Mr. Morrison: Total of the 5 years, 1868 to 1872, 774,667. Total of the 5 years, 1873 to 1877, 866,041. Total of the 5 years, 1884 to 1888, 898,486. These figures, if I may quote Mr. Morri son further, “incontestably mean that the total volume of crime is on the increase in England as well as everywhere else. It is fallacious to suppose that the English au thorities are gaining the mastery over the situation. Such a position is at once ref uted by the statistics which have just been tabulated, and these are the only statistics which can be relied upon for testing the Stillwater, Minn.,Thursdag, May 26,1892. position of England in regard to crime.” It may be claimed, however, that while the number of criminals is increasing, the fact that their sentences are lighter proves that there is a decrease in the total seriousness of the crimes committed. Nevertheless, sucli is not the fact, the decrease in the terms of sentence being directly traceable to the more modern spirit of the J udges, who. according to our former authority, Mr. Morrison, “are adopting a more lenient line of action, and are inflicting shorter sentences after conviction.” Indeed, if I am correctly informed, were it not for the large number of orphan asylums erected within the last ten years in Great Britain, and the wholesale transportation, carried on by the Government, of the young or phans to the-shores of Canada, England’s prisons would not suffice to meet the de mands of England’s laws. CRIME IX AMERICA, it cannot be denied, is also, apparently, on the increase; but this growth is not to be wondered at. Some of it Is due to im proved methods and greater care taken in collecting criminal statistics; a vast deal, to that great body of criminals, pushed out of their native country, into the hulks of emi-. grant ships, to be dumped on the over bur dened shoulders of Brother Jonathan, an unwelcome addition to the large number of their predecessors already supported by him. And, by the way. is it not a signifi cant fact, that, out of a total of 12,681 for eign born prisoners in the United States, product of forty three different countries, the United Kingdom of Great Britain fur nished no less than 7176! It is maintained by Mr. Tallack that segregation has de creased the criminal population of Great Britain while that of America is rapidly in creasing. Would it not be more truthful to say that England’s use of this and other shores, as dumping grounds, has saved her the disgrace and danger of an unnatural multiplication of criminals, and blocked the way of American prison- reformers, the general adoption of whose methods depends mostly on the success met with in their ef forts to decrease the number of their coun try’s criminals? As to the other statement that PRISONERS OF A HARDENED TYPE are given free intercourse with other pris oners less skilled in crime, such a condition, it is to be deplored, yet exists in many American prisons of the old type. But Reformatories, such as the one at Elmira, of which England counts as yet none, and counterparts of which are being erected in many different States of the Union, provide for the abolishment of this evil. CONSIDERATIONS OF CHARACTER, principally, enter into the separation of inmates. Age is an unimportant factor. Each individual prisoner, on arrival, is in terviewed by the General Superintendent and the Physician. His mental and phys ical ailments are well studied and after wards prescribed for. In the study of his moral defects; the Management does not content itself with a mere knowledge of his age aud of the crime that led to his commit ment; his antecedents, early surroundings, possible criminality in his family, educa tion, associates, former occupation, mental capability, moral susceptibilities, are all minutely inquired into and rigorously de termined, in order to ascertain the chief causes of criminality; the question then de bated is that of the means to be employed to effect a cure. All the different modes of treatment available are considered; a choice of one is made, and the individual is as signed to a certain division. In the study of his physical capacity, if the newly com mitted criminal be affected by any bodily ailment, or his general health be poor, he will, in all likelihood, be assigned to the physical culture class; if sufficiently strong in body, he will join the military division. A kindergarten is in force for such who lack the ordinary mental perception of a normal being. The blight, but lazy and shiftless, are often required to perform the hardest kind of work afforded by the Re formatory, that of iron moulding. When, as happens occasionally, a youth is found, whose guilt was the result of indiscretion or lack of thought, rather than moral perver sity or indifference, he will be given a higher education and imbued with more elevated ideas of duty and moral govern ment. A PRINCIPAL FACTOR OF CRIME. Lack of a handiwork is found to be the cause of the downfall of many; this class especially are assigned by the General IT IS NEVER TOO LATE TO MEND.” Superintendent to trades schools, where they perfect themselves in any of the in dustrial arts for which they may show some inclination. At the same time, classes are formed for the purpose of giving each in mate such solid instruction as will fit him to occupy, with satisfaction and perhaps pride, the future station in life which is destined, and in many cases obtained, for him by the Management. Divisions innu merable are thus created. After the au thorities have had time to notice the con duct of the prisoner under restraint, a further distinction is made and the inmates are separated into three different grades, a probationary, a neutral, and a grade for men considered temporarily incorrigible. Prisoners who have shown themselves disposed to abide by the laws of the intra mural community compose the first grade. They will, if above reproach while in that grade, leave the crime hospital and return to the outer world as healthy and service able members of society. Those who have not shown any determining signs of im provement remain in the neutral grade, where they have been placed upon their ar rival, while criminals showing unusual carelessness or indifference to order and advancement compose the lowest contin gent, termed the “convict grade.” None of the members of these two last divisions —and they constitute 80 per cent of the population—are permitted any association whatever. The members of the first grade, who are soon to be free from all restraint, in the midst of the dangers of our large cities, are permitted a restricted association, which