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FACLNG A CRISIS.
The Invasion of the Boll Weevil Is a Real Menace TO THE COTTON OF THE SOUTH. What secretary or Agriculture Wil son says About the Pest in His Annual Report to Congress. In his seventh annual report to Con gress Secretary of Agriculture Wilson deals at some length with a subject of considerable interest to the cotton planters of the South. Here is what he says: THE COTTON BOLL WEE-IL. The continued spread of the cotton boll weevil, and the danger threaten ing the most important industry of the south by the direct prospect that it will soon reach all portions of the cotton belt, resulted in the appropria tion by congress of $20,000 for a con tinuation and enlargement of the work of the division with that pest. This work was under the direct charge in Texas of Mr. W. D. Hunter, who was aided by a number of assist ants. The funds at the disposal of the di vision enabled it for the first time to conduct experiments with the cultu ral methods of controlling the pest on a large scale. This was accomplished by entering into contract with two representative large planters in typi cal situations in Texas. By the terms of these contracts the planters agreed to cultivate. care for, and in every way manage the crop exactly in accordance with the directions of the agent in charge. In this manner the division was given practically com plete charge of 325 acres, but without the trouble and expense of renting the land and working the crop. These experiments were located at Calvert, in the Brazos valley, the most seri ously infested portion of the territory at present, and at Victoria, in the ex treme southern portion of the. State, where the existence of volunteer cot ton furnishes the weevils with food very early in the season, thus adding an important feature to the problem that does not occur elsewhere. At Victoria field laboratory was fit ted up, where a thorough study was made of every feature of the life his tory of the weevil. The matter of parasites and the possibility of .cen trolling the pest by their artificial propagation, which has always ap pealed strongly to..miny planters, re ceived especia. 'attention. In pur suance OfAh% feature of the investi -g-he agent in charge made a a l1p to Mexico, where the government al commission that had been created for the study of the weevil problem has especially concerned itself with the propagation of a mite (Pedicu loides ventricosus). which, at least under certain conditions, has been found to destroy the larvae of the pest. The agent made a study of the methods pursued in the laboratory of the commission at Cuernavaca, and through the courtesy of Prof. A. L. Herrera, the head of the commission, he was enabled to bring back to Texas a large number of cultures. These parasites were distributed from te laboratory at Victoria. The work is -being continued this season, but the indications are that climatic condi tions will always render unobtainable in Texas whatever useful results may have been obtained in Mexico. The concluding portion of Secretary Wilson's report deals with the CEIsIS IN COTTON PRODUCTION. The invasion of the cotton boll weevil has been a special menace to our cotton crop, and has done more than anything else to awaken wide spread apprehension as to the future of this most important crop. The boll weevil first appeared in the State of Texas in 1894, and from that time on has been under observation and in vestigation by the department through its division of entomology. It was not until 1902, however, that this branch of the department was able to undertake anything like thor ough and systematic work in the mat ter of studying this very destructive enemy of cotton. In 1903 the scope of the work was further enlarged an appropriation of $20,000 being made in the division of entomology for the in vestigations. Aside from the work' the bureau of plant industry has, during the past year, been carrying on considerable work with a view to securing, if possible, early and resist ant varieties by breeding and selec tion; and has been conducting some more or less general experiments in the matter of crop diversification at special points in Texas. It has also been engaged in distributing a consid erable quantity of cotton seed of early maturing and promising sorts. -The work of the division of ento mology has shown conclusively the value of good cultural methods, the planting of earlyv-maturing varieties, - and the destruction of weevil-infested material, this conclusion having been reached only through the careful and detailed studies of the life history and habits of the insect. The demon stration work along these lines, which the division carried on the past year, has been exceedingly promising, as it has been shown that cotton can be grown in remunerative quantity, des pite tne presence of the weevil. Not withstanding what has been accom plished by th e department, however, the fact remains that the boll weevil is constantly spreading north and east, and it is probably only a ques tion of time when it will reach all the cotton growing States. Thus the country is confronted with a very grave problem, as the invasion of this insect must necessarily mean a com plete rev' lution in present agricultu ral mahbods. During a recent visit, to some~ of the southern States con siderable ime was spent in the weevil iniested district, and from the facts gathered in this way I am convinced that energetic measures must be adopted to meet the present emergen cy. After thoroughly canvassing the situation with representative men in congress and with others, I am of the opinion that a cotton investigation fund should be appropriated and set aside for immediate use in connection with this most serious prohtem. In order to make the work comprehen sive and thoroughly effective. I am of the opinion that a sum of not less than $500,000 should be made imme diately available for tnis purpose, the same to be expended under the direc tion of the secretary of agriculture, in such manner as will give the most immediate practical results. As to the problems which might be han dled the department with such a sume available, 1 would respectfully call at tention to the following: RECO3DIENDATIONs. 