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The Manning times. (Manning, Clarendon County, S.C.) 1884-current, April 07, 1915, Image 4

Image and text provided by University of South Carolina; Columbia, SC

Persistent link: http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn86063760/1915-04-07/ed-1/seq-4/

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New sabhnshmenta Have Sprung
and are Manufacturing Cotton I
mnikelme Powder for Use of En
pean Nations Now Warring M
Each Other.
By Richard Spillane, in Comme
and Finance.)
'An article on gun cotton, prin
I' Commerce .and Finance on J
vary 20, has been copied widely.
'.- told how smokeless powder is m
and gave the capacity of the pow
.--lants of America and Europe.
While everything that was sta
the article was correct at
ot its publication there has b
suh an extraordinary change in
-entnlon since then, and the cot
irad. Ia concerned so deeply In
chan'ge that the whole subject
Maumes'a new and much more imi
Ia ' ordinary years the pow
plants of America turn out 10,01
O0. pounds of smokeless pow(
means they use 20,000 bale!
Alaters or cotton. Their extreme
was 15,000,000 pounds or,
bales of cotton. So tremend
ebeen the demands of the. Et
sen governments for powder t
the Duspont establishment, the Is
%at in the United States, has exten
-plants so that to-day they hav
of- between 100,000,000 1
O,000,000 pounds a year. T
aa consumption of from 21
to 240,000 bales of cotton.
ut big as the Dupont establi
tR are, and rapidly as they h
=ixtended they -have not b
to keep up with the needs of
%Wrring nations. The high price
governments are willin
a'hasaled various persons to
-In the manufacture of pow(
i no secret process to
iof smokeless powder, and
idde from its :atte
-at aku constant danger-, is compi
ougply speaking,. one rund
makes -one pound c. - w4
bet cotton for- the powder z
Is the deHintered stuff 1
Tibased from .the seed after ,
cotton of commerce is ginm
horted the linters the better
der maker's purpose, for
-. Put -through a machine i
for eight hours by kn.
1il the fraigments are reduced
smaller than* three one-b
of an Inch. Then 'the i
tIs-eatewith nitric and i
- nedd until the liquid gets
the fibre.
nest treatment is to get
urglus acid for thin as is e
-ie it is formed like
of 5 tree and has a cover
Sathe'bark of a tree, into
or valler or which the i
Neart the cotton is mixed wit]
of-ether and alcohol. W
imergeso from. this treatment
naot look anpthing like cott
- lastic like clay. Its colo
largely, by the charam
tesurplus acid -out.
ow Knany Independent pha
spruhg' up- In the last
- atckdlfficnlt- t determ
are reporits of stch plants
ivmnia, Ohio, Illinols and e
SThe principal establishm4
the Dupot company are
N. 3., and at Kearnt
m.&DammOth one Is being eaWIkgtielb
&eshore of the James .river.
of the independent conce
w rder from the Russian i
-. for a-U the powder It
The first order was for
znds, buft tbssoon lias
-its present unlimited sci
-ompay thus far has been sI
athe rate of 100,000 pound
and expects to increase thec
nwplant whiich is to begin
soon has contracted witi
Yokcotton house to- suppl3
Cotiat the rate of 100 be
of 3000 Mles ayear. TI
aton comes from the lE
cotton exchange people who
the cotton.
Chicago, Ill., a new pow
2mbeen-established which
7~ad.has a capacity of 30,1
ard4ay, which means a c
of 60 balesa dny,
~9(powder -works in New E
are reported to have been
edand others are said to be
course of refitting for use.
all the people who say they ha
'oenfrom abroad for powder
hconsulted with powder exp<
'~r~gthe establishment of pla
akIn the business the prod
-ofAmericarwill be immer
33allowance must be given for
igealn'the talk of these E
1m~ bt there Is no getting away fr
:tefact that the plants of the sta
j~powder concerns have been
~'ad&amazingly and that such
de 4pendent companie~s as are in
;tatbth gross output of the D&p
.-wrsin ordinary times.
'3 tkwas-poInted out in the article
lasJanuary thxat the plants abri
~had .a capacity from 10 to 20 tir
Wrester -than those of the Uni
Maes, but all of the foreign pow
mot made of gun cotton. WJ
~Ksa, France and Germany dept
guoi!n cotton exclusively, Engla
~?rItaly, Sweden and Nors
..trinitrotolulol and pieric acid
~~tmaking of some powder.
