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The Manning times. (Manning, Clarendon County, S.C.) 1884-current, March 24, 1915, Image 1

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Persistent link: http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn86063760/1915-03-24/ed-1/seq-1/

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(oers Fronter of East Prussia and
Take 'Several Village.-Germs.D
Declare Vi~age Homes Are Being
Detroyed and Threaten Reprisals
on Scale of Three for One.
Imadon reports Friday: The ap
parent failure of Field Marshal von
Indenberg's various attempts to
reach Warsaw, the reappearance of
- Rassans over the East Prussian fron
tier, near Tilsit, and the allied oqen
Atv in the west has, according to
British observers, put Germany in a
position where she dare not shift any
substantial force from either the east
er the west.
Although there are rumors of re
Inforcements being hurried from Po
land to France or Belgium to meet
the French and British thrusts, mili
tary writers in London hold to the
opinion that Germany must maintain
her-present armies In both areas of
Ughting practically intact. This will
aecessitate the finding of new forces
for both the east and the west if she
would effectually meet the increasing
strength of her enemies.
It Is pointed out that the plan to
delver a crushing blow In one thea
tr and then rush across the country
to the other, has miscarried on both
fronts. This was seen drst in the
dash to Paris, second in the rush for
Calais, third, In the battle of Ypres
and then repeatedly in the east as
Field Marshal von Hindenberg
sought to break through the Rnsan
Hnes to- the -Polish capital.
Considerable mystery surrounds
the next move of the Germans, al
though the prevailing belief here is
that It will be a big offensive In the
west, probably against the E.itish
Belmn reports Friday: "In the I
Ch'mpagne district, further French J
attacks have ailed. One of these t
was to the north of IeMesnil and the J
ether to the north of Beauselour. We 4
took prisoner two French offcers and
T soldiers.- After heavy losses the
French retreated under our effective t
gre to their former positions. I
"To the abutheast of Verdun the z
Preach have made- several advances.
In the plain of the Woevre French a
attacks have been repulsed, while on i
the east side of the heights of the
Neuse the fighting continues.
"The situation In the vicinity of
Nemel, in East Prussia, Is not yet
clear. It would appear that minor
Russian detachments have entered
Nemel. Counter measures have been
-."All the Russian attacks between
the -rive Pissa and river Orzyc to
h6 northeast of Prasznysz have been
repulsed. In some of these engage
ments the enemy lost heavily.
"The situation south of the Vistula
shows no change."
London reports Friday: A Star
dispatch from Copenhagen says sta
tistics furnished by the president of
the province of East Prussia show (
80,000 hoiuses have been destroyed in
East Prussia by Russian troops.
Three hundred thousand refugees
maid to be unable to return to East
Prussia because they have no means
of livelihood.
A Berlin dispatch Thursday night
described these 80,000 houses as pri
vats apartments and said they had
been completely pillaged and their,
furniture removed to Russia. 1
In Northern Poland Isolated ac
tions are being fought from the Nie
men river to Prasnyss, the big battle
which was expected having apparent
ly been called off or postponed, says1
a London dlispatch, by Field Marshal
von Hlndenberg, who Is thought toi
have attained his object when he ex-1
tricated his forces from the forest of
Meanwhile the Russians have once
more invaded the East Prussian fron
tier In two places. The German offi
cial commlnicationl mentions that in
the extreme north Russians attacked
Laugszargen, which is German soil.
A Petrograd dispatch reports that the
largest German force In the northi
has been followed in Its retreat across1
the frontier below the middle group
of the Mazurlan lakes.
. Petrograd reports: "In Russian
Poland, on the front between the
Rivers Skwa and Orzyo, In the re
gion of the villages of Serafin, Tar-]
tak, Wack and Ziomek, and also in
the region north of Przasnysz, fight
ing continues. We have seized sev
eral villages and taken five guns,
forty-two mschine guns, many calr
sons and several hundreds of prison
"On the right bank of the Niemen
battles have been fought near Tau
roggen and on German territory on
the roads loading from Gorzda to
Memel. We captured here two guns.
tour machine guns, two automobiles
loaded with ammunition and a num
ber of prisoners."
Berlin reports: "Russian attacks
on German positions between the
Pissa and Orzyc rivers in northern
Poland as well as northeast of Przas
nyss continued with success. West
of the Skwa river we took 900 pris
oners of war, and east of the Skwa,
1,000 prisoners and tour machine
"Hordes of the Russian Imperial
militia gained a cheap victory by in
vading the most northern corner of
east Prussia in the direction of Mem
el. They pillaged and burned villages
and estate. As a rctallatory measure
Russian towns occupied by us will
be compelled to pay large sums.
"For every village burned down by
these Russian hordes on German ter
ritory, and for each estate destroyed
three villages or estates on Russian
territory occupied by us, will be sac
rificed to the flames. All damage
caused by fire In Memel will be an
swered by the destruction by fire of
Russian government buildings at Su
walki and other provincial capitals
In German hands."
Petrograd reports: "In the Car
pathianis the Russians appear to have
been successful in turning the Aus
trian right flank south of Stanislau in
a-spectacular battle. Half buried In
snow, which In places was over the
heads of the combatants, the Rus
sians rushed the Austrians fortifica
tions near the village of Tarnowice.