1. It would seem highly important that some action be taken looking to the checking, if practicable, of spo radic outbreaks of the weevil in the territory immediately adjacent to that now Infested. This could best be accomplished by the organization of a cuarps of competent entomologists and could be carried on in co-opera tion with the State authorities. In order to make this work thoroughly effective it will be necessary for the State interested to enact proper legis lation. This Is a matter that could be handled and guided by those in authority, working under the direc tion of the secretary of agriculture. 2. Demonstration Work to Show the Value of Improved Cultural Methods by Which Farmers Can Pro duce Fall Crops in Spite of the Wee vil.-This is the most promising field for immediate relief, and owing to the fact that the weevil is so far con fined to Texas, the work here outlined would necessarily be limited more or less to this State, although regions in adjacent territory should also have such investigations carried on in them in order that the people may be come enlightened in advance of the insect's ravages. The object and scope of the work would be to show by actual demonstration ex periments the value of better cultural methods, the value of early maturing varieties, and the value of and neces sity for complete and thorough de struction of all infested material. To carry out this work thoroughly and effectively would requrie a corps of men familiar with cultural condi tions, and who have the knowledge and ability to direct the necessary specific work that might be ordered by the secretary of agriculture. Leg islation would be required in this case, also, to enforce the destruction of infested material; but, under pro per organization, this could be brought about. 3. Work Having for Its Object the Production of New, Early and Im proved Varieties of Cotton.-The value of early varieties has been de monstrated, but most of them have serious drawbacks in that they are poor yielders and the lint drops out easily during storms. These matters may be corrected by proper breeding and selection, and one of the impor tant problems would have for its ob ject the taking up of this work on a systematic scale, to the end of secur ing sorts which would not_ Qnly be early, but would be storm proof and resistant. 4. Studies..oYf~ Cotton Diseases. While the-boll weevil is mainly in the public eye at present, the fact re Twains that other serious pests of cot ton cause great losses annually. It is natural to attribute all losses at the present time to the in sect in question, whether these losses be from other insects, diseases, floods, droughts or whatever source. Reliable studies indicate that the loss in Texas alone from the-so-called root rot disease will, in all probability, ag gregate several millions of dollars an nually. This and other diseases should be thoroughly studied, and corrective measures should be adopted. 5. Cotton Insects.--What is said of cotton diseases is also true of cotton insects (especially of the boll worm) other than the boll weeuil. These should all receive careful attention, and practical experiments should be carried on with a view to lessening the injury caused by them. 6. Introduction of New Crops. The urgent necessity for the intro duction of other crops which will take the place of cotton can not be too strongly emphasized. Cotton, of course, should be grown, but the time is evidently at hand when a concerted effort should be made to bring about a change in southern agricultural cnditions in the direction of greater diversification. This is recognized now as a vital question in the south. In many sections already the yield of cotton is barely profitable, so that, when the reduction due to the boll weevil and other pests is taken into account, it will be necessary to aban don cotton growing altogether; while the decreased yield in the best dis tricts of the cotton growing sections renders it more important that other crops should be grown. Such crops as alfalfa, sorghum, Kafir corn, and cereals of various sorts should all re ceive attention, not only for silage, pastures and winter forage generally, but for green manures as well. 7. Studies and Experiments in Con nection with Methods for the Destruc tion and Control of the Boll Weevil and Other Cotton Insects.-It would seem highly important that the gov ern ment should take cognizance of the many devices which are being placed on the market for combating the weevil and other insects. This is necessary, as much for positive as negative results. Hundreds of de vices and nostrums are offered to the public, and people are led to spend money for them. The government should be in position to determine, once for all, the value or nonvalue of such devices, and thus be able to de finitely and positively advise on all matters of this kind. Aside from this, the government should take the matter of mechanical devices under thorough consideration, and should encourage, by the utilization of mechanical experts, the construction and use of everything which gives promise of practical value. 