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VO.XV -1A NNrING., S. C., WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 23.1 1899!O 7
W H E A T IRO ERS.
Will Meet Again Next Year at the
SENATOR TILLMAN SPEAKS.
A Permanent Organization Effect
ed. The Attendance Not Very
Large. But There Was
The Wheat Growers Convention met
in Greenwood nn Tuesday of last week
and was called to order by M1r. S. H1.
McGee, editor of the index. Con
gressman A. C. Latimer was made per
manent chairman and the convention
declared ready for business. All pres
ent were considered members of the
conventior,. The feature of the con
vention was an address by Mr. C. H.
Jourdain of Georgia. whihh is published
elsewhere. It was resolved to make
the organization a permanent one.
It was resolved that tlie organization
be named "The Wheat Growers' Asso
ciation of South Carolina:" that the
next meeting be held at Greenwood
on August 15th, 1900 at 2:30 o'clock
That the officers of the association
be a president, vice president, a secre
tary and an executive committee, con
sisting of the president of the associa
tion and one member from each con
gressiodal district, whose duty it shall
be to e the places and times of
That the discussions of the associa
tion be strictly confined to wheat grow
ing and diversified farming.
That all persons interested in the
success of the agricultural interests of
the State be required to attend the
meetings of the association and that
each county be hereby requested to ap
point double as many delegates as they
are entitled to representation in both
houses of the general assembly.
That a meeting at each county seat
in the State is hereby called for the first
Mondav in August. 1900, for the pur
pose of electing delegates to the next
annual m-eting of the association and
that the nmbers of this committee are
authorized t( arrange for same.
That Messrs. A. C. Latimer and S. H.
McGee be appointed to arrange for the
next meeting of the association as re
lites to discussion, etc.
That the thanks of the association be
extended to the press of the State for
bringing -.he association to a successful
The speaking Wednesday moining
was held in the grove surrounding the
court house. Senator Waller presided,
and the first speaker was Congressman
Latimer, who devoted the opening of
his speech to a discussion of the neces
sity for the diversification of crops.
He told of Secretary Wilson's interest
in the growing of grasses and the prac
ticability of this industry in connection
with cattle growing in this State. Sec
retary Wilson had told the South Caro
lina farmers that he would upon appli
cation send seed for grasses to be used
in reclaiming worn out lands.
Mr. Latimer then took up rural mail
delivery and the attendant be iefits to
the farmers. Ten deliveries had bee.n
established in this district. He ex
plained fully the working and plan of
,the rural delivery system.
Branching off to subjects political,
Mr. Latimer discussed the monopoly
question, paying particular attention to
the proposed subsidy of ships which he
opposed vehemently. His conclusion
of the monopoly issue was that the far
-mers must also combine.
The Philippine war was denounced as
contrary to the principles of our gov
errment. Mr. Latimer raked the ad
ministration's ;'olicy most vigorously.
' and his line of thought was sell re
ceived by the crowd, who interjected
Senator Tillnman was introduced as
the "head-centre" of the farmers'
movement. The senior senator was
brought forward "unmuzzled to graze
upon whatever topic he may choose."
Senator Tillman started with a pleas
ant reference to Greenwood county,
. whose mother was Abbeville and father
Edgefid. "No county," said he. "has
a better pedigree." He told of the
fight for Greenwood county and re
ferred pleasantly to the town of G reen
wood and its growth.
.He paid a compliment to Greenwood's
citizenship. but he took up the white
capping which makes people afraid to
sleep at night within five miles of the
court house. This he denounced bit
terly. lHe told of the Phoenix riot and
said he didn't blame the white people
then. "If [ had been here I would
have' gone with you. I have never yet
failed to uphold the banner of white
supremacy against the devil, the rorld
and the Radicals."
The Tolberts he .3enounced. but the
election riots are over and inoffensive
*negroes should be. let alone and be given
protection. If you want to uproot the
snake and kill it, go and kill the Tol
berts (cheers). But don't bother poor
- negroes who have nothing to do with
the Tolberts. Don't abuse the poor
black devils. The race problem is
coming to the front in the United
States. This Jewett woman has come
to Charleston and taken the Baker
family to Boston, the centre of devil
try. By allowing the thoughtless, law
less men to whip the negroes. you give
ammunition to your enemies in the
North. This anarchy will spread to
~Fdgefield and Ab':eville. Youi are
masters, and while we must make the
negroes' let our politics and women
alone, but they must not be beaten and
If this thing continues, you will be
deprived of labor by an exodus of ne
groes and moreover capital will be
driven off. You must nmake the ne
gro respect you and keep his place, but
you cannot afford to whip and kill ne
groes in this cowardly way. At present
the Yankees arc disposed to let us aione
except to cut down our representation
because we've disfranchised the ne
groes, but such adairs will give tihem
a chance to interpose federal authority.
I beg you, I plead with you to rise as
one man and put down this eniment.
.(Loud cheers.) Some one may say.
"You'll lose votes.' I don't care if I
do. I don't want your v tes if you are
such cowards as to uphold this lawless
Seaor Tmlma then took up the
.jeNiS t b LIiVeU if the farmers
will take the propcr inerest in thcn.