~~lnd's production of pow
obby70 per cent. Is of gun<
Ao.OfsAustria's, Italy's, Swede
.Tand Norway's, the percentage Is fr
l o 70 of gun cotton. They wo
fa.gun :cotton exclusively if t]
emaUld not get trinitrotolulol.
, The American authority on pt
restimated the maximum capa<
ithe foreign plants at 300,000,(
:-usor 600,000 bales of lint4
Sif all the manufactories used
cotton exclusively, which, usua
New this interesting question p
i ects itself before us: If the
Smands of Europe for powder neces
tated the remarkable increase in<
powder-making industry, how bar
ly have the Europeans increased th
own production? Logically ti
would do their utmost to provide
their needs before turning to Aim
-ca for their supply. If they he
done so. It may explain In part a
our cotton exports are of so mi
greater volume than the vast majc
ty of the people in the cotton tre
expected. Few persons looked:
heavy exports. The textile. Indus
abroad was disorganized partly
such mill centres as Muihausen, R.
-bai, Lille, Lodz( etc., being wit:
the war zone; partly by operati,
being drawn into the armies: par
,by blockades on sea by hostile sh
and on land by movement of troo
and partly by the general derani
sment of .finance and trade. And
~.exports may approximate 7,50
#0 or 8,000,000 bales!
There Is-one powder man of pro
The Gambling Law and Liquor la
Were Especially Pointed Out f
the Mayor's Attention.
"Definite action must be taki
within a weak," Gov. Manning to
p Mayor Grace of Charlozton Mond
afternoon at a corference betwe
ato them. "I asked Mayor Grace," sa
the governor, "as head of the gc
ro- ernment of Charle:ston, to enfcree t
law. I specially mentioned the ga
bling law and the liquor la-7. I as
ed for enforcement :.nd not regul
tion. I pointed out to Mayor Gra
rce that as so much has been said a
written on the situation, and as
ted much time has already elapsed on;
an- count of his illness, since I had fi
It taken the matter up with him, ti
ide definite act'on must be taken witt
der a week; that the public is so well:,
formed on the situation that nothi
ted could be gained by further delay."
the The statement of the governor f
een lowed the publication in the local i
the ternoon newspaper of an intervil
ton with Mayor Grace, In which he w
the quoted as saying:
as- "Gov. Manning told me unequil
or- cally to enforce the law in Charl
ton. I took his order." Continui
der this Interview says: "Mayor Gra
),- was rather reticent In discussing t
ter. liquor situation in Charlestcn, sz
I of ing that everything apportaining
ca- the illegal sale of intoxicats h
o- 'een aired by every one on every
ous casion. He averred, however, ti
Lro- Charleston should be granted au
hat nomy, that the people of the c
. should be allowed to regulate th
led own affairs as to liquor selling im
e- a progressive way.
ind "The Charleston mayor is of 1
hat opinion that the State needs a n
)01- constitution, which will do away w
the -present cumbersome system
. legislation and allow progress
ave measures to be passed. He a
een thinks that Charleston needs a n
the city charter, but it can not be gra
the ed unless there is a change in t
to organic law of the State."
im- Mayor Grace reached Columi
er. Monday on the Carolina Special a
the went into conference with Gov. M
the ning at the executive offides, th
nd- talk lasting about an hour. At fl
.ra-. the -governor would have nothing
say for publicatiok, and it was z
of his intention to give out anythii
ter. but when he saw the statement
an. Mayor Grace in the local paper
hat dictated the interview in which
the said that- Mayor Grace had be
ed. given one week in which definite i
for tion must be taken.
the What he will do if the mayor fa
and to take definite action 'within I
ves specified time was not intimated
to .Gov. Manning.
all Shouts Encouragement to Her Ese
rid During Pistol Battle.
ach Miss Agnes Farmer, 18, was fo
the ed to act second for two young m
friends Saturday who fought a di
thd on the highway. Harvey Hurt, '
had Miss Farmer in a buggy on th
- a way home in the country. He n
enIra Scott, 24, coming to town on
ite load of cotton. The men had qui
Srelied over an affair. of no Interest
Miss .Farmer. When they met in I
read the row was resumed. The g
~tpleaded for peace, but the men wal
mied to fight. She stood up in t
buggy and told Hurt to fight for
Lits life. The men stepped off 20 f1
few and opened fire. During the di
-e 'Miss 'Farmers would call to Hurt
n be cool, aim straight- and fire quid
s each was wounded three times. Ha
nts was hit twice in the left should
at and once in the neck Scott was si
ay twice in tbe left lnng, and Is seri
t a Iy injured. Anoth~er shot broke I
ilt rit arm.
an Panama Mnliary Authorities Maki
in- - an Exhaustive Inquiry.