"Abandoning the customary forma
tions, they scrambled as best they
could through the drifts, sometimes
strung out in Indian file, sometmes
almost losing touch with one another.
They succeeded, however, in reaching
thsoriat+ions by surprise and Dos
Dual Monarchy Apparently Resisting
Germany's Efforts to Find Way to
Keep Italy Out of War.
Rome, Italy, reports in a dispatch
to Paris Friday what purports to be
in outline of Austria's attitude which
relation to the cession of territory to
taly is contained in a dispatch to the
rribunea, dated Vienna, but tele
graph:d fro mthe frontier.
The statement is made that Aus
tria, without reflecting upon Italian
good faith, contends it is only natural
hat the dual monarchy, if she is
eady to grant territorial compensa
Jion, should wish to insure Italian
For this reason, the dispatch says,
ustria feels she should carry out her
art of the proposed agreement only
hen an Italian pledge of neutrality
s fulfilled, especially in vitew of the
!act that the cession of the province
)f Trent would imply a weakening of
Austrian military resources with re
ard to Italy.
Commenting upon this report, the
'ribuna says the condition which
Austria demands Is absolutely inac
:ptable and if maintained would
nake impossible any friendly agree
nent. No ministry would accept as
L satisfaction of national. aspirations
L simple promise to be carried out at
lie end of a war, the results of which
to one can foresee, the newspaper
"The Austro-German point of
riew," the Tribuna says. "is wrong
>ecause they think Italy is asking
,ompensation . for neutrality. The
roblem Is totally different. Austria
rovoked the war through aggression
gaist Serbia, partly against repeat
d Italian warnings and partly with
ut Italy's knowledge. This action
as entirely contrary to mutual
talo-Austrian pledges and conflicted
ith the fundemental interests of
taly. Thus the European equilibrium
ras upset and radical changes in the
nap of Europe are inevitable.
"Italy sacrificed her national as
rations by adhering to the Triple
tllance for the sake of preserving
hat European equilibrium. Since
Lustria shattered it Italy can no long
ir postpone the realization -of those
Paris reports Friday: The Aus
ran government - is resisting ener
etically pressure exerted by Ger
any to induce her to make territo
Ial concessions to Italy, according to
Geneva dispatch to the Petit Paris
Count Andrassy, former premier of
Ingary, and several other states
nen representing the dual monarchy,
re reported to have gone to Berlin
o discues the problem with Chancel
or von Bethmann-Hollweg and For
ign Minister von Jagow.
It Is reported at Geneva that if
>ther negotiations fail the German
hancellor contemplates a trip to
ienna In ihe hope that he may con
Ince Emperor Francis Joseph that it
s necessary fQr Austria to consent to
he sacrifices asked.
erman Artillery Touched Off Trees
Loaded With Gasoline.
How the Germans employed both
ire and water to destroy the Rus
ians in the campaign in the Mazu
-an lake district, east Prussia, is re
ated In a communication received in
.ndon from Gathenberg.
"German strategy counted not only
n water and mire, but even fire,"
he correspondent says: "Their engi
eers have, for many years, been
,Quipped with a peculiar kind of
uger for excavating the trunks of
loft trees such as the Mazurian furs.
When the Russian army first advanc
d into East Prussia German engi
eers hastily excavated numbers of
"When Russian troops reached the
Kazurian district, German engineers
it once opened the canal locks,
frowning the invading troops like
ies. Some Russians reached the
~orests, but of course, they bad no
.dea that many trcas had been charg
d with gasoline. It was an easy task
or the German artillery to set a
natch to this bonfire and burn up
:he Russian regiments they had en
Dread Disease Creating Havoc Among
Doctors and Nurses,
Appalling stories of conditions In
ervia are told by Ernest Bicknell
md Henry James. Jr., of the war re
lief committee of the Rockefeller
oundation, after a tour of inspec
tion through that country.
Typhus, most deadly of the several
pidemics in Servic. already has caus
ed the death of 60 out of 400 native
doctors, they said. Fereign Red
ross units have suffecred great losses.
Two American and one British units
have had to suspend regular work
because of typhus. Nine American
nurses and two physicians have con
tracted the disense.
sess themselves of the stronghold in
a short time. capturir g a large num
ber of prisoners and guns.
"This movement was followed by a
general flanking operation which
drove the Austrians from the Dnies
ter. The Russians now hone to ex
pel their opponents from East Gall
"An encounter of equal strategik
importance occurred between the Uz
sok Pass and Turka, in Galicia, tc
the north of the pass, in which thE
Russians captured trenches and seIz
ed railroad communicationsa."
London reports: The next imnor
tant battle in the west. it is believed
in London. will take place along thE
River Yser, held on one side by thE
recent reorganized Belgian army anc
on the other by the Germnn.
As the floods have subsided thE
Belgians, supported by the allies
warships, have pushed their lint
slightly forward, and this is almos
certain to lead to counter-attacks bI
the Germans and then a general en.
gagement: as when similar move
ment initiated elsewhere along thi
front. An artillery duel already ha:
There may be a slight delay whil4
the Germans are awaiting reinforce
ments. for they have been usin imos
of their reserves to counter-attack:
the British troons at St. Eini an<
Neuve Chappelle and the Frenul
north of Arras, but that a big clas]
Great Britain and France Make Final
Reply, Setting Forth the Scope of
Their Blockade of German Ports
Notes of United States and Replies
Are Published.