necessarily constitutes a further pro bation, previous to their departure. No one recognizes the EVIL OF “DOUBLING UP” INMATES more than the Reformatory authorities, and there is no official act of the General Super intendent’s undertaken with more care than the supervision of the choice of prisoners placed in the same cell. Criminal experi ence, height, weight, physical condition, employment, religion, record at the Re formatory, everything is investigated; and when the morals of either of the inmates considered are liable to suffer from associa tion with the other, they are not allowed to room together. THE RESULTS OF THIS SYSTEM are found in the statistics Of the Reforma tory which tell the story of the reformation of over 82 per cent, of its inmates. It may be asked then, "If your institution effects the reformation of 82 per cent, of the crim inals. why does not crime decrease?” The answer is obvious and may serve as a lesson to the American people. Reformatories are yet in their youth, the oldest being in existence less than seventeen years; they are few in number, and as naught compared to the phalanx of punitory prisons. In the years to come however, when Reformato ries will be recognized as necessary to the country’s good, nay, more necessary than hospitals for the sick and asylums for the poor, when in every one of the United States, always first in reforms of every kind, an institution, after the pattern of the Elmira Reformatory, will have been erect ed, then will the people have a right to ex pect a decrease of crime in America; then also will they look forward to an era of rel ative freedom from the apprehensions it causes, and devote more of their time to teaching the exiled, uncared for foreign criminalsthe value of order,of law and duty, lessons which the punitive methods of their own land will have failed to inculcate. Senator Beck’s death resulted from over work. Henry Ward Beecher succumbed to over work. Zack Chandler died of apoplexy due to overwork. Family troubles and overwork killed Horace Greeley. Secretary Folger fell a victim to the demon of overwork. Dan Manning died from lack of exercise and excessive brain labor. Family troubles and overwork killed ex- Senator Pendleton of Ohio. Edwin M. Stanton’s death was super induced by overwork and worry. Worry and disappointment killed Charles Sumner, Henry Clay and Daniel Webster. —Washington Post. GRADE DISTINCTIONS. How They Died. Rive Gents Friendship. So much has been written on this topic that it seems to be somewhat threadbare, and yet a great deal may still be said about It. To have a friend, some one on whom we can rely in dark hours as well as in bright ones, is one of the choicest blessings any person can have. We may have a great many so-called friends who hover around us in prosperity, who each day seem to give us some renewed proof of their attachment for us. They win our confidence, hold our secrets, are very careful never to say or do anything that would wound our feelings, they tickle our ears with flattery—in a word, seem to be linked by every tie that binds people in friendship, and this too without really expecting anything, but your friendship in return. But there comes a test by and by and we find they have left us and gone over to the other side. That test comes when we are in trouble. When sorrow or misfortune overtakes us, it is then and only then that we are able to pick out our true friends; and then, oh what dis appointment when we had so depended on that friend to help us in our need. No sad der condition ever falls to mortal man than to be friendless; homeless is as nothing compared to it. But to have friends, tried and true, a man or woman can never go far astray without doing it wilfully, for a true friend will be as anxious to point out our faults to us and aid us in correcting and avoiding their dangers as they are to help us rise again when once we have fallen. I knew of an instance not many years ago which illustrates the true value of friendship. A certain man was behind in his accounts with the corporation for which he was woiking. They required a new bond at the beginning of the year and being unable to furnish it he was ordered to make up his accounts for inspection preparatory to turning the books over to his successor. What was he to do if his shortage was found out? It was ruin, total and com plete. He went to a friend and told him all. That friend took hold of the matter, procured for him a satisfactory bond, and got the company to still retain him in its employment. By this noble act he and his family were saved. He was enabled in a short time to make up his shortage and to day still holds his position and is trusted and well liked by his employers. But mark the reverse. Shortly afterward the friend, in speculation lost his own money and that of others with it, got into trouble, was ar rested on a charge of embezzlement, and lodged in jail. Did he go to his old friend’s aid? No; he had forgotten the past; he joined the creditors in denouncing his g former friend, and even went so far as to inform the public that his old friend had taken him in to the tune of several hundred dollars, which afterward proved a lie as the speculator’s matters were settled up and he was saved from prison by being proven in nocent of embezzlement. When the trustee appointed asked the pretended friend to file his claim he was compelled to acknowledge he had none. But did his old friend retal iate and expose him? Not he; he even for gave him the wrong, and even I would not know of the circumstance of the shortage if I had not been employed to draw the bond spoken of, thus learning the secret. Now, this pretended friend would, under most circumstances, have remained true had it not been for fear of being on the unpopular side. Public opinion he could not face, though he was really sorry for his friend. And I venture to assert that if the record of friends who have proven false or fickle to the inmates here (after taking from the list those ot us who did not merit friend ship) could be seen, we would find that four-fifths of our friends who deserted us, did it in favor of public opinion. It takes a man with a good deal ot nerve to face public opinion, and as public opinion is as many times wrong as right, we are very apt to lose our friends at the time it is wrong. Oh for friends like our mothers! Bob. N. Round. Jack: Ethel’s face is one that grows on one. Maud: Perhaps; but it never grows on her. It is hand-made. —Puck. To know the means of doing anything, it is all important that we should have a clear idea of what we desire to accomplish. —Prince.