Lip- Military and canal authorities a
a a investigating a report that an e:1
ut- plane had been seen flying over t
Pedro Miguel and the Mirafi
oP- Gov. Goethals, of the Canal Zoi
andBrii Gn.Edwards,comn
of the military forces, both detail
-i men to make an exhaistive sear
ifor the machine, which is said
rhave been se and heard .over t
Slocks Thursday night. The air ci
is also reported to have flown o'v
dr Hill 15, which is heavily entrenche
, it and 'also located east 'of the Ped
)00 Miguel locks, of whose- defense
on- fom a part.
It Is known that a Bleriot machi
g- is owned on the Isthmus, but
re- whereabouts has not yet been asee
in tained.
ve smokeless powder Is being made 1
mnd day the powder mills of the wor
rt will consume a minimum of 1,20'
nts 000 bales of cotton. He says cott<
uc because the powder people are
t. such a hurry to get supplies-on whis
ex- to work that they can not wait f
o- linters. The European plants are t
om ing cotton and the contract for t:
d. American plant, which will requl
ex- 100 bales a day and to which reft
in. ence has been made, is for cotto
the not linters.
ont The truth of the matter probat
ithat this war Is such a gigantic
fair that-estimates relating to cott<
aIn connection with it can not be mal
esa according to ordinary standards
nreasoning. Never was powder us
trso lavishly as now. There are sa
to be 57 warships engaged In t
dIe bombaifdment of the Dardanell
mnd Thie big ones are burning up cott
d, at a monstrous rate. A 12-inch g'
uses 300 p~ounds of powder eve
time It is fired. It is theoretical
Of possible for a battleship to use frc
der 5,000 to 6,000 pounds of powder
t-minute or from 10 to 12 bales of cc
n's ton a minute in firing all Its guns.
om It would take a fair sized plant
uld tion to supply enough material f
icy the powder of the Queen Elizabe
alone. The fleet at Symrna has sh
. enough cotton at or Into the Tur
*ity to clothe an army corps, perha
~00 And what of the millions of men
'rs the rifle pits and those serving t
ohundreds of batteries from Oste:
'down to the Swiss border and frc
the Baltic to Bukowina?
ro- Rusa, England. Germany, Ti
dkey. France and Servia have bei
msiaking or buying all the powd
r they possibly could. Italy, GreeC
gRoumania and Bulgaria have bei
e piling up as large st ores of 'the gre
fer essetial, as possible. HolnSpai
or andual Sweden, Norway. Denma:
"~dSwitzerland have had to increa
ire their stocks of powder as a matter
ich And now the period is approac
~ing whien, according to Kitoee
detewar really begins.
or To the cotton trader the statisti
of supply and consumption are n
so dependable this year as ordinaril
If 1.200.000 bales or more of cott<
~o into powder they are not likely
appear in the mill figures.
9 Vote Down Bonds.
e- By a vote of nearly thirteen
et one, citizens of Anderson coun
0- Tuesday voted down, 168 votes,
2,230, a proposition authorizing ti
-Issuance of permanent road bonds
itethe sum of $'s50,000.
ld Prinz Eitel Frederick Has Choice of
an Flight or Internment-Battleship
v- Alabama on Hand to See That no
Unfair Advantage is Taken or Se
1' cured.
ce A dispatch from Newport News
id Monday says it is generally believed
so there that the German auxiliary
LC- cruiser Prinz Eitel Friedrich does not
st intend to intern.
at It is rumored that the delay of
in Commander Thierichens in making
n- a move is due to no unpreparedness
ag on the part of his vessel, but to the
failure of the United States govern
)I- ment to provide warships to protect
xf- the Eitel in territorial waters.
w Reports from WasLington say that
as Capt. Thierichens has asked the gov
ernment for protection from the al
o- lied ships while in neutral waters,
as- and that he has been assured that he
ag will not be molested while in the
ce three-mile limit outside the capes.
he Other than two torpedo boats and
-y- the submarine D-2, there are no war
to ships that could protect the Eitel
ad against any hostile move by the for
>c- eign vessels now reported lying in
at wait outside Cape- Henry. It is also
:0- believed that the arrival of the bat
ty tieship Alabama from Philadelphia
ir may be closely followed by the long
a expected dash of the German cruiser.