In the North the institutes have prOVed
very uccful L::- thc cooperation of
the fariers and the farimer' wives.
The senator said what the farmer
needs is to raie his living at home.
Yesterday he had listenei to the wheat
zrowers, but fool as he was he had a
better remedy azainst weavils than any
of them. It is to grind as soon as you
gather it. le rave the farmers some
advi as to cultivating their erops and
told of the great things tobacco had
done for Darlin-ton and the other east
ern counties. His own experience in
tobaleo raising and its failure was
humorously told. He thought there
was '.nU around Greeriwood that would
zroxv tobacco ani nrzeed the farmers to
try it. His experimice. "that of a fail
ure and fool" was that there is nothing
for our farmers in experi:nents with
Asia grasses, because Asia is an arid
As Senator Tillan was about to sit
down. a bystander a-ked him about his
umte reference to the prohibitioni-t5
and the dpensar;.
In replv the senator said h went to
Sumter at the invitatioi of all factions
and in his morning speech mentioned
yonl national islies. After dinner
Mr. F. 1). Smith made a speech in
which he endeavored "to rub the tjut
ter off my back."
My friend N. G. says in pursuing a
pol'.o If 4 ceiliation my course is to
zivt t:.em sat talk and sugar. We .
FIve rve-n them enough vitriol in the
I:-t azd ought to be allowcd to say
something nice now.
Smith attacked Clemson, Winthrop.
etc., and said that Tillman when gov
ernor lai-: great burdens on our reople
and I want him to come back here and
remove thosa burdens. It was the first
time I've been asked in the open to ac
knowledge that I'm a damn rascal and
damn fool both. Smith rubbed off all
the butter and I in reply disc'lssed the
questions he raised.
I did not say the prohibitionists are
cowards and hypocrites. I did say that
prohibition would make cowards and
hypocrites of our people. Some of the
prohibitionists are cowards and hypo
crites. Featherstone rushed into print
and abused me, saying I was born with
abuse and couldn't do without it. Tll
leave him and Gonzales to settle it. I
have no policy of eithcr sort.
The man who comes at me like a
gentleman II meet him that way but
if he comes at me with abuse I've got
as good a vocabulary of hard words as
any one. le said prohibition would
make men get physicians' certificates,
etc. Prohibition don't prohibit.
You've got prohibition in Greenwood
and I can buy liquor here today and
you've got the constables to help en
le said there was no use to talk
aboat the dispensary as it was here to
stick. lie was told there was not a
tiger in Sumter, where the constables
were once rotten-egged. What he said
at Suntcr was that he did not believe
prohibition could be enforced and that
he took the Athens plan and put it in
the prohibition law. It has proven to
be a better law than prohibition. He
claimed no credit, except to enforce the
law on the statute books. The dispen
sary law is better than prohibition, so
far as results go.
Tne only fight in State politics in his
opinion would be ont the lieaor 'jies
tion. lie would fight for the dispe
sary and go down with it if it must go
down. Talking about MIr. Latimter's
speech he said the factory operatives
were as good people as any and although
the factory officers tried to vote the
operatives against himt but they could
not do so. 3Mr. Latimer said all he ar
gued was that the operatives might be
misled because of the lack of organizi
tion. Tillman said this was so as the
operatives mightbe misled to support
the Hanna-Payne measure and the like
on the representation that it would do
Thiesenator defended the dispensary
and said he would fight for it and go
down with it.
Taking up the Philippine question.
he scored 31cKinley and "benevolent
assimulation. lie had not asked the
president to give him any appointments
in the army for he felt it was a villain.
ous war and no decent man ought to
engage in it.
Senator Tillman said he thranked the
gentleman who asked him about the
Sumter speech. lie didn't mean to in
ject anything unpleasant but he wish
ed to deny a misstatement. .ily two
rood friends, J. C. H~etmphill and N.
G. (onzules, have recently in their
editorial elumns entered into a com
pact to ignore me. The State and
INews and Courier have been my best
friends. They have told'what I said
and the people took it for what it was
worthand it did me good. They gave
Featherstone a column and didn't give
me space to tell what I really did say.
Thc News and Courier did rive me a
line or so, but The State didn't.
Senator Tillman's speech closed tile
morning exercises and in the afternoon
the farmers' institute was held.
A re'.e's Horrible Deeds.
Parties from Leon cotunty, Fin., tell
of the horrible decds of Carrie Simpson,
on the plantation of Lucius B. Rlainey.
Carrie was nursing a baby boy for her
aunt. Recently she sawed off his ears
with a dull knife and otherwise muti
lated] portions of the body. When
questioned about the matter she said
that dogs had fcound the child asleep
and chewed otf its ears and one dog was
killed for mutlation of the <-hild. )nly
a few days einee she deliberately cov
ered the child with ashes, left in the
fire place, which were mixed with live
coais, and took a seat on the doorstep,
wete shle could hear the screams of the
roastinT child. and when they ceased
she ran'sercaming to a nearby field and
told t other ta the neighbor's
boy had burned thec child to 2 ath.
No legal stcps have been taken to have
the nurse punrished.