The state department has made
public all the notes exchanged be
tween the United States, Great Brit
ain, France and Germany in regard
to the treatment of neutral sea com
merce by the belligerents.
The publication includes (1) the
original note sent by the United
States to Berlin and London In which
this government sought to secure
concessions relieving neutral trade of
the burdens and dangers of the war.
(2) The German reply which offer
ed to call off all submarine activity
against mercantile ships if food sup
plies were allowed to come into Ger
(3) The British reply, which re
counted and denounced German per
fidy, and at the same time declared
that France and Great Britain, in
concert, would shut off all supplies
from Germany.
(4) The second note of the Amerl
can government to Great Britain,
sent also to France, in which this
country asked the allies to explain
the manner of instituting and main- I
taining their embargo on all com- I
merce to Germany.
(5) The reply of Great Britain. 1
(6) The reply of France.
The general tenor of the replies of
Great Britain and Germany to the
first American note are well known
as their contents have been publish
ed. So to-day we print the two notes
of the American government and the
replies of .Great Britain and France
to our second note.
The First American Note.
The following identical note was i
sent by the secretary, of state to the I
American ambassad6rs at London 1
and Berlin:
"Washington, Feb. 20, 1915.
"You will please deliver to Sir Ed
ward Grey the following identical
note which we are sending England I
and Germany. In view of the corre
spondence which has passed between
this government and Great Britain
and Germany, respectively, respective
to the declaration of a war zone by
the German admiralty and the use
of neutral flags by British merchant t
vessels, this government ventures to
express the hope that the two bellig
erent governments may, through re
ciprocal concessions, find a basis for
agreement which will relieve neutral
shippers engaged in peaceful com
merce from the great dangers which
they will incur in the high seas ad
jacent to the coasts of the belliger
"The government of the United
States respectfully suggests that an
agreement in terms like the following
might be entered into:
"Germany and Great Br~itain to
"1. That neither will sow anyi
floating mines, that neither will plan
an he ighseas anchored mines e;
ept within common range of har
bors for defensive purposes only andi
that all mines shall be so constructed
as to become harmless If separated
from their moorings.- 1
"That neither will use submarines,
to attack merchant vessels of any
ationality except to Lnforce the right]
of visit and search.
"3. That each will require their
respective merchant vessels not to
use neutral .flags for the purpose of
"Germany to agree:
"That all Importations of food or
foodstuffs from the United States to
Germany shall be consigned to agen
cIes to be designated by the United
States government, that these Ameri
can agencies shall have entire charge
and control . . . of the receipt and
distribution of such importations and
shall distribute them solely to retail
dealers bearing licenses from the
German government entitling them
to receive and furnish such food and
foodstuffs to the noncombatants only;
and that such food and foodstuffs will
not be requisitioned by the German
government for any aurpose whatso
ever or to be devirted to the use of
the armed forces of Germany.
"Great Britain to agree:
"That food and foodstutis will not
be placed upon the absolute contra
band list and shipment of such com
modities will not be interfered with
if consigned t . agencies designatedI
by the United States government In
Germany for distribution solely to
the noncombatant population.
"In submitting this proposed basis
of agreement this government would
consider the agreement. if acceptable
to the interested powers, a modus
vivendl based upon expediency rather
than legal right and as not binding
upon the United States until accepted
by this government. Bryan."
Replies to This oNte.
The nature of the replies have al
ready been printed In this paper,
G~ermany virtually expressed her will
ingness to abide by the American
note. Great Britain exnlatied the
many wrongs committed by Germany
Iand pleading these announrced her In
tention. acting In common with
France, to cut off all supplies from
The United States thereupon dis
patched this note to Great Britain
and to France:
The Second American Note.
"Washington. March 5, 1915.
"n regard to the recent communi
cations receivec. from the British and
French governments concerning re
Istraints upon commerce with Ger
many, please communicate with the
British foreign'office in sense the fol
"The difficulty of determining ac
tion upon the British and Frencn
declarations of Intended retaliation
upon commerce with Germany lies in
the nature of the proposed measures
iIn their relation to commerce by
"The language of the declaration
.is: 'The British and French govern
ments, will, therefore, hold them
selves free to detain and take into
port ships carrying goods of presum
ed enemy destination, ownership, or
origin. It Is not intended to confis
aesc eselse ornargoes unless
they would otherwise be liable to
"The first sentence claims a right
pertaining only to a state of block
a'de. The last sentence proposes a I
treatment of ships and cargo as If no
blockade existed. The two together
present a proposed course of action.