The guns at Fort Monroe can only
he protect the Eitel as far as the capes
,w and the Alabama will be used, it is
th said, in .convoying the German ship
of outside while she remains ii the
ve three-mile limit. Should she go to
so New York to intern as reported,
3w there -is a question as to whether or
it- not she can find enough water in the
he three-mile limit.
Not many more h'urs remain for
ia the German merchant raiding cruiser
nd Prinz Eitel Frederick to hold her
m- status in American refuge at New
ir port News.
rst Government officials remain silent
to as to the time given the vessel to
Lot make- repairs, but it is known the
g, time limit has almost expired, and
of Capt. Thierichens either must dazh
he soon for the open sea or submit to
he internment of his ship for the ie
en mainder of the European war.
Xe- Although the prevalent opinion in
official quarters at Washington has
ils been that the Prinz Eitel would in
he tern, the dispatch of the battleship
by Alabama to Hampton Roads on neu
trality duty has served to indicate
that navy department officials may
have reason to beliove the warship
will put to sea. Reports are current
that the German government has
given notice of such intention.
In view of the fact that British
and French warships are reported
re- outside the three-mile limit off the
en Virginia Capes, it is declared the
iel Washington authorities deem it es
3, sential to have means of enforcing
air neutrality within the7 waters of
tet American jurisdiction.
a While It is not believed that Brit
tr- ish or French ships would violate
to neutrality by coming inside the three
he mile limit to attack the Eitel Fred
ir erick as she left, it is said to have
it- been regarded as necessary for this
he -government to provide means to meet
1s any possible emergencies.
~et On leavirng Newport News tho Eltel
iel could remain in coastal waters within
to the three-mile limit, proceeding up
~k. or dcown the coast, until twenty-four
Lrt hours after reCeipt o-f notice from
er the American government to depart.
ot To see that neutrality regulations are
s- not violated in this regard is advanc
is ed as one of the reasons for the send
ing of the Alabama to Hampton
For some reason unusual activity
has been displayed by the United
aStates navy around Newport News,
Va. The German merchant cruiser,
the Prinz Eitel Fredick Is still tied
up at a pier, but her officers say she
no will leave some time.
'o Fortress Monroe ud Fort Wool,
fi In the centre of Hampton Roads, Fri
as day night exhibited unusual activity.
All the troops stationed at the forts
e, were ordered to the barracks and the
en big gun crews and mine companies
ed were sent to their stations. At 9:30
h o'clock the engines around the guns
to were started and the searchlights . t
ie both forts were in operation.
ft Subsequently it i as discovered
en that one United States submarine and
d, three destroyers had arrived in the
ro Roads and drappeu anchor between
it the two forts.
Col. Ira F. Haynes, commandant of
ie Fortress Monroe, went to the Ports
ts mouth navy yard, it was said, and
r- the acting adjutant in charge said
that he could make no statement con
- cerning the unusual stir at the forts.
o- The searchlights ere constantly play
Id ed over Hampton Roads and Chesa
- peake Bay out toward the Capes.
mn The Prinz Eitel Frederick was still
in tied up alongside a pier at the ship
:h yard, and has made no move as if to
or leave. The lieutenant in charge said
s- the cruiser would not leave Friday
ie night, but "some other night." Smoke
re was seen rising from the funa el and
r- it was e.vident that fire was up in at
n, least one boiler.
The battleship Alabama, of the re
ly serve fleet, was ordered to Hampton
f- Roads Saturday night on "neutrality
mn duty,'' according to an announcement
le from the navy department. The bat
of tieship is at the PhIladelphia yard.
ad Secretary Daniels said it was In
Id tended to place one large vessel on
lie guard to support the submarines and
~s. destroyers, which have been on duty
m since the German cruiser Prinz Eitel
in F'redenick reached Newport News.
ry 1-Ieavy ships had been employed in
ly neutrality duty at Boston and New
m York, the secretary said, and it was
a thought best to take similar precau
it- tions at Hamptor. Roads, as the
smaller vessels would be handicapped
a- in the event of heavy weather.
or The Alabama is the flagship of
th Rear Admiral James M. Helm, comn
ot mander-in-chief o1 the Atlantic re
kserve fleet. Secretary Daniels said
>s Admiral Helm would decide whether
in he would accompany his ship.
le There were unconfirmed reports
id that Commander Thierichens, of the
m Prinz Eitel, had made inquiry of the
Washington government as to what
r- protection he might expect within the
in three-mile limit should he decide to
er attempt to run the gauntlet of enemy
e- warships said to be awaiting him.