The: National Afro- \mericen cunci
of the Uinited tatn mlt at Bethecl
chu'rchi (hieag~o Wednesde5ay ina conven
nion. (n ofc th most important mtu t
ters to be prese'ted will be a prI",i
tin for a new feeal s'tatute to 1tuake
the participation itt any~ n'b for the p'ur
lose of l.neing~ a capiltal otfense ande
to cive the 1'nited States authorities
the~ right to interfere in any State o
territory where a mob assembles for
the purpos of lynch ng ay person.
A Speech that Every Farmer
Should Read and Study.
'THE ROAD TO PROSPERITY.
Mr. C. H. Jordan, a Distinguished
Georgia Farmer, Deliversan
Instructive and Interest
The following is the speech of Mr.
C.. .lordan. of Georgia, before the
Wheat Growers' Convention:
Mr. President. Ladies and Gentle
Men: There is no occasion dhich is to
me more enjoyable and no compliment
which I csteem more highlv than the
privilege of being with and talking to the
far-: ers of my country. In the discus
sion of those problems. the solution of
which is essential to pro:sperity in our
future farm work, a subject is present
ed in which we are now most vitally in
terested. Conditions which did not
suggest themselves a decade ago are be
coming serious and formidable at the
present time. While personally a
stranger to the ino of you I feel that
my own interests are identical with
yours and that we are all engaged in a
In advocating a revolution in our
farming methods I shall not suggest the
adoption of anything which has not
heretofore been successfully undertak
en, and will give no advice which is
not capable of practical apolication. It
is quite apparent to any casual observer
that our system of doing business is de
cidedly contrary to that which existed
during the days -f our greatest prosper
ity and consequent independence.
There was a time, not so far back in
the past when the farmers of the South
supplied the population of the towns
and cities with the necessaries of life
from the varied products of their farms.
At the present time a large majority of
our farming classes are helplessly de
pendent upon the merchants for supplies
not only for themselves, but for their
stock as well. The heavy staple sup
plies which the merchants handle are
grown in the far West and the proceeds
of the cotton crop of the South, which
should represent the surplus money
crop of the farm. is paid out to the
farmers of the West. We are enrich
ing not only these producers, but the
railroads, wholesale and retail dealers
throngh whose hands these goods must
pass before reaching us, and who charge
a full commission all along the line.
The crop out of which we are expected
to pay for these supplies is sold at a fig
ure below the cost of production. and
there can be but one result to us from
the continuance of such a system of do
.\ GREAT AGRICILTUiRAL STATE.
Tie great State of South Carolina
possesses as great a degree of diversified
resources as any State in the Union.
There is not a farm in your State which
cannot by a proper method of diversi
fied planting. under an intensive system
of culture, he made self-supporting.
The farmers of your State must realize
that every pound of supplies which
they purchase in the open markets is
produced by other farmers in distant
:etions of the country who labor under
greater difficulties than those with
which we have to contend.
When Southern farms were self-sus
taining open acecounts were the only
evidences of indebtedness, and a farm
er's word was as good as gold, Sharp,
shrewd business men of the world saw
that there were fortunes to be made out
of the cotton crop if the farmer could
be induced to produce it in large qjuan
The Western people saw an opportu
nity for building granaries and packing
houses to supply the South with food
if we could be induced to turn >ur at
tention entirely to growing cotton. The
big railroad magnates saw a grand op
portunity to increase dividends, multi
ply their rolling stock and otherwise
fatten on the freights to be obtained by
transporting heavy and costly supplies
from the West for the Southern cotton
grower during the spring and summer.
In the fall millions of cotton bales
would be turned over to them for car
riage to the seaports or Northern mar
kets. and a second whack had at the
great Southern industry.
The stock raisers of Kentucky and
Tennessee were pleased at the bright
prospect of supplying for the future
that beatiful Southland, where all that
was needed to make a man rich was a
piece of' land planted in cotton, with a
Negro and a Kentucky mule to plough
Guano manufacturers saw at once
that plant foods in enormous quantities
would have to be supplied to keep up
the fertility of the cleanly cultivated
fields, and that the investment wvould
be a good one. Cotton expositions
were held all over the country and the
white staple crowned king.
It has taken twenty years to whip
the fight, but the intense greed of the
world has done the work, and to-day the
old king lies half dead in the ditch,
while broken and disappointed mourn
ers gaze upon the long trail of a disap
pointed past. While the farmer has
lost in the struggle the country at large
has developed and in creased its wealth
steadily each year.
