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The herald and news. [volume] (Newberry S.C.) 1903-1937, December 10, 1909, Image 2

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Reclamation c
W(
Paper read by Jos. L Keitt be
Sere County Farmes' Union, Decem
ber 4, 1909.
In beginning the Annals of
Newberry, Judge O'Neall attributes
to Col. Robert Rutherford the ex
pression that, "South Carolina is the
garden spot of the world, and New
berry the garden spot of that gar
den spot." Judge O'Neall further
says that the 368,640 acres of land
eomtituting Newberry county pre
sents the most unbroken body of
cultivatable land in any portion of
the state. There are not 10,000 acres
in the whole county, which have not
been cultivated,or which may not, by!
proper agricultural industry, be
brought into cultivation. The pri
meval condition of the land of this
county doubtless justified the lam
giage of Charles Pinckney nearly a
nury a.d a half ago. that "Ag
iultuxe is the only honest WaY
-wherein a man recetvhs a real in
trease of the seed thrown into the
ground in a kind of continual mir
our progelntoe felled the forests
and plowed up and down hil. When
,fotility waned the land WBS cast
uside and a further eneroaChment
was made upon the virgin forests.
That forest has practically disap
peared, and, where it once stood rich
with humus, slopes are now furrow
ed with red gullies, and fields com
paeted by exhaustion of humus. Such
land cannot be productive. Forl
we have from the source of eternal
truth in the parable of the sower
that some (seed) fell upon stony I
places, where they had . n6t much
earth, and forthwith they sprang up,
beeause they had no deepness of
earth. And when the su. was up,
they were scorched, and, 'because
they had no root, they withered
away.
That soil in Newberry county
shotLld be unproductive and consid
ered worn out, is due to the de
structive agency of man. Its res
toratiam' and development is n6W ,be
inig aehieved by some of our pro
gressive farmers, and can be accom
plished by a1R who will be sufficient
]y painstaking in the application of
simple methods. The highest devel
opment can be attained only by a
deep soil with abundance of avail
.able plant food. In contrast, a. soil
two inehes deep, with a clay foun
dation, which is characteristic of
this county, the subsoil rendered im
parvious to air and water, by clean
cultivation of successive crops of
cotton, prepared by plows scratch
ing no deeper than the soil-plants
upon such lands may be compared
to Tantalus-who, as mythology re
cords Jupiter, for some offenses,
,ensigned, with an insatiate thirst,
up to his chin, in a pool of water.
Every effort he made to drink caus
ed the water to recede, and he could
not get a drop. Above his head was
entspended tVhe most luse'ous fruit,
but his attempts to grasp it were
thwarted by a breeze that . always
.carried it beyond his reach.
Upon such lands copious rains
may descend ;-when the two inches of
soil becomes .satu-rated, the surplus
water must move off, aceumuiiating
in .its downward tenden'cy; a cur
rent is formed, carrying the soil
with it, and leaving in its wake ero
sions that attract latercarrents bear
ing the soil to lower grounds. Just
beneath the soil of such land in
Newberry county is the clay subsoil.
~Ood clay carries from one and one-,
half to four per cent. of potash. Pen
dieton, an eminent agriculturist of
6eorgia, said that'the poorest acre
of 'land contains enough phosphoric
acid to make five 'hundred good
crops. Only one of the "tripod of
agriculture' is lae]fng-iniltrogen.
But all may as well be lacking; for,
'under the conditions they are not
available as plant food. As bear
ing upon this point, I will cite an ex
periment of Lawes and Gilbert. A
soil of average wheat producing
quality was selected. After five suc
cessive crops, without manure, wheat
'was grown forty years in succession
'without manure. T'he first year's
yield was 15 bushels per acre, with
an average of 14 bushels per ace
for the forty years. Some inter
mediate years, owing to good sea
sons, the yield was much higher.
They concluded from their experi
ments that crops without manure de
eline at the rate of one-fourth to
one-third of a bushel per acr'e en:
year. and this deeline they. attribute
'to the gradual consumption of th:e
nitrogen originally stored in the
soil.
