schools to become to mchanical and i:ieuo-:w. t e :ilritv in
attendance at the cotntry schools renders i: :nossible to have
graded instruction or s.snmazic work. inCe th: tate offers free
education in order 1t:a: .ts 1eo'pe may be :e] Ior mheutnsetcit
izenship. it is wOrhy , e rin u whether. within pr per limits
of term and age. It : i re ini ttendanice at the schools.
The ideal i:s a weCl -t ei ystem extending from prinary
grade t, c ,ege: at eat i wc equlpped school in every comn:
nitv, actessibl o every citiz en of school age: a term of at least
eight m:orths>. and t e requirement that. within reasonable limits.
the comnmtnity aail itsel' of the advantages ofiered by the public:
a Couny ,oard of Education. removed from local prejudices,
charged with the (luty of assigning teachers to vacant schools and
of inspecting the schools. At a later period each school should be
equipped with a circulating library. and should be prepared to give
technical training in the industrial arts. We are far from the ideal,
but our schools are making gratifying progress : and the whole sub
ject has been much embarrassed by the race problem. We should
address ourselves faithfuly to the development of the system.
"The glory of fAunding educational systems cannot be ours: but the
effort for im:pr vemet. I\ bybuld:ing \VIse practice upon sound the
ory, is within ti e reach of each one of us." Whatever you effec
tively do for the improvemV'.ent of our educational system will be so
much wise!v contributed to the welfare of the State and the ad
vancement of civilization.
The report of the State Superintendent of Education will acquaint
you fully and in detail with the condition and needs of our schools.
This report contains a full and minelligent discussion of the whole
subject of the common schools and those things which are neces
sary to make them more efticient. In the estimation of the State
Superintendent one of the most pressing needs of the country
schools is better supervision of the work done. This is a very im
portant matter and cannot be too strongly impressed. To secure it,
however, it is necessary to have and to spend more money, so that
men trained for the work could be crployed. The salar, of County
Superintendents ranges from S3oo to S6oo, while the town Super
intendents receive Soco and u)wares and their fields of supervision
are incomparably smaller and far less complex, and hence their re
sponsibilities are less. And yet unless the selection-of these County
Superintendents could be made on account of merit and regardless
of personal or political affiliations and not be subject to change
upon the political whims of a changing pubwic sentiment. increased
pay would not be a guarantee of efIciency in the management of the
country schools. The manageihent of our schools should be as fat
removed from political influences a.; possibie and men should be put
in charge who are devoting their life to the work. The office of
County Superintendent of Education being an elective office, only
as the people come to realize the importance of efficiency and com
petency as essential qualifications in the man who fills it, can we
hope for or expect good results. Very few men have the courage to
run counter to public sentime:t and all are more or less influenced
by those things which affect their own interests. Provision should
be made as already suggested for a County Board of Education se
lected in such way as not to be influenced by local or political pre
judice who would have the duty of inspecting the schools and ap
pointing teachers to vacant schools. There is no more importan:
subject to demand yotr mst careful and earnest attetion than the
education of the chil(lren of the State.
The country common schools for white children were kept open on
an average duri.'g the past year for 21 weeks and the negro schools
for 15 weeks. The previous year the white schools averaged 19 weeks
and the colored schools 1./% weeks. The enrollment in the white
schools during the past year was 126.289; in the colored schools,
155,602; total, 281,891. For the previous year the enrollment was:
whites, 123.398; negrOes. 146.477; total. 269.875. 1t will be seen.
that we are making progress slowly. The town schools in nearly
everv case run for 36 weeks. It does not seem to nie that the cotn
trv people should be satisfied with less for their children. The ex
penditures for wvhite schools during last y'ear wver'e $700,540.60.
while during the year previous they were S576-353.26; for the negro
schools last year, $2o2,178.93. and the year previous $193,461.39.
This shows sonme gain in the matter of expenditures for common
school education. But when we consider that the enrolment is con
stantly increasing, thus calling for the e"'ployment of more teach
ers, and when we consider that our schools now run only 21 week.s
when the regular school term throughout the country is considered
to be at least 36 weeks, it is borne to otur minds that we have vet to
spend considerably more money on our schools if we would bring
them up to what our people expect and ought to expect.