1 have no criticism to make of the
farmer for so largely producing cotton,
even with the costly use of comimercial
f ertilizers, when the businesas was a lu
erative one. But we face conditions
today which are serious and which
make impossible the future wholesale
production of cotton as a means of de
veloping future prosperity in the
rich, alluvial lands of the Southwecst, in
which are embraced the valleys of the
Mlississippi. the extensive plains of
Texas and Southern Oklahomna, cotton
is being grown on an average of one
bale per acre, withoot the use of ferti
lizers. The farmers of your own State
af ter using annually hundreds of theu
sands of tons of fertilizers can barely
average half -.bale per acre. Withi
theso heavy odds against us and com
oettin annually increasing in the
Suthwest. we will be forced to change
ur present systemn of farming. The
solution of theo problem by which we:
are to-day coufronted must be largely|
determined by the efforts of each indi-i
vidual who is directly engaged in the
producion of ctton -and who, by rea-|
son of a full appreciation of
his uceds and condition, real
izes that he is an important factor in
breaking the bondage under which he
rests. that the freedom and indepen
dence of his business may be once more
established, placing him on that high
plane of prosperity which was made so
conspicuous in the early days of our
Fill your granaries and smoke houses
with the products of your farms, stock
your pastures with cattle, sheep and
hogs. Diversify your interest and pre
pare to go into the markets of your
country with a dozen staple products
where you now only attempt one. Cut
down your cotton acreage and diversify
the crops planted. We can gradually
get into the supply business, and raise
enouzh cotton besides to meet the de
mands of the world, and the price- for
which it is sold will be a profit in our
business. Every farmer who has here
tofore operated his affairs entirely on
the credit system must make a strenu
ous effort to use more cash in his busi
ness for what he is forced to buy and
raise everythiug at home which his
lind will produce.
L.\RGER ACRE.\0E IN WIfEAT T'IIS
I am satisfied that a laTr-r acreage in
wheat will be planted in the South dur
ing the coming fall than for manyyearb
past. We need shrewd business men
on the farm as well as in other depart
ments of life. Broad, liberal thoughts
find birth in - higher education. The
farmers will only combine their com
mon interests when confidence in the
business ability of each has been gain
ed. Unity among the farmers is oneof
the greatest needs of the present day.
A careful, thoughtful study of the re
sources of the country will open up a
system of diversified farming, which
will bring profit and pleasure to the ag
riculturist. Every farmer should have
a thorough knowledge of commercial
paper and understand some system of
keeping books. At the beginning of
each year a detailed account of what he
owns should be taken down, represent
ing his capital invested. An itemized
account of every dollar expended.
whether cash or credit, should be care
fully entered. The cost of labor em
ployed and the materials used in the
production of the various craps should
be specially ace-ounted. At the end of
the year his books will show the profits
or loss of the business. Wherever er
rors existed in the management, the de
fects could be readily found and reme
dies applied. The boys growing up on
the farms will catch the inspiration of
systematic mnthods and business train
ing, which they will be able to utilize
with profit to their own advantage in
I appreciate the fact that the day of
schooling, as we ordinarily use the term,
for the adult farmer has passed; that
the only hope for the present and fu
ture cultivation of his mental faculties
and the betterment of his m&terial
prosperity must lie in the local organi
zation of farmers' institutes. The farm
ers' institute is without cost to its
membership. I want to give my aid
and encouragement to their establish
ment in every county in the South as
rapidly as possible. If you have no in
stitute in your State organize and begin
the battle for greater success and pros
perity in your farming methods. In
these institutes the interchange of ideas
experience meetings, discussing and
adopting the most successful plans per
taining to our business would meet and
overcome many serious obstacles, which
retard as stumbling blocks, our* future
pathway. What the farmer needs most
of all at this time is encouragement
and aid in the solution of such prob
lems as will help him in his life work
and the building of a future filled with
contentment, happiness and prosperity.
Organize and attend your institutes,
with a full appreciation of your needs
Ihere are no people who have better
opportunities for self-education than
the farmer, and he should be quick to
take a-lvantage of the circumstances
which place this highly desirable feat
ure of his avocation within his reach.
That farmer whose business is operated
on a self-sustaining basis, who exercises
intelligence, forethought and correct
methods in the conduct of his affairs,
fears no panic. The tightening of the
money market, the crash of falling bus
iness houses in the great cities, reach
his ears only through the medium of
the heavy headlines of his newspaper.
Hie is happy, peaceful and contented,
and only responsible to his Maker.
Ni i lERN Li AN Ci MPANIEs.
But what of the farmer whose home
is mortgaged in the Northern loan com
panies whose stock and crop furnish
collateral for the purchase of supplies?
When the stringency comes the crop
fails to settle the obligations; the loans
fall due, an extension is asked r;nd re
fused. The iron grip of the law is
evoked: the property is advertised for
sale and knocked down to the highest
bidder. The wife is torn from a home
which she has long learned to love; the
little children are forced from the cher
ished playground and another heartbro
ken farmer is added to the long and
rapidly swelling lists of tenants, while
one more Sourthern home passes into
Northern control. This plicture is not
drawn from fancy; its realism is too
often heralded as one of the misfortunes
of our present farming system.
The solution of the race problem is a
matter in whien the farmers of our
country are more largely interested
than anyone else. The field of most
serious troubles is in the rural dis
wilEAT oN EVERY FARM.
We have assembled here for a high
and noble purpose, one worthy and fit
ting the honorable avecation in which
we arc engaged. We are here to dis
cuss plans for the material betterment
of the farmers' condition in South Car
olina and to express our determination
before the world that the future plant
iner and growing of wheat will be con
spicuous on every farm in the State
The reform movement is taking posses
sion of your people in earnest, and a
revolution in our farming methods is
sending the pleasing sunlight of its ad
vance into the mind and heart of every
For years there has been great rivalry
anong the transportation lines fromthe
West, soliciting heavy freight for ship
mient into our Southern country.