Worn out soils excludes from con
siat+.n all battom lands: for they
re fertile and only need drainage
nd protection against overflow.
Tha first step, then, 'in the recla
mation of our unproductive uplands
E would suggest is terracing, where
; is needed. I find a number of our
armers, in, other respects pro
ressive, still eling with favor to
he hillside ditches to carry off sur
plus water. The terrace, properly
nstructed should Is on a level, the
purpose being to prevent the con
Yentration of water and thus avoid
rosions.
The next step is deep plowing and
as rapid incorporation of vegetable
1atter as practicable.
As a preliminary matter I con
ider terracing very important. Af
ter land has been broken deep and
omtains sufficient humus, it will ab
sorb most of the rainfalls we have,
without injury; and I do not then
onsider it necessary to have the
terraces close as the regular three
feet fall, unless the land is very
steep. Rows, however, should al
ways be made as nearly parallel to
the terrace lines as practicable.
Deep plowing of land void of hu
mus will probably not prove profit
able, nor with humus for general
crOps, until they follow a crop of
legumes. The mechanical condition
may be made as good as possible by
good plowing and incorporation of
vegetable matter; but, without suffi
ient available plant food, crops will
ot thrive. This brings us to the
eobsideration of the subject of fer
tilizers.
Upon what I consider good au
thority, there are thirteen elements
that enter into plant growth-five
metals, four non-'metallic solids and
four gases. Of these nature suffi
iently supplies aU except one of
each class. Potassium is a metal,
phosphorus, a non-metallic solid, amd
nitrogen a gas. Without the presence
of each of these elements in the soil
rop cannot be successfully grown.
The commiercial fertilIizers whieh
ost us so .mueh each year have
marked on the sacks the quantity of
ach of these elements. These ele
ernts are neces.sary, but whether or
not the county gets value for the
enormous outlay in purehasing com
ercial fertilizers, I consider doubt
'1i. If the conclusion of Lawes
n Gilbert, that a slight anmual de
cline in the production of wheat was
ue to the consumptionl of nitrogen
in the soil, is applicable t> our worn
out soils, as is probable, :a elose
ctudy of the subject of mirogen
may prove very profitable to us.
The air we breathe contains near
ly 80 per cent. of nitrogen, and it
would seem tha~t of all the .elements
of plant food Nature has supplied
nitrogen in abundance. But it has
been demonstrated that plagts are
not nourished by free nitrogen. It
must enter into combination, and be
taken up through the roots or plants.
The most available forms in com
erce are ammonia and nitrates.
These are very costly fertilizers, a;n
on that a,ccount, if we have to de
pend solely on the commercial com
pounds there is danger that the ex
pense would exeeed the profits.
The subject, then, that should en
gage our attention is how best tc
obtain an abundant supply of avail
able nitrogen. Much availa,ble ni
trogen is taken from our soils ir
otton seed. If the seed should bE
returned to the land, with the stalks
there appears to be no reason why
the soil should become depleted o:
ay plant food; for the lint is corn
posed mainly of carbon, of whice
there is always an abundance. Bu1
the exhaustion of nitroggn is neces
sarily very rapid by the removal o;
the cotton seed.
The best of all fertilizers is sta
be manure, whieh contaimns avai?
able nitrogen, potash and phosphor
i acid in proper proportions, but il
seems that in a cot4on countr3
enough of this kind of malnure car
nt be obtained, and only a smal.
ara can be supplied from this
source. But there appears no rea
son why available nitrogen, the most
expensive of all fertilizers, cam nol
by judicious management be made
th cheapest of all. Al'i animal anc
veetable matter contgins nitroger
in bundance. The poorest lai
contains some, and Nature is con
stn!y adding to it; surely, thougi
slowly. Decomposed vegetable mat
tr, known as humus. cautain1s aboul
th same proportion of nitro.rrn :
stable manure; but the greater par:
is inert and not available for ge'n
erl crops. But this i:s not true as
to the :egumes, and herein li'es th<
set. of re-establishing our worr
o- il. Th leu nounsn eros
proper-Ty <t e.iraetili (:humed ie
trogen from humus in 'the soil; and
when it enters these crops it becomes
pre')pared food for other crops. The
clover, peas, beans. ete.-have the
amount of available nitrogen that is
obtained in the roots of a pea crop,
which is the clover of the South, and
may be considered the nitrogen pro
daeer, would make the amount from
commercial fertilizer applied oi an
acre appear ridiculous, and.the plant
,contains about an equall quantity a:s
the roots. The mechanical action of
the pea plant in loosening tight laind
is also very favorable.