There were 3,270 white teachers and 2,294 negro teachers in the
schools last year over against 3,ooo white teachers and 2,oo3 negro
teachers the previous year-a gain of 270 white teachers and 29:
Our State Department of Edtucation is too mtuch cramped for
quarters. The State Superintendent is at present occupying con'
mittee rooms of the Legislature, and the space is not ample for the
duties which are required of this department. The Superintenden:
of Education is guardian of a number of important records and it 1s
necessary to have the space to keep these. The department of edu
cation should be put on the same basis as the other State depart
ments. The Summer School vwork has assumed such large propor
tions and the correspondence and other clerical work of the State
Board of Education has so much increased within the last y'ear that
the duties o'f this office have been considerably enlarged. Moreover.
there is a statute requiring the State Superintendent of Education to
collect in his office books, school apparatus. furnitture. appliances oft
various kinds for inspection by teachers. school officers, and trus
tees. This cannot be done unless the Superintendent has sufficient
room to display them.
The reports of the various State Colleges will be presented to you
through the Annual Report of the State Superintendent of Educa
tion and for detailed information as to them you are respectfully
referred to this report. It is gratifying to aote that the attendance
upon all of these institutions is good and the nmanagementt wise and
satisfactory. Exercises at Clemson were temporarily suspended mn
December on account of the appearance of scarlet fever among the
student body but it was not of a serious nature and the regular vwork
at the college will be resumed with the beginning of the year.
At Clemson a textile department has been added in which i:
taught, in addition to the usual instruction in mechanics, mathemat
ics and English. the manipulation of cotton machinery. aiesigninig
and dyeing. and the textile sttudents are also taught to weave- v'a
At the South Carolina College there is pressing need for a new
steward's hall. The new dormitory at W\inthrop is nearing comnple
tion. The South Carolina Military Academy will ask a slight in
crease in the appropriation given to that instittution so that the price
for pay cadets may be reduced from S300 to $250.
In order that yotu may intelligently act upon the appropriations
which wx'il l be asked for these vario-: State colleges it is v'ery im
portant that you should acquaint youu izves wyith their needs, and
this vou can do only by: a careful study of the reports which
will be submitted through thte >uperintendent of Education. It will
be impossible for me in this connection to take up a discussion of
ah deman ofeah college separatelv. It is your duty to guard
careiully the i'uie treasury, but it is not always wise ecouomy if an
institution is to be maintained by the State, to make niggardly ap
propriations which will cripple the influence and the good work of
the instittiton. It is your duty to make these appropriations with
ninte!getin ght im h 1) needs 11n(1 deman(ds of the institution.
WA)E L.\t( OR.
ille (uCsti m of child labor in our cttni is one that has
been attracting a great deal of attemil recetiy. and properly so.
Conditions in this State have chang e very i:uch in the last few
years. We are no longer simply an agriculural eople. With the
rapid growth in manumacturmng enterprises we arc aread, :i large
manilacturing State. ITe relation bCtwveen' the labor that iS Cii
ployed in these cntcrpr:ses and the emlpoyCr is not merely one 3f
master and servant, but there are rights and privileges and duties,
obligations and opportunities. on both sides which should be care
fully guarded. 'Ihere has been no conilict between employer and
laborer in this State and nothing should be done to disturb the ami
cable relations which now exist. Government recognizes the fact
that it is the duty of the strong to care for and protect the weak. It
is certainly the right and the privilege of government to provide for
the insnectIon of any and all enterprises or corporations deriving
their life from the State and to see that they do not impose upon the
weak. Of course this should be (lone with a proper regard for the
property rights ci the corpoirations.
Thereis no doubt the eimplo\ nent and constant labor of children
of tender age in our factories is injurious to them and will result in
untold injury in the future. To interfere with .the government of the
familv by legislation is dangerous. And on the other hand unless
some!fthing is (lone to protect the tender children of vampire parents
who spend their time in idleness and live off the labor of their little
children wiho are required to work in our mills from year to year
without tile advantages of school, the situation for thle future be
comes alarmig. To force these children ont of the mill and make
no provision for their attendance upon school but allow them to
spend their time in idleness on the streets presents almost as alarm
ing an aspect as to crmit them to labor. In a great many of our
mills the officers and managers have provided schools and teachers
and libraries and churches at the expense o f the stockholders, and
some of them will not employ children under twelve years of age and
they require the parents of such children to send the children to
school. This is the tendency in all the mills in this State. These
children should be protected, but it is not well that thev should be
idle, and I doubt the wisdom of a rigid law laid down by the Leg
islatuire prohibiting absolutely their emn1ploymeint. It would be bet
ter rather that all children between the ages of seven and thirteen
rears whose parents or guardians work in a textile .manufactory
should be required to attend school during the school term, if this
can be done under our Constitution without extending compulsory.