8. Studies of Enemies of the Insect -While the studies of the enemies of the insect have had, so far, no practi cal result, there is no doubt that this work should be continued and every thing in the nature of enemies, whether they be predaceous or para sitic insects, birds, fungus parasites or others, should receive careful atten tion. 9. Securing and Distributing Seed of Cotton Known to have Special Value for Earliness and Ability to Resist the Weevil-Systematic action should be taken in the matter of securing from every source available seed of promising varieties and thoroughly testing them in the weevil-infested district. In addition to this there should be a systematic endeavor to bring together desirable varities from all available sources for advance trials in the sections where the insect is likely soon to make an invasion. - 10. General Propaganda-Under this head there should be organized a competent corps of effcient workers, who could, with the cooperation of the agricultural colleges, farmers' insti-, tutes, State boards of agriculture and all such organized bodies, bring to the attention of planters everywhere the latest results as to methods of meet ing the present emergency. TO CARRY ON THE WORK. To carry out the foregoing work ef ecually, it is believed that the best results will be secured by a separate organization. It will be seen that the two branches of the department primarily interested in this matter are the bureau of plant industry and the division of entomology; and their ofcers and men would be in position to direct the main features of the work. I would, therefore, respectful ly recommend that if the amount al ready mentioned be set aside as a cot ton invessigation fund,tbe secretary of agriculture be authorized to take such steps in the perfecting of a proper organization for handling the work as in his judgment, may be best. Ow ing to the very nature of the inves tigations and the fact that they will involve most thorough and far-reach ing scientific work, the management of the general plans must necessarily rest with2 the department. It is be lieved that the work can be strength ened by securing the advice and co operation of one or two thoroughly practical men in the States most di rectly interested, viz, Louisiana and Texas. The secretary of agriculture, however, should have full authority to organize the work for the sole ob ject of securing, as already indicated, the most immediate practical results. In order to more effectually handle the problems which must necessarily fall to the work of the division of eu tomology, I have already recommed ded in my estimates that this impor tant branch of the department be made a bureau. The work that it has done in the past, especially in the field in question, certainly justifies this action: and I most earnestly re commend that this matter be given primary consideration in connection with the entire problem. It is very desirable, furthernore, that the full est cooperation be effected by the de partment with the experiment sta tions in the respective States, where the more important work will be con ducted. This especially true of Texas, where the agriculturai college is doing everything in its power to aid in the matter, but where it is more or less handicapped by lack of proper facili ties and funds. The fund recommended to be set aside for the purpose mentioned and used in accordance with the plans out lined will give the department such liberty of action as the exigencies of the case demand. An industry which brings to the country an annual in come of something of $500,000,000 is threatened, and the time is at band for energetic action. I again, there fore, most earnestly renew my recom mendations for the means and authority to carry out the plans as herein set forth. Respectfully submitted, James Wilson, Secretary. Washington, D. C., Nav. 28. 3903. THE WORKING GIRL. A Savannah Minister Pays Her a High and Deserved Tribute. Rev. Robt. Van Deventer, a Bap tist minister of Savannah Ga., recent ly preached a sermon on "The Work ing Girls of the South." He paid a tribute to the army of girls and young women who earn their living, express ed his sympathy for them, and deal ing with their trials aLd temptations. His text: "Many daughters have done virtuously, but thou excellest them all," from Proverbs, thirty-first chap ter and thirty-first verse, was applied to the Southern working-girl of today who, persevering the traditions of her ancestors, retaining all the charms and graces of womanhood and com manding the respect of those who have the highest regard for the memory of women of the old South who did not work, goes forth into the world of trade and commerce to assume duties which have heretofore fallen to the lot of men, and performing them to the absolute satisfaction of her em ployment. "I maintain that the working-wo men of the South excel them all," said Rev. Mr. Van Deventer. "Southern women have always merited the ad miration they have taken the place of husbands and brothers at home while the men fought back the enemy, and have divided their sub stance with the despoiler, in times of trouble they have been strong, but the Southern working-girl of today, descended from ancestors who lived lives of ease and luxury, officiate in their several capacities with dignity that is patriotism to nerve them for their tasks in the humdrum business world, yet they work self sarificingly and without a murmur." The minister impressed upon his congregation, among which were a large number of those of whom he was speaking, the essentiality of ambition and economy. "Working-girls should always look up to something higher and develop their talents in order that they may be competent to fill higher places when the opportunity to step higher presents itself." "Without am bition," he declared, "to be icontent to remain in the present positions their lives become as narrow as the confiements of the offiees in which they work. "The strength of religion is above all essential," he declared. "The life, the pathway of the working-girl is beset with temptations of a peculiar nature, temptations that are strong er than are presented to the man wbo works because in the way in which some people consider the girl who finds it necessary to go out and earn her daily bread. It is dangerous for her to rely upon her own strength of will power. But with ambition," he