Wheat, or its manufactured products,
flu ad brand have largely figured in
the heavy tonage of freights daily de
livered to your wholesale merchants in
the last twenty or thirty years. The
daily consumption of foreign flour on
the tables of our farmers has been
something enormous, while our cities
never enjoy bread prepared from home
VNIVERSAL RAISIN; OF WHEAT.
The universal raising of wheat in
your State will be no experiment and
no new undertaking. It will simply
be gettiug back 'nto the footsteps of
our fathers, and forging a strong link
in the desirable self-sustaining feature
of our farm work. There are thousands
of people in your State today who well
remember when patent flour sacked at
Western mills, had no sale in your
merchants' stores. South Carolina
wheat has helped to furnish the muscle
and brain of many of the most eminent
characters who have conspicuous places
in the history of our country.
A STRIKING CONTRAST.
In contrasting the agricultural condi
tions of the South as they existed thir
ty-tive years ago with those of the pres
ent it can be more forcibly presented
through a short illustration from a part
of our history with which we are all fa
miliar, and of which many of you who
are present here today have a feeling
recollection. During the four years'
continuation of the civil war the entire
population of the South was blockaded
on all sides. The continued call for
troops to the front drained the country
of its best manhood, leaving -igricul
ture largely in new hands and under
the restraint of perilous, wrought up
times. The entirz Confederacy sub
sisted upon home-raised supplies, and
the invading army of the North loaded
its commissary departments, from the
products of Southern farms. Dying
the entire period of four years 'thiere
was no suffering in ady quartefr'of' the
South by man or beast for want of good,
wholesome food, particularly flour.
Our troops suffered for want of money
and transportation facilities, but not
because there was not an abundance of
provisions of all kinds in every section
of the South. Gen. Sherman com
menced his memorable march through
Georgia toward the close of '61, with
nearly one hundred and thirty-five
thousand men and thousands of civalry
and wagon horses. As he advanced on
his line of march to the seaboard, and
onward through yaur own State, his
foraging parties daily replenished this
vast army's commissary department
with the finest bills of fare ever issued
to any soldiery in modern times.
The full granaries, smoke houses and
extensive well stocked pastures of South
Carolina's farms supplied Gen. Sher
man with an abundance of provisions,
without any great detriment to our
people left ia the wake of his march.
PRESENT STATE OF AFFAIRS.
It cannot be doubted that there is
vastly more acreage in cuitivation in
your State today than at that time.
Should such an army with its necessary
stock, equipments, start out through
your State at this time without a well
filled commissary, depending upon the
resources of the country to sustain its
march to the seaboard, how far would
it proceed without halting or looking to
other sources for supplies? Suppose
for one short year the population of
South Carolina was blockaded and
Western transportation facilities cut
short off what would be the conse
quence under our present system of
farming? Famine would run riot in
your towns and cities, and thousands
of the agricultural classes would suffer
for bread and meat, because our farm
ers generally do not produce enough
provisions to take their families through
one year. Of what a magnitieut past
we can boast and how glaringly it con
trasts with the present.
In all departments of commercial and
industrial life, except agriculture, the
inventive genius of man is being utilize
with every possible degree of profit to
the various avocations in which the
people of this country are engaged. The
convenience of all kinds that the world
is daily manufacturing and placing be
fore the farmer are tending to render
him more helpless and dependent in a
business which .should be pre-eminent
ly the most independent on earth.
Thirty years ago when the old horse
power threshing and hand power fan
ning machines were in use, more wheat
was annually raised in some militia
districts of the various counties of your
State than is now threshed with all the
modern improvements at our command,
from the combined wheat acreage of t wo
or three counties.
The young farmers of your State
must look back into the early history of
their fathers and shape their future
course in agriculture by the self-sus
taining method in use on every faim at
that time, utilizing all the latest and
most approved farming implements that
will reduce the cost of labor, increase
the pleasarre of the business and hasten
that day of prosperity so much to be
iesired. The older farmer should re
iurrect the principles of farming in
vogue.during their earlier days and make
>f their farms commendable object les
ions of what they know to be possi
ble of the great resources of their
PLANTI NG TIlE WIhEAT CRO P.
Plant your wheat not later than the
last week in October, preparing your
and by deep ploughing, harrowing and
rolling. No matter how extensive or
how restricted your acreage in wheat
nay be the coming fall do not neglect
to treat the seed as a. safeguard against
Imut. I have read hundreds of letters
~his spring from farmers stating that
~hey could not raisc, wheat bec::use of
h'e ravages of smut. The llomans werec
tfiiicted with the same trouble over two
:housand years ago. Scientifie investi
rations within re--ent years have dis
overed the life history of the smut
;erm, and by continued experiments.
aave found remedies which, if properly
Lpplied, will in every instance free the
;rain of future disaster from that
source. Smut is nothing more than a
.arasitic plant adhering to the grain,
;erminating with the grain and growing
long with the stalk. Its presence is
)nly discovered by microscopic exami
iation. As the infected head of wheat
levelops the nutriment intended for
he grain is absorbed by the smut germ
Lnd a mass of loose brown spores is
ormed. These spores, blown about the
leld ,by winds, adhere to thousands of
good grains and the foundation is laid
for increasing disaster the following
year. Smut does not therefore develop
after the crop is planted and growing,
must be in life and attached to the,
seed wheat before it is put in the
ground. Ordinarily a solution of blue
stone, at the rate of one pound to
enough water for immersing five bush
els of wheat and allowing to stand for
twelve or fourteen hours, will eradicate
the trouble. Do not allow .mut to en
ter into your argument against wheat
raising. A more universal growing of
wheat will develop flour miLs conveni
ent to every section of the country.