practically unknown to international
law. As a consequence neutrals have C
no standard by which to measure
their rights. The paradoxical situar
tion thus created should be changed
and the declaring powers ought to
assert whether they rely upon the
rules governing a blockade or the
rules applicable when no blockade
exists. h
"The declaration presents other I a
perplexities. The last sentence quot- C
ed indicates that the rules of contra
band are to be applied to cargoes de- s,
tained. The rule covering non-con- a
traband articles carried in neutral a
bottoms is that the cargo shall be re- 0
leased and the ships allowed to pro- 1
eed. t
"What then is to be done with that
margo of non-contraband goods de
tained under the declaration? The e
same question may be asked as to d
:onditional contraband cargoes. rJ
"The foregoing comments apply to F
mrgoes destined for Germany. - - - cl
Under the rules governing enemy ex
ports only goods owned by enemy
subjects In enemy bottoms are sub- ff
ect to seizure and condemnation. Yet I,
by the declaration it is purposed to A
seize and take into port all goods of 0
memy ownership and origin. - - - ri
rhe origin of goods destined to neu- s(
.ral territory on neutral ships is not si
Lnd never has been a ground for for
reiture except in case blockade is de- s,
:lared and maintained. . . . The
eclaration does not Indicate what i
isposition would be made of car
;oes if owned by a neutral or if own- 0
?d by an enemy subject. Would a
ifferent rule be applied according to s
>wnership? If so upon what princi- i
les of international law would It e
est? And upon what rules if no I
bockade is maintained could the car- a
ro of a neutral ship sailing out of a
Ierman port be condemned? If it ist t
iot condemned, what other legal It
:ourse Is there but to release it? ti
"While this government Is fully 01
Llie to the possibility that the meth- t
>ds of modern naval warfare, par- bi
cularly in the use of the submarine s(
or both defensive and offensive op
rations, may make the former means
f maintaining a blockade a physical 't
mpossibility, It feels that it can be e,
irged with great force that' there a
hould be also some limit to the is
-adius of activity,' and especially so c(
f this action by the belligerents can tr
)e construed to be a blockade. It
would certainly create a serious state si
>f affairs, if, for example, an Ameri
:an vessel laden with a cargo of Ger- c(
nan origin should escape the British
>atrol in European waters only to be d4
ield up by a cruiser off New York M
Lnd taken Into Halifax. ci
"Similar cablegrams sent to Paris. h
"9rBryan." el
The Reply of France.
The American ambassador at Paris
ansmitted to the secretary of state
rom the French government the fol-'e
owing message: fT
"Paris, March 14, 1915. B
"French government replies as fol
ows: ai
"'In a letter dated March 7 your tc
xcellency drew my attention to the A
iews of the lUnited States regarding it
he recent communications from the T
rench and British governments con- F
erning a restriction to be laid upon M
ommerce with Germany. According
.o your excellency's letter, the decla- ti
ation made by the allied govern
nents presents some uncertainty as
egards its application. ,t
"'At the same time your excel- w
eny notified me that the govern- le
net of the United States was some- tl
rhat apprehensive that the allied bel- ey
igerents might (if their action is to le
ye construed as constituting a block- G
de) capture in waters near America
iny ship which might have escapee te
:he cruisers pratroling European A
waters. I have the honor to Inform a
rou that the government of the re- ti
~ublic has not failed to consider this A
oint and I beg to specify clearly the 1(
~onditions of application as far as my n
overnment is concerned, of the dec- e
laration of the allied governmenltt.
A~s well set forth by the federal gov
lrnment the old methods of blockade
:an not be entirely adhered to In view F
f the use Germany has made of her
ubmaines. . . . In answer to thee
ehallenge . . . contained In the
:leclaration by which the German Im-I
perial government stated that it con-*
idered the seas surrounding Great t'
~ritain and the Ferach coast on the S
Ihannel as a military zone ...
he allied governments have been ob- a
iged to examine what measures they '
could adopt to interrupt all maritime s
ommuncation with the German em
pire, . . . at the same time safe
guarding as much as possible the le- t
gitimate interests of neutral powers,
md respecting the laws of humanity. C
"'The government of the republic,
herefore, reserves to itself the right s
of bringing into a French or alliedt
port any ship carrying a cargo pre
sumed to be of German origin, des
tination or ownership, but It will not
go to the length of seizing any neu
tral ship except in case of coutra
band. The discharged cargo shall not
be confiscated. In the event of a
neutral proving his lawful ownership
of merchandise destined to Germany,
he shall be entirely free to dispose or
same, subject to certain conditions.
In case the owner of the goods is a
German they shall simply be seques-:
trated during 'he war.
"'Merchandise of enemy origin
shall only be sequestrated when it Is t
at the same time the property of an
enemy: irerc'handise belonging tod
neutrals shall be held at the disposal
of Its owner to be returned to the
port of departure.
" 'As your excellency will observe.
these measures, while depriving the 1
enemy of Important resources, re
spect the rights of neutrals and will
not in any way jeopardize private
property. -.
"'The goverment of the republic.,
being desirious of allowing reutrals
every facility to enforce their claims.
...has specified that the prize
court shall give sentence within eightc
days. counting from the date on
which the case shall have been1
brought before it.
"'I do not doubt that the federal I
government, comparing on the one
hand the unspeakable violence withI
which the German military govern
ment threatens neutrals. . . . and
on the other the measures adopted
by the allied governments of France
and the rights of individuals, will
readily perceive that the latter have
not overstopped their strict rights as
"'Finally. I am anxious to assure
you that it Is not the intention of
the government of the republic to ex
tend the action of its cruisers against
enemy merchandise beyond Euronean
seas. the Mediterranean included."
The Reply of Great Britain.