concluded, "and economic. upheld and strengthened by religic n the working girl of the South has a brilliant future." Forgot Himself. A dispatch from Spartanburg to The State says after the second act in "Romeo and Juliet," the play pre sented by the Simvelle Co., Wednes day night at the opera house, during curtains, a quarrel arose between L. M. Mortle, who essayed the role of Romeo and Miss Louise Clarke, the Juliet of the troupe. Spartanburg theatregoers were subjected to bear ing the use of profane language on the stage, and behind the scene, thc same emanating from the enraged Romeo. This is the first instance of the kind ever recorded here. Several policemen went behind the scenes and snowmantled peace soon reigned su preme. The quarrel was due to Ro meo accusing Juliet of cutting him off in his lines. Killed by Sample Medicine. The Cherokee News says one day last week a representative of proprie tary medicine came to town and dis tributed samples of his medicine. He gave out some at the Limestone mills. Some of the samples went into the home of W. M. Cabiness. Mr. Cabi ness had two six months old twins who were sick. He gave them each a dose of the medicine about nine o'clock on Wednesday night and then went to bed. When he waked up; next morning he found both children cold and stiff in death. They were afflicted with the hives. The afflicted family have the sympathy of a host f friends in their afflictin. A TRAIN WRECK Causes the Terrific Explosion of a Naphtha Tank Car AND SETS FIRE TO A TOWN. The Explosion Shatter.; Several Build ings, Overturned Stoves and Started Swift F i r e 9. Streams of Fires. A town was fired, a whole train of cars destroyed, two men were killed', a score were more or less injured, two perhaps fatally, and a railroad system was blocked Thursday shortly after noon by a collision of two freight trains, followed by the terrific explo sion of a naphtha tank car at Dover, Del. The following is a list, of the dead and injured: DEAD-Breakeman Edward J. Roach, of Georgetown; infant child died of heart shock. INJURED -On the train, Conductor C. J. Hall, of Wilmington; Engineer B. W. Sheppard, Wilmington; Fire man John Barker, Wilmington. Citi zens injured-Mrs. W. Morris, serious ly; Mrs. Edward Jones, Mrs. Cleo Cox, Mrs. E. K. Todd, Dr. H. C. Johnson, Mrs. Johnson, Mrs. C. W. Parker, Mrs. John W. Boswick, Charles An drews, Mrs. Jones, Mrs. Mandy Howell, Asbury Morris, Edward Lynch. A long train of freight cars was standing on the main track of the Delaware Division of the Pennsyl vania Railroad in the town of Green wood, a place of about 1,000 inhab itants. Directly in front of the caboose, or last car, of the stationary train was a tank car tilled with naphtha. Another heavy freight, running forty miles an hour, crashed into the rear of the train at rest, and then came the roar of an explosion which was heard for thirty miles. The sudden blast shattered every window in Greenwood, and then there were the creaking and crashing of timbers and shrieks of wounded or dy. .ig men about the train. Fifteen cars were piled in a mass of wreck age, and the locomotive of the second freight was sunk in a bole fifteen feet deep. FIRE SPREADS TO TOWN. Before the panic-sticken inhabi tants of the place had recovered from the shock, which many of them at 6rst thought was an earthquake, a new danger menaced them.' Streams of blazing oil extended from the wreck and set fire to nearby houses, while other houses partially wrecked by the force of the explosion caught fire from overturned stoves. In many instances a small blaze, which, under ordinary circumstances, could have been quickly extinguished, was permitted, because of the general panic and confusion, to gain unusual eadway. In this manner the Green wood Hotl and the Public School house were almost totally destroyed, and other buildings badly injfred and partially burned were the Miethodist Episcopal Church, the Greenwood Grammar School, the Satterfield stores, the post office, and the Penn sylvania Railroad station, and the residences of .Dr. H. C. Johnson, L. Owens, Frank Porter, John Wiley and C. W. Ammerman. THE CALL FOR AID. Self-possessed railroad men, plucky workmen, who took their hands, and brave citizens set to work to restore order out of the chaos, first by rigging a special telegraph wire and summon ing railroad workmen from every where, together with all the physi cians within reach. It being evident that the railroad tracks could not be cleared at once, a specia] train was made up at Barrington and hurried to the scene with a number of doctors on board. HAD HIM EJECTED. A; Labor Leader Refused an Audi ence by Speaker Cannon. Speaker Cannon;'resenting what he deemed an insu't from Herman J. Schultels, chairmaL' of the national legislative coiz~vitte of the Knights of Labor, summarily ordered Mr. Schultels from the speaker's room at the capitol Friday with the parting injunction to the labor leader never to darken his door again. Mr. Schultels made his first call upon the speaker several days ago with the demand that Representative Livernash of San Francisco be made charman of the committee on labor and that Representative Wynne of the same city be made a member of that committee. As both of these men are members of the minority Mr. Cannon explained to Mr. Schultels that their committee assignments would ctepend upon the recommenda tion of Representative Williams, the minority floor leader, but that it would be impossible to make Mr. Livernash chairman of the committee, as no chiairmanship would go to the minority. When Mr. Schultels appeared be fore the speaker he announced in what was taken by that otficial to be in offensive manner that the labor committee had been "packed." Hie enewed his demand that Mr. Liver ash be assigned to this committee, announcing that he hatd defeated Mr. Cannon for election to the Fifty-sec )nd congress and that unless this re quest in this instance