education to the State. This would permit them during the vaca
tion to relieve older sisters or brothers and give them a little rest and
not take the means of support from the family.and at the same
time accomplish the end sought-the protection and the education
of the children of the mill districts. But better to have a prohibitory
law as to child labor than that nothing should be done for the protec
tion of these children. The mill owners themselves realize the dan
ger of child labor and are doing what.they can to force attendance
upon schools and to keep the chiidren out of the mills, and a law
maiing attendance upon school compulsory would have their coop
eration and accomplish the desired results. With our present manu
facturing interests and their constant increase this becomes a serious
question and deserves your most. earnest consideration. It should
he considered without prejudice or passion and by counseling with
those who are interested I am sure a wise.solution can he reached.
The Dispensary has hee) well managed during the past year. as
the statement of the Board of Directors and the State Commissioner,
which will be submitted to yotu, will show.
The Dispensary system and the management of the liquor ques
tion hare occuipied much of the attention~ of each Legislature since
the system wvas inaugurated. The Dispensary has also been an issue
in every campaign in the State since it was passed and has been
more strongly olpposed possibly than any other law that was ever
placed on the statute books of this State. Every argument that
could be brought to bear against it has been presented by some of
the ablest intellects of the State, and yet after a thorough canvass of
each County and a presentation of the case to the people the system
has been endorsed by decided majorities on four different occasions
and the principle is incorporatedl in our organic law.
Under the Constitution the Legislature may license individuals
or corporations to sell tunder the rules and regulations governing the
Dispensary, or it may prohibit the sale and manuifacture of liquors.
Both of these plans have been thoroughly and exhaustively argued
and advocated before the people and the verdict every time has been
diecidel' in favor of the Dispensary under the management of the
State. This reference is n-ade to emphasize what seems to me to be
the dluty of every patriotic citizen who loves his State and believes
inl democratic doctrine and republican institutions, and that duty is
to submnit to the voice of the people and go to work earnestly and
conscientiously to improve and perfect a law which has received so
many endorseiments from those whom it directly concerns. The
Coturts have held that under the police regulations the State has a
righlt to take charge of the sale of whiskey. The question when re
duced to its last analysis is not one of principle but of expediency.
What is the best method of dealing with this evil so as to secure the
best results. That is the question.
The present system, as it may b~e improved from time to time, is
tile best solution vet dievised, and is goewing in public favor ;mtuch
of the prejudice that has existed against the law is being removed.
and many of those who oppose the system are in favor of the enforce
ment of the law. As public sentiment grows in its favor it will be
easier to enforce it. The mayors and intendants of the towns and
cities of the State. in response to a circuilar which I issued during
November, state that tile law is well enforced and that the sentiment
of the towns is for a strict enforcement. The exceptions arc the
cities of Columbia and Charleston and a few Counties in which the
sale of whiskey is prohibited by law. In fact in those Counties in
which no dispensaries are established it would conduice to a better
enocement of lav: and there would be less illicit sale of whiskey if
.:i;ens.ries were established. In the cities named the Dispensary
Iam be rigi dly enf ;rcedl s. long as public senti~nent upholds vio
lators of the law and grand ines fail to lind true bills andl petit juries
to conv:et w:ocn caus remae and tihe evidence ftirnished. As
putbleC seiument gr*vws i i r eith law in these cities and the pre
judice against itd vs wa convictIOns frviolations wil be hiad
and it can then 1e :n.r rigilly enforced.
.sa rule, howeverm. h law has beeni wel: en:forced. and it has been
with a smial consabul'ay f orce but with the aid of the municipal
ofticers. .\ll !awy is violated. li there wvere no violators of lawv and~
this were an lieal country there wvotild be no need of law or cotirts to
try and peunish offenders. The United States Government with its
illimitable resources has failed to stop all violationls of the revenue
The prese::t law mght be mnade a little more explicit in some par
ticntars, tor in some respects it wvill take a judicial dleliverance to die
te,-,ie w~ha beeon renealed and wvhat re-enacted byv the amend
lent adopted last year. and yet in its practical operations the law
has werked very well.