3n Capt. Thierichens was said to have
at taken the position that his vessel was
't. entitled to prctection from any mo
yk lestation while. in the territorial
se waters of the United States, and in
o tha't view it was understood govern
ment officials concurred.
i- A dispatch from Washington says
r. the German commerce destroyer
Prinz Eitel Frederick will be intern
e ed at Newport News by order of the
Ot Washington government within a few
y days, according to opinions expressed
n in official quarters. No one in au
:0 thority, however, would discuss the
ship's status.
There was little doubt that a time
limit for the making of repairs to the
o0 Eitel had been set by the govern
vy ment and that the limit is close to
o expiration. When the period grantedl
eexpires. Commander Thierichens, of
n the. Eitel, will be formally notified
+e thah must either put to sea withn
24 hours or his ship and crew will bi
interned for the war.
The German captain could appea
for time to make further repairs, bu
this would be granted, it is thought
only on a new and unexpected show
ing as to the unseaworthiness of hi
It appears to be the general opim
ion that Commander Thierichen
would not ask that his ship be im
terned, but would wait out his tim
limit and compel the government t
act. Officialsv recalled the statemex
of Capt. -Kiehide of the American shi
William P. Frye, sunk by the Eite
who declared when he reached shor
from the cruiser that she would nc
put to sea again during the war. H
refused to say on what he based hi
prediction, but officials believe hi
long association with the Eitel's o:
ficers qua'ified him to speak wit
some authority.
It was suggested to officials thg
the presence of numerous Britis
horse transports at Newport Neu
might serve to delay the departure c
the 1Eitel should her commander d(
termine to attempt a dash to sea pa,
the patrol of warships said to t
maintained by the allies beyond th
three-mile limit. Under neutralit
laws no belligerent warship such e
the Eitel may leave port within 2
hours after the departure of an enL
my merchant craft.
By sailing in and out of the ha:
bor at frequent intervals the Britis
merchant skippers could delay ti
Eitel's dash if they so desired.
was thought, however, that no suc
manoeuvre would be attempted as tl
conclusion was general the Eit
would not put to sea and the alli
were not desirous of delaying tl
time of her internment.
Secretary Daniels and Acting Sei
retary Breckinridge of the war di
partment conferred regarding ti
measures to carry out neutrality lav
in the case of the Eitel. Mr. Brec
inridge said no orders had yet beE
given to the post commander. He di
clared that even in case of a nav.
battle within the three-mile limi
should the $itel make the dash, thei
would be no firing from forts withoi
express orders from Washington.
U. S. Department~of Agriculture Tel
What They Mean.
The meanings of various cottc
terms, according to the United Stati
Department of Agriculture:
Gin-Cut Cotton-Gin-cut cotton
cotton tha:. shows damage in ginnini
through cutting of the saws, to an e
tent that reduces its value more tha
two grades, said grades being of ti
official standards of the United State
Gin-cutting of a less extent than th:
mentioned above which reduces tl
cotton belowsthe value of a Good 0
dinary would render the cotton ul
tenderable though the extent of i
jury weie less than that described,
the fifth subdivision - of section
states. specifically that cotton tI
value of which is reduced below thi
of Good Ordinary shall not be d
livered on, under, or in settlement 4
a contract.
Reginned Cotton-Reginned cottc
is such as has passed through ti
ginning process more than once, all
such cotton as after having been g~i
ned is subjected to a cleaning pi
cess and then baled.
Repacked Cotton-Repacked co
ton will be deemed to mean factor.
brokers', and all other samples; ail
"loose" or miscellaneous lots collec
ed together and rebaled.
False Packed Cotton--Cotton bal<
will be deemed false packed whe:
ever containing substances entire:
foreign to cotton, or containing dat
aged cotton in the interior with <
without any indication of such dat
age upon the exterior; also whe
plated (that is, composed of goC
cotton upon the exterior and decide'
ly inferior cotton .in the interior)i
a manner not to be detected by cu
tomary examination; also when co:
taning pickings or linters woraced n
to them.
Mixed Packed Cotton-Mixed pac1
ed cotton shall be deemed to met
such bales as show a difference <
more than two grades between sat
ples drawn from the heads, top an
bottom sides of the bale, or wht
such samples show a difference
color exceeding two grades in valu
said grades being of the official co
ton standards of the United States.