was accorded, he would go into the speaker's district in the next campaign. Mr. Schultels did not have time to finish telling the speaker what he would do to him at that time, as Mr. Cannon at this point gave his peremptory order for the man's ejection from the room, stating as he did so that there was no chance of the committee's being "packed" by Mr. Schultels. Drowned in thei Congo. A cablegram received at Nashville, Tenn., announced the death of H. C. Staymenter, an American missionary and the drowning of 23 of the native crew by the capsizing of a boat on the Congo river in Central Africa. Toe boat was the "Lapsley" and was the missionary craft of the Southern Presbyterian church. On it were Mr. Staymenter and Mlotte Martin of Alex andria, Va., who left the United States on August 1 and went as mis sionaries into the interior of Congo Free State. The boat capsized bet ween Leopoldville and Luebo, and Staymenter went down with 23 of the crew. Martin was saved. The Rope Br',e. Eleven coal miners were killed Fri day at the Gasson-Laquasse mine at Montegene, Belgium, through the breaking of the rope by which a cage was being hauled up. The men were precipitated to the bottom of the pit 3nd their bodies were horribly man yler1 AMOUNT OF COTTON GININXD. No Comparative Statement for this Mouth, but Evidently a Decrease. The United States department of commerce and labor has sent out the following statement of cotton ginned up to November 14th: No. of No. of Bales. Ginneries. United States.. .. 7,070,437 29,506 Alabama ........ 743,538 3,797 Arkansas .......406.393 2,468 Florida.... .....39,144 264 Georgia... .....992,653 4,913 Indian Territory. 172,973 485 Kansas.............. .. Kentucky.. ......308 2 Louisiana........ 510,494 2,098 Mississippi....... 929,890 4,107 Missouri......... 22,294 70 North Carolina... 407,199 2,652 Oklahoma........ 116,639 227 South Carolina... 625.611 3,147 Tennessee .......163,188 755 Texas. . .. . ...1,932,539 4,412 Virginia..... . 7,744 108 In explanation the chief statician says: "The above statistics of the quan tity of cotton ginned on November 14 were collected through a canvass of all the ginneries in the cotton States by 631 local special agents, who found that 29,506 ginneries had been ope rated this season up to and including November 14, and that these had ginned-7,070,437 commercial bales, or bales as pressed at the ginneries. Counting round bales as half bales, the number is 6,815.162. In this re port no account has been taken t-f the quantity of linters obtained by the cotton seed oil mills from reginning cotton seed of this year's growth, but statistics of such cotton mills will be included in the final report for this season. "This report will be followed by two others, showing the quantity of cotton ginned from the growth of this year to December, 13, 1903, and to January 16, 1904." THE FARMR FEEDETH ALL. Some Very Interesting Jigures About Our Farm Products. Secretary of Agriculture Wilson In his seventh annual report to congress reviews at length the production and exports of American agricultural pro ducts. The increase in the exports of farm products for the balt century ended 1901 was from $147,000.00) to 8952,000.000-550 per cent. The ex ports of farm products for the closing decade of the last century was over $700,000,000, and for 1903 over $878, 000,000, an amount second only to that of 1901. Although the consumption of cot ton in this country is greater thau that of any other country in tne world, yet in addition to supplging the home market, the south exported last year over three and a half bihion pounds of cotton, worth $317,000,000. Of grain and grain products, the export exceeded in value $221,000,000, and in the supply of animal, meats, and meat products, the vanue of ex portation was $211,000,000. Discussing the balano~ of trade, the secretary shows thu the favorable balance to the credit of this country is due entirely to the farmers. The balance of trade in favor of farm pro ducts during the last 14 years, no year excepted, aggregated 4,806 mil lion dollars. In products, other than those of the farm, during the same period, the balance of trade was ad verse to this country to the extent of $865,000,000. Our farmers not only concelled this immense obligation, but placed 3,940 million dollars to the credit of the nation when the books of international exchange were balanc ed. He concludes that, "It is the farmers who have paid the foreign bondholders." Reviewing the magnitude of agri cultural porduction, after giving the figures of the most important crops, Mr. Wilson states that the value of all farm products, not fed to live stock, for 1903 considerably exceeded their value in the census year, when it was given as 3,742 million dollars. According to the department's in ventory of farm animals for January 1, 1903, the value of horses was over $1,000,000,000, and of mules, nearly $200,000,000. The value of cattle of all kinds considerably exceeded 1,300 million dollars, of sheep, $168,000, 000, and of hogs, $365,000,000. He congratulates the country upon the better distribution of agricultural progress since 1890. The distribu tion of expansion, progress, and wel fare has been more general through out all sections of the country, espe cially in the south. Two Tugs Callide. Three lives were lost and one man was badly hurt Wednesday by a col lison between the tugs Idle Wild and Hetrcules off Ellis island in New York harbor. Hans Peterson, Win. Lasker and a man whose name has not been learned were drowned. John Stor berg, a boatman was cut about the head and his left knee broken. Hie is in a serious condition and unable to give any details as to how the acci dent occurred. The Hercules is owned by the American Towboat company of Baltimore. The Idle Wild, which had 11 men on board, was cut nearly in two and sank immediately. All save three of those on board were picked up by the Herculess. The