Many chemical changes take place
in the soil as different elements
come in contact. One of the most im
portant is nitrification, which is the
formation of nitrate of potash (salt
petre) in the soil. This combination
at once impresses us that two of the
three necessary elemein-ts of plant
food have come together. Nitrifica
tion occurs in vahying degrees in all
lands that are cultivated. The more
nitrate of potash in the soil the bet
ter the land. Nitrification is en
hanced by a -ood ciculatio:n of air
in the ground so as to admit oxygen,
the acid forming el-ment. Nitrifica
tion does not take place under 40
degrees of temperature, but reaches
its maximum at 98 degrees. This pro
cess, then, is at its height when mKt
needed for the developing of crops.
A method of obtaining nitrification
to a high degree would be to broad
east 'stable manure, and later ap
ply a dressing of wood.,ashes.
,To summarize: I would say to re
claim our worn out lands.
Terrace where needed, to hold the
soil; plow deep; incorporatel vege
table matter; rotate crops, sowing or
planting peas as often as practicable.
The pea is the best renovating crop
we have.
I do not wish to be understood that
it is not advisable to buy potash and
phosphoric acid. Lands may be de
ficient in either. But I believe that
our lands contain a great deal of
both, much of which is insoulble
and reverted that can be con
verted into plant food by reestablish
ing a supply of available nitrogeun
with proper preparation and culti
vation. .
STATE OF SOUTH CAROLINA,
*County of Newberry.
:Court of Common Pleas.
Arthur Quattlebaum, Plaintiff,.
Against
Osborne L. Dominick, The Prosperi
ty Stock Co., Louisa Dominick and
Pearl Dominick, Defendants.
By order of the Court herein, I
wi-l sell to the highest ,bidder before
the Court House door at Newberry,
S. C., on Monday, Salesday, Janu
ary 3, 1910, during the legal hours
of sale, aill that tract or plantation
of land lying and being situate in
Newberry county, State of South
Carolina, in Township No. 9, con
taining seventy and three-fourths
(70 3-4) acres, more or less, lying on
the Amick Ferry road, and bounded
by the lands of Marion Dominick,
Louisa Dominick, Belton Stockman,
Wiley Stockman and others, same
being the tract of land conveyed to
IOsborne L. Dominick by H. P. Dom
inick by deed recorded in Clerk's
office in Book 13, at page 180.
Terms of Sale: One-third of the
purehase money to be paid in cash,
the balance on a credit of one and
two years with eight per cent. in
terest from day of saie, to be se
cured by the bond of the purchaser
and a mortgage of the premises sold,
and the said mortgage to contain a
stipulation for the payment of ten
per cent attorney's fees in case said
mortgage is placed in the handsof an
attorney ,for collection, or is fore
closed by suit or action-. with.leave
to the purchaser to anticipate his
payments in whole or in part, and
in case the purchaser at the sale
fails to comply with the terms of
sale within -five days from day .of
said sale the premises will be re
sold on the succeeding salesday at
the risk of the purchaser so failing
to comply; purchaser to pay for pa
pers and recording the same.
H. H. Rikard,
Master.
Dee. 8. 1909.
STATE OF SOUTH CAROLNIA,.
County of Newberry.
Court of Common Pleas.
John B. Bedenabaugh, Plaintiff,
Against
Augustus G. Neely, et. al., Defend
ants.