The reply from the British govern
(Continued on last page.)
rermany Offers Austrian Territory
an Free Hand in Albania-If En
tente Wins There Is Nothing.
Political pressure upon Italy to
ledge its support either to the em
ires of central Europe or the allies Ruc
as been augmenting for some time
ad is believed to have reached its J
According to thoroughly reliable
surces, Prince von Buelow, German
mbassador, has given formal assur
aces that Germany will be able to S
vercome resistance of Austria and
iduce Vienna to yield to Italy cer- C
din territorial concessions. Pek
In addition the central empires am]
ould further Italy's ambition in the Bar
?stern Mediterranean. The German min
iplomats pointed out that the ma- him
ine supremacy of Great Britain and ing
'rance would have the effect of tho,
ushing Italy. mn
Representatives of the allies were diff
resenting the matter in quite a dif- tiat
rent light. They have uited in say- futi
g that the defeat of Germany and I1
ustria was inevitable, and that with- day
at participation of Italy in case Italy pen,
frained from taking part, it would con!
cure nothing from the allies when for
ttlements are made. cert
With the conclusion of peace, or not
ortly thereafter, they argue, the mer
paration of Hungary from Austria Stal
to be expected. A
This would lead to the absorption thr<
the Austrian provinces of German this
Brsonality by Germany and the con- of
quent retention of German domin- hav
n of Trieste which thus would for- den
rer be lost to Italy. In addition Italy prol
ould be forced to abandon Avlona spe<
d the Aegean islands. can
What is believed in high quarters T
be an authoritative outline of Chit
aly's territorial demands and Aus- sub
a's position regarding them was max
)tained recently. The difference or bect
ews, as thus indicated. appears to whc
3 so great that well informed per- the
mns can -see no likelihood of an ad- mal
Lstment. veni
It is said Italy wants a sweep of A
rrtory north and east which would tabl
tend her boundary around the was
)rthern end of the Adriatic sea as the
,r south as Flume on the eastern sian
last. That would include the Aus- Tok
ian naval base at Pola, and the pre- eig-.
nces of Trent and Trieste. Conces- Jap:
ons which Austria is believed to be sist
illing to make are insignificant as ficul
>mpared with the demands. Jap'
It is regarded as probable that un- S
,r pressure from Germany Austria ane
ay be Induced to grant larger con- refe
!ssions, but the belief is generally Pek
ld in responsible quarters that the kno
treme Austrian concessions will be rese
sufficient to satisfy Italy. 'Uni
Italy's demands are set forth as ane,
llows: To the north, she desires the Jap,
itire province of Trent, bringing her . l
ontier to Venoste, Parririe and the
reoie. including the districts of Rev- beez
-to, Trent, Bosen, Meran, Bresanone' avol
id Bruneck; to the east, she wants the
i extend her frontier to the Julian and
1ps, including the provinces of Gor- Chii
z and Istria, with the districts of
lmein, Goritz, Trieste, Pola and as
lume. Besides, she wants the Dal- Will
atian Islands. as I
The only rectification of the fron- wo
er which, according to this infor- Jap
.ation, Austria is willing to grant is
ssion of territory which would give
Italy possession of Lake Gartla, fte
ith the town- of Riva and the val- Jp
'ys of Chose and Adiger, including has
e towns of Rouverto and Tione, bu' u
eluding Trent and Trieste, the val- a
y of the Isonzo river, including. frin
radisci, but excluding Goritz. can!
It is understood also that for suchas
!rritory as she is willing to yield
ustria asked a large amount of '
oney and other concessions. .In re- mac
irn for these concessions by Italy, ami
ustria is willing to make certain Poe
>cal grants, including the establish- refi
Lent of an Italian university at Tri- the
ste' intu
ench Submarine Comes Up and sho
Turk Forts Destroy Her. ters
London reports: The loss of a at 'l
rch submarine boat, in an attempt Pek
run through the Dardanelles is de- rec
:ibed by Read Admiral Guepratte, oth
the French Dlerdanelles fleet, in of
a interview with a correspondent.
he attempt apparently was made tha1
me time ago although no announce- botl
iade has been heretofore made. a
"The object of the submarine was- alli
e siniking of the Turkish cruiser
ultan Selim (formerly the Germanam
ruiser Goeben)," the correspondent An
ys Admiral Guepratte told him.An
The submarine was submerged and aglo
uccessfully navigated the straits up al'
>the corner where the Asiatic coastbe
uts out at Nagara. A
"Through some miscalculation the -Are
ull struck the rocky shore, whichrg
ompelled the boat to rise to the sur- te
ice. Immediately the submarine ap-I
eared the forts sank her. Only a3
a of her crcw escaped and those and
rere made prisoners. ds
"Regarding the present situation dthe
the Dardanelles5, $tear Admiralth
Fepratte said the waters of the upo
traits are clear as far as Mephoz The
ernu, to which point all vessels ofma
le fleet can safely .navigate. The Chi
iain mine fields, however, are be
wen Chanak Kalessi and Kilid st
lahr, where also are the main coastSt
efences.' the
'hrty Thousand Regulars Dispatched clo
to Chinese Provinces. affe
The Chinese government has offi- Un]
il information to the effect that the by
econd Japanese squadron, convoying (
wo divisions of approximately 30,000 the
oldiers, has sailed for China. sai
Arrial of these troops will in- ma
rease the number of Japanese sol- Sta
.iers in the garrisons in China-to cre
early 60,000. The new troops will wit
e distributed in Manchuria, Shan- eig;
ung, Tien-Tsin and Hankow, where got
resent Japanese garrisons number int<
Larly 30,000. jgat
It was made known in Tokyo sev- Chi
rl days ago that new forces would ers,
e dispatched to the Japanese garri
ons in China. It was explained.