Hercules was not seriously injured. Constables in a Fight. The Columbia State says Chief Con stable Hammett has been apprised of a battle between constables and the per sons at Babb's distillery, near Green ville. The report of C. L. Cureton, the chief constable, states in a terse way: "Wednesday, Dec. 2, I took my force and went to the Lark regis tered distillery, known as the Tully Babb distillbry, about four miles from the city, and while there we were fired on a number of times by Tully Babb, Joe Babb and others. They used Winchester rifles and breech loading double-barreled shotguns. We succeeded in arresting all concerned and captured their arms and ammuni tiOn after they had shot 30 or 40 rounds. The preliminary will be held on the 14th." Fooled the Widow. Charging that she had been de frauded of her entire fortune of 8160, 000, Mrs. Mary A. Jex, of New York, widow of a former Wall Street opera tor secured a warrant Thursday for the arrest of a man said to bea prom inent real estate dealer. Pending the serving of the warrant the name ofI the man has not been made public. It is charged that Mrs. Jex entrusted her property to this man, whom she was engaged to marry, and .that he appropriated it to his own use. There is no grumbling about the hard times. Let us make the best of itnrd hope for better times necxt year. 1 A BRUTE LYNCHED. rhe Scoundrel Was Trailed i ni Caught by Blood Hounds. PRE USUAL CRIME THE CAUSE. Details of the Assault and Pursuit. Capture and Executionsof the Brutal Assailanlt of a Young Lady. Dorchester County has had her first .yncbing, but it won't be the last un Less the black brutes down there keep heir hands off of white women. A brutal fiend made an assault upon a young lady near Ross, a station about eight miles below Georges, on last Friday aft-.rnoon about three o'clock. Before nigL. there was gathered in the little tow )f Ross a crowd of de termined citizens numbering about three hundredlmen fronithe adjacent towns and county, bent upon the swift punishment of the dastardly iend who had attemptcd an assault upon a respectable young lady. For tunately, by the brave fight of the lady, who is a member of a promin ent family, the brute failed in his diabolical purpose, but the lady was badly bruised by being choked. It seems that the young lady walked a short distance from her home to where they were having some farm work done and, after getting there, found that the workmen had not re turned and she decided to wait; and it was whilst she was waiting there, practically in calling distance of her home, that the negro, John Fugie, came upon her and undertook his das tardly work, but, being frightened by her pitiful cries for help and har struggles to free herself from his clutches around her throat, he ran to wards the woods near by. The report soon gained currency and by night there was a posse of de termined men scouring the woods and swamps for the negro. The search was fruitless, although seve:al sus picious characters were caught v.nd brought for identification before i0he young lady, none of whom answereo the description. Until the midnight train from Charleston - brought the blood bounds nothing could be done. As soon as the dogs caught the trail they followed it until it brcught them to the home of Fogle, and after a search was made for him there was found that he had again escaped; so going back to the scene of tise chime at the early hour of 4 o'clock Saturday morning, another trail was talren again, and this time as before the dogs carried the scent till ti ey r.-ached the steps of the negro's ..ruse, and then their shrill howls a.A barks broke out on the crisp moru.ng air and the posse knew that the fiendl was caught. le was carried before the youn. woman, woo immediately identifiea him, and then in a quiet and still manner, just as the sun was peeping from over the eastern hills, Fogle paid the penalty for his crime, sus ended in midair. Then the boom of a hundred guns broke tue death-ilke silence and announced the first lynch ing in Dorchester County. Ine body of John Fogle was left dangling from the limb of one of the trees of the forest as a silent warning. The South Vindicated. In discussing the formation of the Republic of Panama the Springfield Republican says: "So it has come to pass that a State may secede by tele graph in the morning, organize a government before noon secure recog nition in order to catch the afternoon editions and announce its ministers plenipotentiary under scare heads in the evening extras. In the twinkling of an eye has come this strenuous mod er miracle from the man on horse back at Washington. Hayne, Cal houn, ("Bob") Toombs, Yancey, Pres ton S. Brooks, Gideon Pillow, Briga dier Floyd, Vallandigham, Magoflin, Jefferson Davis, and all the illustri ous line of ("secesh") and ("copper head") chivnlry, you are vindicated at last, Webster, John Quincy Adams, Sumner, Lincoln, Seward, Grant, Sherman and all the boys in blue, your idea is forty years out of date." The South tried to teach the North this great lesson forty years ago, but the people of that section were so obtuse that they failed to take it in. But Teddy has succeeded better than the South did. The logic of the Republican is sound. If the State of Panama has the right to se cede and form a Republic in 1903, the South had the right to do so in 180. We were confident that the South would be vindicated, but we did not expect the vindication te come so soon, nor from the quarter it has. Let us hear no more about rebels. This government has not only endorsed a rebellion, but it has actually used its navy to protect the rebels in their effort to set up a gov ernment in opposition to the mother country. All of which goes to prove that John C. Calhoun was a great statesman and a true defender of the rights of men. We endorse the ac tion of Teddy in the Panama affair because it is a vindication of the position of the South when it with drew from the Union. The Postal Steal. In the publication of an abstract of General B3ristow's report, the country has an authentic record, supplemented by notes from Presi dent Roosevelt, of the general cor ruption which has existed in the Post Office Department for several y-ears and under Republican ad ministrations. Here is the result of the investigations. Four officers of the department have r.esigned and hirteen have been removed. Forty ix indictments have been found, .nvolving thirty-one persons, ten of wvhom were prominent in the postal service. 