Produce the raw material and machin
ery will be at once erected for the pre
paration of grain into needed uses.
INCREASING INTEREST IN AGRICUL
The widespread interest which the
people of our cities are taking in the
betterment of our agricultural condi
tions is indeed gratifying. There has
never been a time in the history of our
country when so universal an interest
in agriculture was manifested by people
in all avocations of life as at present.
The world is awakening to the necessi
ty of the farmer and the importance of
aiding him to so shape his course in fu
ture that his business may be one of
deserving prosperity and high useful
ness. Upon the success of the farmer
must unquestionably depend the eon
tinued prosperity of all avocations
existing in a truly agricultural coun
All of these highly desirable ends and
more may be aceomplished through the
adoption of such farming methods as
will enable us to bec3me more prosper
ous as the years roll by. Make your
farms selfsustaining. When you have
provided an acreage of diversified crops
sufficient to meet the demands of home
supply it would then be proper to con
sider the extent of the money crop.
Rotate your crops, plough deep, harrow
and roll your lands. Increase the f-r
tility of the soil, supply needed humus
and improve its mechanical condition
by growing leguminous plants every
where they can be sown or cultivated.
Institute a systematic method of in
creasing the compost heap and cut down
the heavy bills for fertilizers. The
lugume and compost heap should be
the farmer's bank; with their assistance
he can at once travel the inviting road
to independence and wealth. Without
them he must continue to look for help
only from costly and oppressive sources.
Let the farmer work -out his indepen
dence without fear or trembling, gradu
ally abolishing the credit system from
the future conduct of his business.
BEATEN BY NEGROES.
Five White Ladies Assaulted in the
Streets of Little Rtock.
Five brutal assaults by a Negro man
on white women have occurred in Lit
tle Rock in 24 hours. It is generally
believed that all the crimes were com
mitted by the same negro, but three
suspects have been arrested, and if
the right man can be positively iden
tified he may receive summary punish
ment. The victims of the assaults are
all highly respected white women of
All the assaults occurred in the au
burbs. The first was that of M1rs.
Aiken, which oecurred Tuesday after
noon. As Mrs. Aiken was passing by
T wenty-first and High streets the Ne
gro seized her and dragged her to the
woods. She resizted and cried for help.
A passerby frightened the Negro away
after he had severely beaten his victim.
Officers at once began a search for the
assailant, but failed to fnd him.
At 9 o'clock Wednesdaay morning, a
few blocks from the scene of the first
rime, M1rs. Young was assaulted in al
most the same manner. The Negro
knocked her down with such force that
a rib was b:oken, causing internal in
juries of a serious nature. He choked
and beat her about the head and on the
side, inflicting very serious in juries. The
Negro finally seized her purse and dis
appeared in the woods. Mrs. Young,
who is a frail woman, is in a precarious
condition from her wounds and the
shock. 11cr clothing was torn almost
entirely off in the struggle.
An hour later M1rs. Kennedy was
attacked at her home near West End
park. She was knocked down, beaten
and choked. Her child ran for assis
tance, and the Negro fled. M1rs. Ken
edy's injuries are very painful.
About 11 o'clock Emma Longcoy,
the 18 year old daughter of a grocer,
was attacked beaten by a Negro half a
ozen block fromn West End park. She
scaped from her assailant. City and
ounty officers, together with a large
umber of citizens were by this time
souring the vicinity for the Negro.
I'he greatest excitement prevails, and
he anger of the citizens in the neigh
orhood was thoroughly aroused.
The fifth assault occurred early
Wednesday morning on a well known
oung woman, at Twentieth and Cross
streets. She was likewise knocked
own and badly beaten. Her face was
wllen and discolored from the effect
f the blows.
These outrages were brought to the
ttention of Goc. Jones, who offered a
eward of 8100J each for the arrest and
:onviction of the guilty parties. Judg
ng from the teinper of public senti
ent, the officers will find it ditficult to
rotect their prisoner should the right
nan be captured.
Homicide in Florence.
Wednesday at Lyra. Florence Coun
y, 3. C. Collins shot and killed G. W.
oung. Both of the parties were young
~vhite men, and were said to be popular.
ounc leaves a wife and two little chil
ien.~ Collins also is married. The
en had some trouble Saturday night
but a tobacco barn which they owned
ointly. When they met MIonday m rn.
ng, Collins brought up the trouble by2
sing Y -ing a questi n. Young is(
aid to have been advancing on Collins
rith a drawn knife when shot.
Queer Georgia Story.