Lowever, as merely a shifting of
roops. Subsequently, it was inti- dro
nated that the garrisons now on duty ing
could be retained pending settlement ous
if Japan's demands on China. sev
Aeroplane Attacks Ship.
The British steamship Blonde has 1
-eported she was attacked In the. fac
Corth Sea by a German aeroplane,Ilan
which dropped a bomb on her deck. I tra:
)n mmber of the crew was killed. tagn
---- -
sia and England Have Warned
apanese That If Demands Were
xcessive Allies Could no Longer
reat Diplomatically - United
tates Looks After Her Interest.
fficial information is credited in'
ing that the Russian and British
assador at Tokio called upon
on Kato, the Japanese Foreign
ister, last Saturday, and informed
that if Japan persisted in press
upon China demands beyond
;e contained in her original com
ication to the powers it would be
cult for Japan's allies to nego
diplomatically with her in the
; is understood that on the same
the United States, acting inde
lently, although possibly after
iultation with another power, in-1
2ed the Japanese government that
ain of the Japenese demands were
in consonance with treaty agree
.ts between China and the United
merican and British opinion
ughout China are in concord in
matter, as voiced privately, semi
ally, andby the press. Meetings
been held at which the Japanese
ands have been discussed and
ests have been sent to their re
tive governments by both Ameri
and British associations.
he opinion is expressed by both
iese and foreign diplomats that a
tantial proportion of her de
ds will be withdrawn by Japan
use of the attitude of the powers,
have called China's attention to
fact that she has no right to
:e a treaty with Japan contra
ng existing treaties with them.
t various foreign diplomatic es
ishments in Washington doubt
expressed as to the correctness of
report from Peking that the Rus
and British ambassadors atI
io had informed the Japanese for
. minister that if the excessive
Lese demands on China were per
d in the Allies might find it dif
t to negotiate diplomatically with
in in the future.
irprise was expressed at the Jap
ae embassy, and it was said with
rence to another portion of the
Ing disnatch, that it was not
Pvn to the embassy that ,-ay rep
tations had been made by the
ed States government to the Jap
e government concerning the
Lnese proposals in China. -
t another quarter it was said that
Japanese demands on China had
formulated in such a way as -to
d any conflict between them and
understandings between Japan
other powers with respect to
We have the matter in mind," Is
ar as Secretary Bryan has been
[ug to go in answer to inquiries
:o what course this government
Id adoDt in connection with the)
Lese demands on China.
is admitted by state department
.als that since the beginning of
negotiations between China and
L the United States government
quietly been exerting its in
ace to have the Japanese demands
lorated and to prevent any In
gement of the rights of Amern
either under treaty of the provi
s of general international law.
here representations have b..een
e in Washington to the Jananese'
'assador, as well as in Toklo and
ing. Officials In- Washington have
ained from making public any of1
steps the United States has t'aken1
bese negotiations. Regarding the
ation as delicate, they preserved
same attitude when the latest
s dispatches frcm Peking were
rn to them.
i the best posted diplomatic quar
there was no confirmation of any
t British-Russian representations
okio of the nature Indicated from
lg. One dispatch from Tokio
ived in Washington dealt with
r matters, and made no mention1
uch representations.
[oreover, the assertion is made
strong Influences are at work
iat Peking and Tokio to stir up
minmosity between Japan and her
s, and there Is a disposition
ing the diplomats of the allied
ers to attribute reports of joint
l-Russian representations as
wing out of feeling adverse to the
Swas also stated that there had,
no consultation between the'
rican and British governments
rding the effect of the proposed~
anese demands upon existing
.ty obligations.
t various public uttewances the
anese minister for foreign affairs
the premier are reported to have
laimed any purpose on the part of
Japanese government to infringe
a the existing rights of other na
s in making demands upon China.
se were regarded as pertaining to.
ters that were at issue between
na and Japan only.
[owever, the disclosure of two
of demands as the result of the
e department's inquiries causedI
United States to deal with this'
Ject with extreme caution, and it
elieved that Minister Reinsch, at
ing, has been instructed to watch
ely and make siare that China
not concede any point that would
t any of the rights which the
ted States now enjoys in China
reasons of existing treaties..
me of the best posted observers of.
present Japan-Chin1 negotiations
that any representations thus far
le by the allies or by the United
les probably took the form of dis
it Inquiries rather than protests,
t possibly the intimation that for
governments felt assured the ne
lations at Peking would not bring
Squestion any of the treaty obli
ions now in operation between
na, Japan and other foreign pow
Dropped Bombs onC alals.
'ails reports: "A Zeppelin ha.s
pped some bombs on Calais. aim
at the railway station. No seri
material damage was done, but
en employees --ere killed.