Water Packed Cotton--Watt
packed cotton shall be deemed 1
mean such bales as have been pent
trated by water during the balim
process, causing damage to the fibe
or bales that through exposure to ti
weather or by other means, while a:
parently dry on the extericr, has
been damaged by water in the i:
Cotton of Perished Staple--Cottc
of perished staple is such as has ha
the strength of fiber as ordinari.
found in cotton destroyed or undu]
reduced through exposure, either 1
the weathe'r before picking or afts
baling, or to heating by fire, or o
account of water packing, or throug
other causes.
Cotton of Immature Staple-Co
ton of immature staple is such as ha
'asen picked and baled before tI
fiber has reached a normal state<
maturity, resulting in a weakene
staple of inferior value.
Cotton of Seven-eighths Inch Sta
ple-After investigation it is like]
that a standard for cotton sevex
eighths of an inch in length of stapJ
will' be issued. In the meantime, th
ainers authorized to hear dispute
will pull the cotton so that the end
will be squared off fairly well witi
out unduly reducing the bulk of th
drawn sample. When the measurei
applied a fair quantily of the cotto
must remain in order to show thx
the sample has not been pulled to
fine before measuring. When thu
pulled and measured as cotton ex
perts are accustomed to do its fai
average length shall be not less tha
seven-eighths of an inch, in orde
that the cotton be tenderable under
contract made in compliance wit
sec 5 of the act.
Non-Explosive Movie Film.
What is stated to be a completel
satisfactory, non-iflammable motiot
picture film has recently been prc
duced by a French company, but o:
account of European conditions iti
not availabe in sufficiently larg
quantities for general use in thi
country at present. Its basic con:
position is acetate of cellulose, whic
is not explosive, is difficult to ignitE
and burns only when held in a flamE
The principal constituent of ordinar:
films is nitrate of ceilulose, whichi
highly explosive and readily burst
into flame when subject to high de
grees of heat.--From the March Pop
ular Mechanics Magazir.
Saw Three Submarines.
Three German submarines wer<
sighted off the Hook of Holland b:
the Holland-American liner Potsdam
which arrived at New York Thursday
They followed the Potsdam for
short distance without attempting t<
stop her, then branched off in differ
ent directions.
Over Five Thousand Lost.
Since the beginning of the war the
British army on the continent has los
1503 officers killed and 2,833 wound
ed while 705 have been reportet
American Guns for Russia.
Eighteen long-range guns of Amer
ican make are at Vancouver, B. C.
awaiting shipment to Russia. A1
s The United States Claims Neutral's
e Right to Carry on Trade With Neu
D trals.
' The reply of the United States gov
ernment to the British order in coun
e cil decreeing a virtual blockade
t against commerce to and from Ger
e many, was cabled to Ambassador
s Page at London Tuesday night for
s presentation to the British foreign
As soon as the communication has
been delivered, it will be made public
in this country and in London. Mean
while officials decline to intimate
s what its contents are.
Beyond the fact that the United I
States stands firmly for its right to
carry on legitimate trade with neu
e tral countries, even though they be
e contiguous to belligerents, little is
y known of the administration's posi
.s tion in view of developments since
4 the last note was dispatched inquir- i
ing how Great Britain and her allies
intend to enforce their prohibition
- against trade of "enemy origin, own
h ership or destination."
e Officials have pointed out, how- 3
t ever, that the Ameritan government
wanted more definite information as
e to the radius of action of the allies'
blockading fleets, and that the ques
s tion of whether the order-in-council
e was to be enforced under interna
tional law governing blockades or
under the rules of contraband, had
not been answered.
e Diplomats of other neutral coun
s tries have displayed great interest in
6 the note. Several were among See
n retary Bryan's callers. Since efforts
to bring about joint representations
Ll regarding the rights of neutrals on
t, the high beas failed, it is understood
'e that the Latin-American republics are
it anxious to move along lines set by
the United States to establish their
record, which will form the basis of
claims for damages suffered by their
citizens through the activities of the
Is allied fleets.
It was said at the state depart
ment that the usual practice of await
n ing judgment by prinze court was fol
s lowed in the case of the cargo the
American steamer Antilla, seized last
is month. The records show that the
V steamer carried lard and machinery,
' both of which . have been declared
n contraband by Great Britain.. As to
e the ship herself, no reason for her
. detention, now that the cargo has
Lit been discharged, is known, and de
Le partment officials expect her to be re
c.- leased soon.
5 Office of Pablic Roads Issues Bulletin
Lt on Radiating Roads.