Henry WV. Hliers, a farmer who lives
tar Guest, Colguitt county, Ga..
ent to Atlanta Wennesday to consult
r. Harris. lHe was in great agony
ith what he thought was a bug in hist
~ar. Investigation by the doctor de-t
eloped the cause of the trouble to be s
ead which had been melted and pour- c
d int Mr. Hie'sea while asleep. t
MORE SOLDIERS WANTED'
A Call Made for Ten Additional Infan
An order has been issued directing
that ten additional regiments of infan
try volunteers be organized for service
in the Phillippines. The regiments
will be numbered from 38 to 47 and
will be organized at the following
places in order named:
Foi t Snelling, Minn.
Fort Crook, Neb.
Fort Riley, Kas.
Camp Meade, Pa.
Fort Niagra, N. Y.
Fort Leavenworth, Kas.
Jefferson Barracks. Mo.
South Farmingham, Mass.
Camp Meade, Pa.
It appears that the ten ne,v regiments
are to be mainly recruited in New Eng
land and the middle and central westen
States. Kansas and Pennsylvania have
apparently been selected as the best
field for recruits. It is said that no
special effort is to be made to secure
recruits in the southern States.
This is due. it is said, to the experi
ence of the officers who operated in
this quarter for recruits for the ten vol
unteer rziiments just now being organ
ized. The only places where difficulty
was experienced in securing men was
in Georgia and Alabama, the Carolinas
and the Gulf States and the two noi nh
western Pacific States.
The new regiments will add 13,000
in ,n to the enlisted strength of the army
and increases the to:al strength of the
army to 95,045 men. The total number
of volunteers called into service is 30,
177 men, being only 4,803 men short
of the total authorized volunteer estab
lishment of 35,000. It is stated at the
department that the number of volun
teers already called into service is re
garded as amply sufficient to meet all
possible needs of the army, and that
there is possibility that the remaining
4,893 volunteers will be called for.
TWO THOUSAND DEAD.
Each Report from Porto Rico Adds to
Magnitude of Disaster.
The appalling conditions existing in
Puerto Rico were made more fully
known to the war department Wednes
day by Gen. Davis in a dispatch which
says the deaths outright in the island
will reach 2,000 while many are dying
daily from injuries and privations, Gen,
Dry split peas very acceptable. Can
ned peas involve too much transporta
tion in propirtion to nutriment, but
can be used near seacoast, although
there is -nuch destitution in the interior
and deaths are occurring from lack of
food. Will not be possible to reach
those points with packs before next
week, for in many cases the roads are
so destroyed that only men on foot can
get to and from these districts. The
stores coming on the McPherson will
be in time for I am supplying most
pressing needs at all accessible points
with stores now on hand. So great is
destruction of reads that there is no
communication yet with one-third of
the island. The commanding officer at
each of the twelve posts is inspector of
relief for his district and he has detain
ed in every municipality agents collect
ing data and relieving most pressing
needs. I have furished each inspector
with similar funds and give!: authority
to issue food from army supplies. One
soldier died of injuries; other injured
will recover. A great many wagons
verturned and broken but all being re
paired. Many thousands of private
at tle and horses were drowned. Larger
part of deaths of natives from drown
By direction of the navy department
the auxiliary cruiser Panther now at the
League island navy yard has been tem
porarily transferred to the war depart
ment for use in the t:'ansportation to
Puerto Rico of relief supplies collected
n the cities of Baltimore and Philadel
phia. The vessel will be located at
Philadelphia and will proceed direct to
McSweeney Stood Firm.
Some months ago one Pons of G eor
gia married a young lacy of Allendale
n this State. It was afterwards dis
overed that he had a wife and several
hildren living :n Savannah, Georgia.
ie was prosecuted for bigamy, found
uilty and sentenced to pay a fine of
500 and be imprisoned in the jail at
Bamberg for six months. The fine has
een paid and (ov. 31eSweeney has
Kcn petitioned to commute the sen
ence' by relieving him from imprison
nent. The judge who tried the case
ad the solicitor who prosecuted joined
n the petition for eimmutation but
ov. 31eSweeney stod firm and refus
d to interfere, lie was exactly right.
When his time is out the friends of the
llendale young woman should take
harge of Pons. His Georgia wife is
uing for a divorce.
Insurgents Crushed. , ]
United States Mlinister Russell at ]
Lracas reports to the state departmenti
hat the insurgent factions in the State
f Los Andes, Venezuela, under Gen. 1
itriano Castro was completely defeat-i
d by the government troops in a bloody
attle which lasted 1S hours. The loss<
f the insurgents is placed at S00 kill
d and wounded and that of the gov
~rnmnt30i0. This is the end of the
isturbance in that section, which is
he only one affected.
Five Lives Lost.
The three-masted schooner Aaron I
eppard. Capt. Wessell. lumnber laden a
om Savannah to Philadelphia was to- c
ally wrecked off Guli Shoals, on the I
orth Carolina coast Thursday. The b
hooner had been in distress nearly I
.11 day, and went to pieces toward 1'
ight. A life saving crew from the
~ull Shoals life saving station was sent
t to rescue the schooner's crew, but
f the eichit men. only three were saved. e
tis not known whether or not Capt. 0
Vessell is amuong the five lost.