In compliance with an order of
the Court ~herein, I will sell to the
h.ighest bidder before the Court
House at Newberry, S. C., on Mon
day. Salesday, January 3, 1910, dur
inz the lezal hours of sale. all that
lot of land situate in the Town of
Newberry. ini the Countyv of Newber
ry, in the State of South Carolina,
containing thirty-two hundrediVha
(32.-100) acres, more or less, bound
ed by Vincent street, by the South
en .Rasi1v company, estate of
B3UR
(TON
HAT)
DON'T M
Big Auc
HATTON F
DIEC. 15, 19(
TERMS: One-third cash, balanc(
Purchaser-to p
REASON WHY you should bu:
Because the land is geltly roll
ing and self draining.
Because it is very convenient
to the churches, schools and
business portion of the town.
Because it is a splendid place
for a home.
Because there is an aburn
dance of fresh pure water just
from the artesian well.
Because thelocation is healthy.
Because the city is advancing
and property values are increas
ing.
J. A. BURTON, Agt.
Wllace H. Cline, and by Alexander
happell.
Terms of Sale: One-half cash, and
the balance on a credit of one year,
with interest from day of sale, the
credit portion to be .secured by the '
bona of the purchaser and a mort
gage of the premises sol'd, with leave
to fhe purchaser to anticipate the Gv
credit portion inwhole or inpart.
Purchaser to pay for papers and re-1
ording same, and to insure the
house and buildings on said premises
against loss or damage by fire in not
less than the credit portion of such
sale and keep the some insured un
til all of the purchase money shall
be paid in full, and assign the policy
of insuianee to the Master.
H. H. Rikard,
Master.
December 8, 1909.1
GROUND BONE at
Wright's Market.
12-7-09-2t. I Tepo
ELUB RIDGB SCHEDULES. W1 Ole
Eastbound. wssle
No. 18. leaves Anderson at 6.30 a chanism.
in,, for connection at Belton wiU Now, ev<
Southern for Greenville. Inner-Playi
No. 12. from Walhalla, lea'es A X tigC
derson at 10.15 a. in., for conn~ewacia
at Beton with Southern Railway fo No other
No. 20, leaves Anderson at 2. has the spe
p. m., for connections at Belton with
Southern Railway for Greenville. tain results
No. 8, daily except Sunday, frow No instri
Wahalla arrives Anderson 6.24 .p. The Cable
in., with connections at Seneca wath
Southern Railway fremn points south Player. T
No. 10. from Walhalla, leaves An- "player pia
derson at 4.57 p. mn., for connections a ela
at Belton with Southern Railway for a ela
G 4reenile and Columbia. menits.
Westbound. I Let us d
N~o. 17, arrives e-t Anderson at 7.59 thIne
a. n., from Belton w:ith conheeInher
rom Greenville. expression.
No. 9, arrives at Andersar. aIt 12.24 posing Dev
n.., from Belton with ennne - and other ~
comr Greenville and Columbia. Goes
to Walhalla. ism more
No. 19. arriven at Anderson at 3.40 similar pur]
o. mn., from Belton with cnctosYou Can
tron Greenville.
No. 11. arrives at Anderson at Pianos whi
~.29 p. in., from Belton with con- yO is t
rieetions from Greenville and Colm- o ihI
ija. Goes to Walhalla.
No. 7. daily except Sunday, leaves
\nnron et 9.20 a. mn., for Walhalla,
'os. 17, 18, 19, and 20 are mi E
Nos. 7 and 8 are toeal f<ed
r:2-. carrying passengers, betweer
nd -so an Walhalla and betweeD
1VlhagaI an? Adei4On
BUR)
HAT
ISS THE
ion Sal
>ROPERTY
9, 11 A. M.
. one and two years, 8 per cent
ay for pap:rs.
' one of these lots for a home.
There is no more convener
place for a boarding house
reasonable price than this .t
room residence.
With two large Cotton Mis
two Cotton Seed Oil Mills, k
Factorv, Knitting Mill, PlaI
Mill, good College and Sc
how could you make a mista
by investing in some of
property.
NANCY L. HATTON, Admx. -
With the Will AttEcbe
nqer Ploger PionoSi
SYou Control of Expression.
lem of expression control with player piariosj
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n a novice in music who has \one of our
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iment of this type, except those made by
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herefore.- be careful not to assume that any
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ry thing Known in Mus"
n. JIV. WALLACE. Pres.. Cha

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