A bulletin issued by the Office of
Public Roads of the United States De
n partment of Agriculture contains a
e map of Dallas county, Ala., as illus
o trating the intelligent handling of the
problem of road improvement so as
to benefit the largest number of far
t- The map shows five Improved roads
centering at Selma. One of these
o branches a short distance from town
t- making six radiating roads. Only
two relatively unimportant roads
s leading out from Selma are unim
i- proved. The total length of improv
y ed roads ini the county is 19? miles.
i- While this is only 19 per cent. of the
r total road mileage, as a result of the
- policy of improving part of the mile
n age of each important road leading
d out from their principal market town
I- and shipping point, the farmers in
n nearly every part of the-county have
s- an improved road for at least part of
a- their haul to market. As was point
a- ed out by President Harrison of
Southern Railway company, in his
i- address before the American Road
n Congress at Atlanta, the farmer
t should be given first consideration in
- the selection of country roads to be
d improved and the greatest possible
n number of farmers will be benefitted
n by a system of radiating roads such
, as has been adopted in Dallas Coun
t- ty.
"President Visits Argentine Battle
r', ship as Guest of Honor.
-. President Wilson, accompanied by
e Secretary Daniels and party of aides,
- arrived at Annapolis, Md., shortly
after noon Monday on the Mayflower
n and went aboard the new Argentine
d gattleship Moreno, as the guest at
y luncheon of the Argentine ambassa
y dor, Dr. Naon..
o As the Mayflower neared the Mo
r rena the entire crew of the Argentine
a battleship came to the ail and ship's
h band played "The Star Spangled
Banner.'' At the last strains Presi
dent Wilson's flag was run up and
s the Moreno fired a presidentials
e lute of 21 guns. Little difficulty wil
experienced in transferring the presi
d dent's party from the Mayflower to
the Moreno. The president was greet
-ed at the rail by Ambassador Naon,
y Rear Admiral Martin, president of
-the Argentine naval commission, and
e Commission and Capt. Galindez, of
e the battleship. The luncheon was an
s elaborate one and the entire battle
s ship had been made spick and span
-for the occasion.
s .Oen-Going Lumber Rafts.
aSeveral times each year during the
t shipping season, ocean-going log
rafts as large as some of the greatest
sintercontinenta liners are towed
down the Pacific coast from the lum
r ber camps of Oregon into the harbors<
at San Francisco and San Diego. This
r is the way certain lumber interests ot
the Nodthwest are solving the prob
lem of transportation of rawv timber;
for in contrast to a charge amntunting
to $10 per thousand board feet,1
which was made a few yearns ago1
for shipment by rail, the cost by this
medium is reduced to $1. It does
- not only mean lower prices and an
immense saving .to the consumers, t
but it also enables low grades of
a material, which otherwise would rep-t
resent a loss, to be placed on the 1
- market profitably.
S"In the .last few years 29 of these 1
-titanic log barges have been success- 1
-fully floated to San Diego," says the
March Popular Mechanics Magazine
in an iklustrated article. "In no
a case, so far as is known, has any seri
- ous trouble been experienced, and in
- most cases not even a log has been
lost, despite the fact that the average
length of these rafts is about 700
feet, the thickness approximately 30
feet, and the breadth amidships 55
feet. Between 4,000,000 and 5,000,
,000 board feet of timber is contain
.ed in each one." T'
>Turks Assure Protection.
-Assurances that protection would
e given to the entire population of
Urmiah, Persia. where attacks on
Americans and other foreigners and "
on native christians have been re
.ported, has been given Ambassador u
-Morgenthau at Constantinople by r
Hawser Breaks Again h
Efforts to raise the sunken subma- a
rine F-4 off Honolulu harbor were o
temporarily suspended Tuesday after If
a hawser with which the boat was p
bein Adrae toard shoe snapped.