While it is Iimportant that the law shall not be violated by illicit
sale of whiskey, it is equally important that those charged with its
administration shall conform to its requirements. Ti this were more
rigidly done public sentiment would grow more rapidly in support of
the system. I doubt if there is a dispenser in the State who does no'
violate the law every (lay, not with any criminal intent. The law re
quires that. "Before selling or delivering any intoxicating liquors to
any person a request must be presented to the County Dispenser,
printed or written in ink. dated of the true date, stating that he or she
is of age. and the residence of the signer, for whom or whose use it
is required, the quantity and kind required, and his or her true name;
and the request shall be signed by the applicant in his own true name
and signature. attested by the County Dispenser or his clerk, who re
ceives and files the requests. But the requests shall be refused, if the
County Dispenser filling it personally knows the person applying is'
a minor, that he is intoxicated, or that he is in the habit of using in
toxicating liquors to an excess; or if the applicant is not so person
ally known to said County Dispenser, before filling said order or de
livering said liquor, he shall require the statement of a reliable and
trustworthy person of good character and habits, known personally
to him, that the applicant is not a minor, and is not in the habit of
using intoxicating liquors to excess." The County Dispenser takes
an obligation to the effect that he will and another afterwards that he
(oes comply strictly with this provision and all of the other provis
ions of the law.
It has become customary for County Dispensers to sell to any one
who applies to purchase without being identified or without signing
the application "in his own true name and signature" and without
stating "for whom or whose use it is required." Ample provision is
made for the course to be pursued for violations in the administration
of the law. The County Dispensers are responsible to the County
Boar ds of Control and they are appointed by th'e State Board of Di
rectors on the recommendation and with the advice and consent of
the Senator and Representatives from each County. That brings the
case right up to the door of the members of the General Assembly.
This is a business matter and as careful and as prudent business
judgment should he exercised in the selection of those who are
charged with the administration of the law as a prudent business man
would exercise in the selection of those whom he would place in
charge of his private business. Politics and partizanship should have
no part in the selection.
I again commend to you the advisability of abolishing the County
Boards of Control and of devolving their duties upon the Mayors -
or Intendants of the towns, and the County Supervisors of the
Counties, in which Dispensaries are located. The towns and Coun
ties are directly interested in the proper management of local dispen
sries, and the duties thus imposed would not be onerous. I also
recommend that County Dispensers be elected by the people as other
County officers are elected, for a term of two years. They would
then be responsible to the people for a proper conduct of the business
placed in their hands.
In the management of the Constabulary it has been my aim and
purpose to secure men of discretion and judgment, who would per
form their duties without fear or favor, and at the same time without
causing conflict betweeen themselves and the citizens; and it is a
source of gratification to me that there has been no conflict. I sub
mit herewith a table showing the number of Constables employed,
the total cost of the Constabulary, and the number of seizures for
each month during the past year, including eleven months, inasmuch
as the fiscal year has been changed to end November 30.
A.mount of gallons. 8.
'for this month.
If in bottles give
No. of doz. here.
Q ~ If in kegs give No.
Sof gallons here.
i vioiation of Dispensary
Number of cases sent up tol
_ Circuit Court and not re
ported in column for con-r
~ ~S Amount of fines imposed.
~t;8: ~4: 8 Amount of fines paid.
8 888: 888: 88I
Number convicted w hi o -
. - M awent to jail or' chain
- e u ' o u o o gang and paid no fine.
From the r eport of the State Boarda of Directors it will be seen that
the net profit to th e School Fund from the business for the past year,
after expenses are paid. is 8176,012.18, and to the towns and
counties. 5298,166.28. This report covers eleven months, as the
fiscal year has been changed so as to close November 30.
In dealing with this <;uestion Ifel sure that you will be guided
by a love for your State and an earnest purpose and a sincere desire
to do that which wiii h e for the best interests of the greatest num
ber, and not be actuated byv prejudice or partisanship.
STATE HO(.SlMTAL FOR THE INSANE.
The issue of theC Seventy-seventhl Report of this institution calls
attention to the fact that it is one of the most venerable of its kind
in the LUniterd States. Begun as an experiment by the State. it has
long since demnonstrated1 its importance and usefulness. The growth
of the instim.tion,. however, appears to have been confined largely
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