31r. Bristow estimates the :otal amount obtained from the ~overnment by these swindlers at ibout -400,000, but admits that this mm is small in comparison with the .osses involved in the purchase, at exorbitant rates, of useless and un ecessary supplies. In his review >f the report, the President praises he thoroughness of the work done >y the investigators, agrees with the Ldvice to extend the statute of imitations for a p~eriod of five years or officers who hold positions of rusts under the government, and mds with a dissertation on the evils f corruption in public life, the igual guilt of bribe-giver-and bribe aer and simiar plituede Hr1 PLANTS WITH OILSKINS. They Are Protected Equally Against Damp and Drought. Gather a sycamore bud just before it bursts and look at it closely. You will notice that it is enveloped In tough scales. There are either twelve or fourteen of these scales, which! make a close and complete covering around every single individual bud. Strip them off, and in the very heart you come upon two pairs of what will eventually be leaves tightly folded to gether. Some of these sycamore buds are larger than others. These, on exami nation, will be found to contain bunches of flowers as well as leaves. Sycamores, like all other trees, take a long time to make their buds for the following season. They begin new growth, indeed, just as soon as they have got rid of their old leaves in the Autumn, and go on quieIly working all through the Winter. Hard frost would, of course, kill the buds at once were they not protected; while, even if there were no frost. the cold rains and fogs of winter would rob the tender begin nings of the new leaf. Bud scales, therefore, are grown by the sycamore and other trees simply to protect the buds from frost and damp. They are, in fact, a sort of combination over coat and mackin'osh. When the leaves break forth in spring-generally about' the middle of April-the sycamore buds shed their overcoats, which fall off, and may be seen littering the ground beneath the tree. Every tree of the kind known as deciduous-that Is, the trees which lose their leaves in winter-acts in much the same way as the sycamore; but the form of overcoat is not always the same. Beech buds have very tough ittle brown overcoats, fringed with while, silky hairs. The white willow and some other trees also have hairy or furry coats for their young leaves and flower buds. These silky hairs entangle air just as animal fur does, and so keep the buds from the cold winds of spring. All trees do not get rid of the!r bud protections. The hawthorn, for ins'ance. keeps them on all the sum mer. They .open into small green leaves, which do not fall until the other leaves do. Trees are very careful, as a rule, not to dispense with their overcoats too soon; but yet they are occasionally caught napping. In 1891, for instance, there was a terribly sharp frost late In the spring, and the beech leaves, which were almost fully out, were caught and nipped. For weeks after ward the beech trees had a brown and withered look; but by the end of June fresh leaves pushed out from younger buds. Regular oilskins are worn by the horse-chestnut. Anyone who has handled the bursting leaf buds of this tree knows how gummy and sticky they are. The use of the gum which the coverings of chestnut buds exude Is to protect them from moisture as well as from cold. Lt.er on in the year plants need pro tection against the sun, which would otherise take up all the moisture in thi leaves and wilt them. The leaf of a cabbage has a mealy" look about it-almost as if it had been dusted with flour. Many grasses have a similar appearance, and so have the leaves of the Australian gum-tree. All these leaves, If examined under the misero scope, will be found: to be covered with a bloom consisting of tiny needles of wax. This stuff has been exuded from the leafpores in order to save the water contained. Wanted to Sit in Statue's Lap. Because he wanted to sit in the lap of the statue of Morton McMichael, Raymond Harrison, thirteen years old, of Fourth and Dickinson streets, was deprived of his liberty for a short time yesterday. Park Guard Barrett saw the boy sitting in the lap of the figure on Lemon Hill. He ordered him down and brought him to Sedgely guard house. When Secretary O'Neill asked the diminutive prisoner why -he had climbed over the statue the boy re plied: "I just wanted to be able to say I had sat there." He was dis charged, with a warning to keep away from the statue In the future.-Phila delphia InquIrer. Value of Coins. There seems to be a great deal of misapprehension In regard to the value of certain coins here'In Amer Ica. The Columbian half dollar of 1902, which is the rarest of the two Columbia half-dollars struck, is worth to dealers only fifty-five cents. Occa sionally dealers ask as high as sev enty-five cents for them, but they will not pay that much. The half-dollar of 1820, If In what Is called the "mint state," would perhaps be worth a.s much as $1, not more. If the coin Is much worn by circulation the value would be less.