Neill's Cotton Yarns. d
The purp)ose of Neill's big cotton esti- p
ites is so plain that the trade ought t:
o disceunt his figures. It is shame b
allow exorbitant predictions that are I
o manifestly exploited for the purpose C
breaking down the price of cotton, fi
Peaceable Negroes Terrorized b%
Bands of Whitecaps
FLEE TO SWAMP AND TOWNS
The Governor Appealed to by
Sheriff of Greenwood Who
Can't Preserve Order in.
A special to Columbia State from
Greenwood says: A portion of this
county between Greenwood and Phoe
nix has for more than a week past
been terrorized by a gang of so-called
whitecaps engaged in whipping Ne
groes. The whitecaps began Monday
night a week ago and entered the
houses of several negroes who were ta
ken out and whipped. Since then this
performance has been several times re
peated and the Negroes are badly
frightened. The object of the white
caps is to daive off Negro tenants in
order to secure control at low prices of
valuable farm lands in that seoncti
much of which is rented to Negroes by
the white landlords.
There is no political foundatiou for
the troubles and the offenders are said
to belong to a low class of whites. The
Negroes have taken to the woods and
swamps at night to avoid the visitation
of the gang and many of the colored
people have come to Greenwood,
some of them bringing all their posses
sions and refusing to go back home.
Inoffensive Negroes are said to have
been whipped and they have told of
their troubles to white friends here but
are afraid to talk openly. So far as
known none have left this county but
few are anxious to remain in the com
munity. The better class of people de
plore the occurrences and until now
the matter has been kept quiet, but to
day the sheriff wired the governor for
assistance, stating his inability to con
trol the situation.
It does not seem to be the object of
the gang to seriously injure the Negroes.
They simply want them to leave the
community in order that the lands may
be rented by white tenants. It is a
fine farming section producing good
crops but is thickly settled by Negroes
although the colored population was
somewhat thinned out immediately
after the election riots last November.
The Negroes are now very badly scared
and the object of the whitecaps has
been very nearly attained. This is the
version of the story as gained from
A large land owner of that section.
told me today that he had his Negroes
sleep in his barn for protection and
that the colored population is terroriz
ed. Two hundred Negroes from that
vicinity spent Saturday night in Green
wood to avoid the visitation of the
whitecaps. The same masterly inac
tivity which characterized the sheriff's
office in the November riots hangs over
that office in this instance and nothing
has yet been done.
TILLMAN CONDEMNS IT.
A special dispatch from Greenwood
o The Greenville News sayR:
In connection with the whitecapping
ituation in this county, Solicitor Sease
s in town, and has wired the attorney
eneral to come up and investigate the
Senator Tillman is here. Alluding to
he subject, he said that he did 'not
ensure the people for the Phoenix
iots, but that this was entirely past.
I d'o not advise you to kill the Tol
ers," he said; "but if you have to ex
irpate anybody, don't punish these
oor devils of Negroes.
"The time will soon be when this
ace question will shake this country
rom centre to circumference. Anarchy,
mece begun, is like fire in the woods.
ou are dominant; your own civiliza
ion, your self -respect demands some
hing to put down this trouble. Keep
tip this trouble, and you give powder to
our enemies in the north, you injure
our country, and if this trouble con
inues, you will drive every laborer
ou have out of this section.
"I beg you, I entreat you, I plead
with you, to rise as one man and put a
top to this trouble."
Some one would say he would lose
rotes by it. He didn't care if he did.
le didn't want the votes of men who
ould do such a thing, and if he didn't
peak out he would be unworthy to
epresent anybody and the people
ught to retire him.
Fort Lower Shocked.
Fort Lower was shocked Thursday by
hat is said to have been the suicide of ,
1rs. S. W. Reep, who, it seems shot
erself while in bed at an early hour
hursday morning with a parlor rifle.
he ball entering at the left temple
inging upwards doing its deadly work
ti a few minutes. It is rumored that
here may have been foul play, as no
ne can account for such an act unless
t was prompted by jealousy. Mrs.
eep was a highly respected Christian
dy about 25 years old and her death
a shock to the community in which
he lived. At this hour we are unable
give the facts in the case as we have
iot heard the veraict of the jury. The
eeased leaves a husband and two
Carriage Fell in River.
A carriage containing six persons
as precipitated into White river
hursday night as it was being driven
board a ferry boat at Washington,
d., and all were drowned. The dead
rc Mrs. Albert Hensell, four Hlensell
iren and Miss Amy Dillon. The
orse had just stepped aboard the ferry
oat when the hawser parted and the
oat swung out, dropping the carriage
ih its occupants into thenrver.
Wrecked in a Hurricane.
The steamer Germ arrived at Pennsa
la Thursday afternoon with the crew
three Norweigian vessels who were
eked in the Carrabelle hurricane.
here were about 45 men. Those who
> not ship on other vessels from this
rt will be sent home by their respec
e consuls. The Germ will later
ing to Pensacola the crews of the
alian barks wrecked in, the storm.
ie Italian vessel had been loaded for
re months, but her crew deserted and
iohe one cold not be procured.