To Use Army Transports.
ecause of the lack of shiopinlg
lites between thle Pillippine Is
is and the Unitedl States, armyi
sports will be utilized for carry
goods from the islands.
German Submarines Secure Two
More Victims in the English Chan
nel on Friday.
Constantinople reports by wireless
to Berlin and London Friday in an
official statement issued from Turk- S
ish headquarters:
"Our fleet early Friday bombarded
the ship yards and manoeuvering
place of torpedo boats west of Theo
dosia (on the Black Sea in Crimea,
a part of Russia) and set the. build
ings on fire.
"An allied fleet heavily shelled the
forts of the Dardanelles, which re
plied effectively, sinking the French t
battleship Bouvet." t
The Bauvet, 12,000 tons, was laid t
down in 1893. Her complement was
621 men and her armament consisted b
of two 12-inch guns, two 10.8 inch, C
eight 5.5 inch, eight 3.9 inch, ten 3- t
pounders and ten 1-pounders, besides d
two torpedo tubes. t
Paris reports Friday: "An artil- n
lery duel in the Dardanelles between v
Turkish shore batteries and warships t:
protecting allied mine sweepers last- c
ed from midnight until 2 a. m. yes- c
terday, says an Athens dispatch to a
the Havas agency, based upon infor- t,
matron from Tenedos. e
The warships are reported to have b
been struck by several shells, but the s
damage done was slight. Two shore
batteries were silenced."
Glasgow, Scotlan, reports that the
British steamer Hyndford was torpe
doed Friday by a German submarine
in the English channel. One member
of the crew was killed.
London reports Friday: "The Brit
sh steamer Bluejacket, with wheat
rom Liverpool, has been torpedoed e
by a German. submarine off Beachy 1
ead. The crew took to the boats.
rhe steamer, although badly damag- p
ed, remained afloat."
The Associated Press summarized 0
the- war situation Friday as follows:
The Thurkish war department an
nounced that the French battleship a
Bouvet had been sunk during the a
bombardment of the Dardanelles. No
:onfirmation has been received from
Paris or London. r
Paris or London. The Constantinople n
statement indicates the Turkish fleet,
whose location has been unknown for
some time, again is engaged actively
in the Black Sea. It is said to have
ttacked a Russian naval base on the
crimean coast, inkicting considerable
Whit is said to be a presentation of b
ustria's attitude toward Italy, as set r
forth in a Vienna dispatch to Rome,
:ontains the statement that Austria, n
if she agrees to make territorial con- i
3essions sufficient to satisfy Italy win P
lefer formal transfer of the territory t
ntil after the war. Austria, it Is t
3aid, desires to assure herself that
[taly will adhere to her promise of si
neutrality in return for the grant. B
rhis attitude is describcd in Rome as cl
Insatisfactory. 9 Paris dispatch says t,
ustria is resisting German pressure b
the matter. g
Information from ucharest4s that si
he Austrian forces in Bukowina ti
iave been reinforced and are under- 11
taking a strong offensive movement.
The Russian invasion of Germany b,
pparently has led to the occupation o
>f Memel, an important Baltic port at n
he northern tip of East Prussia. The A
Yerman official report of to-day indi- d
ates that Russian forces have enter- n
ad the city. e<
Petrograd believes von Hindenberg t
tas decided to launch a aew attack
on Warsaw fro mthe west. Russian a
military authorities 'assert that the ci
ermans have abandoned their attack
n the north and are concentrating ~
forces south of the Vistula, where d
heavy artillery fighting already is un- t
der way.
The developments of Thursday on
tha3 western front were a repetition e
of the local engagements such as have ~
been usual during the winter months. ~
Minor successes are claimed by the '
French in northwestern France and t
in the Argonne. The German state- i
ment mentions several attacks by the ~
allies, but asserts they failed.
The Russian army which Is invad- t
ing Turkish Armenia, is said to have
won another victory, capturing a
Turkish base on the Black sea near
the Russian border. Petrograd as-t
serts that the Turks retreated in dis- g
Two more British steamers have
been destroyed by Germany's sub-1
marine raiders. They were torpedoed I
in the English channel-.
While Allied Fleet Rest Bombard- t
msent Defenders Are Busy.
Paris reports: An Athens HavasI
dispatch says the allies' naval opera
tions at Smyrna, Asiatic Turkey, have j
been temporarily uuspended, and the I
Turks are profiting by this respite to I
repair their batteries ani forts. They
are pursuing the same course also at t
the Dardanelles and on either shore
here are abou 180.000 Turkish
troops west of Constantinople, ac
cording to latest information reach- ~
ag Athens. Forty thousand are on
the Gallipoli peninsula. 30,000 In
European Turkey and the rest on the
Asiatic side of the Dardanelles.
Americans to go to Great Britain,t
Germany and Austria.
An arrangement between Great
Britain and Germany and Austria, by
which representatives of the United
States will inspect and report upon
alien prison camps in those countries I
and distribute to prisoners suppliest
from their own governments or other
sources, has been announced by the
state department, and it was stated
that, through the good offices of the
American government, similar ar
rangements were under contempla- ii
tion between Russia and France and I~
Germany and Austria.
Our Action is Independent.
It has been stated officially at thes
White House that representatives by
the United States to Japan concern
ing the latter's demands on China
ad been entirely independent of any
action by Great Britain and Russia,
or other powers.