-Woman's Home Coin panion. The Flood of Immigrants. The remedy is to be found in a wid. er distribution of the flood. Scattered throughout the union a milllion for eigners would exert but little influence, and in the course of a few years they would acquire a knowledge of Ameri can ways and institutions. Their chil dren would grow up in the midst of as American environment, and, learning the English language and attendina public schools, they would become American In every sense. The coun' try Is big enough and has sufficient re sources to accommodate many more people than will come, even though they come at the rate of a million a year for the next half century.-Den ver Republican. Lots of people would rather die 4 natural death than send for a doctor. declares that all offenders shall be punished but makes no comment on the case of Perry S. Heath, who now stands high in Republican politics. We publish this week a part of Gen eral Bristow's report, which no doubt will be read with interest. ktotten to the Core. Morally the rich people of New York is rotten to the core. This is clearly indicated by the recent mar riage of Mr. Hunnewell and Mrs. Kemp at Newport. The couple was married by the judge who two hours before had granted the bride a divorce from her former husband. As the Columbia State puts it the* affair seems to have been quite a divorce event. The groom had been devorced and his former w~ife has re married. There were eleven persons present at this marriage, of whom five had been divorced. The bride's "best friend," who attended her, had been divorced and so had her uncle who gave her away. "So remarkable a cection of divorced persons at a IN THE APIARY. Successful wintering of bees de pends, to a great extent, on their man agement. Late, unsealed honey is poor rood for winter, and should never be used for feeding purposes. If extract Ing be continued late, there is more or less danger, unless full sealed combs have been set aside for this purpose; otherwise the late unsealed honey may be extracted, and good sugar syrup be substituted. In harvesting fall honey, the extrul tor is invaluable, for the bees will r.ot store the honey in boxes when combs must be built, nearly so fast as in :he brood chamber, where instinct teaches them it must be filed for winter. Keep no queenless stocks unless it Is intended to introduce queens, in which case, one or two combs of hatch ing brood, from stocks that can best spare them, should be inserted,- in order to secure young bees for winter. It Is quite necessary to keep the cap of the hive warm at night by artificial means, as the bees are very apt to leave boxes when the nights are cool, and thus retard their work to such aa extent that we have many unfinished boxes, where, with the necessary warmth, they would have been con pleted. Where the honey harvest has ceased, the bees may be divided, giving, them young queens. Where any stocks have old queens, these should be destroyed, and young queens introduce. With a little care, the supply of queens can. be kept on hand. At this time of the year, should feeding be necessary for this purpose, feed as fast as possible,' unless it is desired to stimulate bjood rearing, when the entrance feeder may be used with good effect. Keep the queens laying as long as possible, to have a populous stock.-W. B. Tread well. White Wyandettes. We herewith present our readers with an Illustration of the White Wy . andottes. They are of American origin, and are a "sport" from the well-known Wyandottes. They orglinated somie years ago, and now are added to the long list of varieties of poultry. While It requires comparatively less time to "fix" the characteristics of poultry. than of general live stock, and to pr petuate their peculiarities so they can merit the term of "breed," it cannot be done in a few years. This estab'e Qsi ne red s a tiefraatu reeradn lein ewoi bredsa prialepint s there may be some objections raised, The typical White Wyandottes are of medium size, have clean, yellow .legs, rose-colored combs, and mature rapid ly. The most enthusiastic friends- of this new breed even do not claim -an? special excellence for It is not pos' sessed by the standard breed of Wy-' andottes, except the white plumage, which appears to be its chief, If not its only, recommendation. Thus fai we fall to see any decided improve. ment upon the breed from which the? are an offshoot, and while they mai be of some interest to amateur breed' ers, we would not advise one to dis card the beautiful laced Wyandotted for these new-comers. Those who fancy solid colored breeds cannot fail to be well 'pleased with these ne* claimants for popular favor, for, while they are not "better than the best;* they are worthy of attention and trial. Layering Roses. Rtoses may be layered for propoga* tion during the summer, but should not be separated from the parent plant and transplanted until the following spring. Fasten down a branch, first cutting it partly through with a knife and inserting a toothpick or mates~ to hold the cut open, and cover this por' tion with earth. If a man knows ducks and has a suitable range for them with a pon~d ol clean water containing aquatic animal and vegetable life, ducks can be raised at little cost. wedding," says the Springfield Re publican, "was evidently no accident but an incident perfectly natural to their circle of society"-a circle which is rated as the very highest in the land. The Republican is per fectly correct when it stigmatizes them as "essentially vulgar people, who because of their wealth and social status become very demoraliz ing to public ideals of domesticity when they gallop through the di vorcc courts in this gay yet scadalous manner." "Social anarchists" is -a ternm none to strong for persons who practice a system only once removed from free love. There are 20,000 more colored than wite children enrolled in the public schools of South Carolina, according to the report of Superintendent of Education Martin. Statistics from Marion county are missing and as a result the report to the general as sembly is not exact, but as far as can be estimated the enrollment for 1903 is 286,982, there being 138,678 white nd1 153,816 colored.