French Dropped Bombs.
Berlin reports French aviators
ha~e thrown bombs on the unidefend
ed Alsatian town of Schlettstadt.
Only one bomb took effect, falling o
a seminary conducted by women
teachers, killing two children and se-Ie
l[R[ U. s STAN
ubstantial Position of the UniteC
States to be Set Forth in- N
Which State Department Ofca
Is Now Preparing to Send to t
In preparing the protest to b seut
a Great Britain and France the pod
[on of the United~ States subutan.
[ally is as follows:
1. If the action of the allies-st
lockade, all commerce directly witlh
ermany can be halted by makin
he blockade effective, a ceirtain.
ius of activity" being allowed t
he blockading warships off thc
ian coast, because of the newly
eloped activities of submarines.
here can be no legal blockade of.
oast of neutral countries of Zur6i
ntiguous to those at war., und
ny circumstances, and commerce bu.
wreen the United States and n
specially in non-contraband, 5110
e free from interruption,'.r
pective of ultimate destination. ej'
2. If the action is not a blI
ien there exists no legal right to4
tin cotton or other non-con
argoes, even when consigned.di
r to German ports. Nor can fo
tuffs or conditional. contraband--,
istly interrupted unless pro
ough consigned to Germany,, to
estined for the use of Its beb
ut forces and not its civilian
Ltion. Under the same
tances, too, there Is no lega
3r detaining cargoes consigned
e United States to nettral co
f Europe if containing eotton'
on-contraband goods, irresec i
ltimate destination. Similar1 tN
111es can not under- the previo
ecepted principles of intern
LW interrupt shipments of s
d other conditional contrabaldt.e
Dute between the United States
eutral countries, unless c'
roven to be going eventually to t1%
elligerent forces of Germany
ot its civilian population.
3. Neutral countries of E
Lay declare embargoes on re-epol
Ltion of contraband on non-co
and, thus preventing supplies .rem
maching Germany. With this so
reign right the United States
ot take issue, but it will insist
s rights to ship to neutral co
Lacing the burden of stopping.
ier progress on the latter
In considering. the foregoing p
tions officials realize that-.
ritain and her allies have set urh
aim that their actions constitute
tliatory measures agaftrst n
t this, in the view of theAm
vernment, does -not affect the.
atus of international law: as
ween the. United States and the b
The American attitude has oai
een changed materially as a resi.
E explanations in the exchange. -'
otes with Great Britain and Rran
fter inquiring what would. be.
sposition qf various kinds of ship
Lents the American government-ask:
: "upon what principles of inte
onal law would it rest?''
"And upon what rule if -no boi
de is maintained and declarpd,&k
ntinued, "could the cargo of a,.,
al ship sailing out of a Germandir
e condemned? If It is not-ed
emned, 'what other legal coursli
tere but to release it?"
Great Britain's answer has ndict
d that the cargoes diverted Inti
ritish ports and owned by neutn
e restored to their owners, butth
rill not affect the insistence. ofth
nited States on the legal 'rightsdi
s subjects to ship cargoes of a n'o
ontraband character .to andfrm
eutral countries without interru.i
ton and regardless of their d d
During the civil war -the
tates enforced a rigid blocae
te Southern waters by stopping<si
oes while plying between nf3
orts, but in th.e famous a
ases, finally ruled upon by.
ustice Chase, of the Supreme Cn
f the United States, the ruleb
lockade and continuous voyaged
hipments between Englandmi
exico were not held to- ext' N
oods of a non-contrabandch
State department officials, r
he case, pointed out that non-conti
and goods were released and-91
itted to be forwarded to their det
ation in the Confederate' Stae
hese cases have formed the re
ent for American practice ever-snc
he decisions were aecepted byGi$
ritain at the time as equiable>%
High officials said no commuin
ion to the allies had beenikH
raf ted. It was declared at thesk
.epartment that, although the .wor
'blockade" is used by Great Briin
a describing the object of her- ne
rueasures, the American. governme
onsiders that a blockade is a quet
ion of fact and requires eertaffagd
ance notifications to that.
rhich have not been given.
The order in council, it was point
d out, did not mention "blockade
or was any exact "radius ofac
y" given limiting the ares of o
ons, the announcement merely e
ning It to :"European watersis
luding the Mediterranean"-~
The belief of high officials Is t
reat Britain to continue her onati
d course would be obliged finallyM
dmit that there is no legal basis%
er action, and that it is solely af
aliatory measure resulting from12E
xigences of war. -
Highwaymen Shoot Agent.
Highwaymen operating along- tl
Vest Shore railroad near Hilgha
~alls, N. Y., held up one 'man, ro~bb
dm and cut his throat, entered'the
ailroad station Thursday, shot ane
:illed Omar Hotaling, the night tel
~raph operator, and escaped with
mall sum of money.
Shot. In Both Legs.
While trying to take a shote
rm her brother, who bad returnt
rom hunting Miss Eula Gallagher'e
ranitevillo was wcounded In 10
es by the dischaorge of the weap
rh wounds are serious.
Cotton Reaches Bremen.
The owners of the steamer i
anca, which left this county I
3remen loeded with cotton, haveg
eivd a cable report of her safO

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