Righting on the Dardanelles Forts th
Resumed by Allied Fleetr-Germans pa
Claim Successes Wednesday-Brit- of
ish Vessel Sunk-French Ram Ger- W
man Submarine. so
After a brief lull in the fight for a
possession of Dukla pass in the Car- E,
athians, the Russians brought up re- tr
nfcreements and resumed the attack N
Wednesday. At Vienna it is said the ni
Russians have not been able to gain of
.hleir objective at any point along the th
'arpathian front for the invasion of vi
Frungary, and that they were defeated tl
it. Lukowina. Dispatches to Swiss
Lewspapers, however, say the Aus- 01
trians have suffered enormous losses Ti
n. northeastern Hungary. It is esti- N
ated that they lost 18,000 men on tr
fionday and the Russians are credited
with annihilating a column of 4,000 at
ustrians in an hour. ul
The increasing pressure of the Rus- P1
-ians on this front, together with the w
fall of Przemysl, may have an in- e
fuence on the operations in the west. ec
rhe report is being spread in Holland aI
that the Germans are-contemplating I ti:
the abandonment of their present line 31
in Belgium in favor of a less extended ec
front running slightly west of Brus- C
;elg, and that withdrawal of German tb
cavalry from the Yser line already
has begun. fr
London reports Wednesday say the rc
battle of the Carpathians now rivals G
the bombardment of the Dardanelles
in rolitical possibilities. German ex- g
perts assert that Russia's efforts are t
of such vital importance politically N
that the supreme command of the hi
Teutonic allies is justified-in exerting i
every effort to check the invader t
there. A sudden and dramatic influx
of Muscovite hosts into Hungary g1
might, it is argued, stir the Balkan U
nations to quick action. ti
German reports also attach great 0
importance to this struggle. Major f
Moraht, the military expert, in a dis- f
patch from Austrian headquarters to d4
the Berlin Tageblatt, attaches great P
importance to the present fighting in 8
the Carpathians. Major Moraht says: b
"Without going so far as to consid- t
er that the result of the entire war, t
on even the eastern campaign, de
pends on the issue of this battle, nev- h
ertheless victory here indubitably will F
exercise a strong effect on the entire s
situation. Nor can we completely ZI
exclude the possibility that the politi- d
cal situation may be affected in one
way or another. Russia, in any case, 9
had political reasons in choosing pre- s
cisely this ground for a *decisive bat- tl
tIe. This is the view of intelligent U
Hungarians and also of the Vienna a
press. The supreme army command g
has grounds enough for employing all t
disposable forces fo avert a Russiaa
irruption into the Hungarian plain." C
The fighting the Dardanelles has b
been slack. Petrograd has officially. c
warned the Russian people not to ex-f
pect an early capitulation of Constan- D'
tinople. There are no signs, how- ~
ever, that the allied fleet has given up
the attack, as battleships again are ri
shelling the outer defenses. The et
Russian assault on the Bosphorus has
been interrupted by a thick fog..
From London Wednesday comes
the news of a Reuters dispatch re- A
celved from Constantinople by ways
of Berlin says the allied fleet has re
sumed its bombardment of villages
near the outer forts of the Darda
nelles. Turkish aviators are making a:
daily reconnaissances..g
In the western area little was W
transacted. The -Berlin office's an- tc
nouncement Wednesday says: - s
"West of Pont-a-Moussen French el
attacks near and east of Regnieville tc
and in the forest of Le Petree were
repulsed. The enemy sustained heavy s~
losses, and at only one place to the 1s
west of Forest of Le Petre in the en- el
gagement still continuing. am
"Hostile aviators yesterday threw It
bombs on the Belgium towns of m~
Bruges, Ghistelles and Courtral with- tz
out doing any damage to military es- di
tablishments. In Courtral, near a pl
hospital, one Belgian was killed and pl
one wounded.
"On the Russian frontier in the Is
district north of .Memel tire banks of em
the river were cleared of the enemy. km
The Russians were defeated near w
Turoggen an'd retreated in the direc- m
tion of Szkaudrwly. . W
"Russian forces- which during the
last few days advanced north of the di
Augustowo forest against the Ger-| T]
man position were repulsed by Ger-| ri
mans who advanced into the forest, ni
lake district near Sejiny. The num-|f
ber of Russians taken prisoner In the em0
engagement near Krasnopol and to: fl
the north and east was Increased by
500. Near Klimki, on the Skwa, 2002
more Russians were captured."
The French report Wednesday was
exceedingly brief. It merely said: I
"No modification of the situation has
been reported since the last commu
A British ship was sunk by a sub- ca
marine Wednesday. The Ellerman be
ine steamer Flaminlan, with a gen- m
eral cargo, from Glasgow to Cape ca
rownfi was sunk off the Sicily isles tr:
Monday, March 29. by the German we
submarine U-28. The crew of 39 ar
took to their boats and were picked
ap by the Danish steamer Finlandia in
md landed at Haly Head. bc
Then Flaminlan sighted the UT-28 at M
1:15 Monday afternoon. While the sh
:rew prepared to lower the boats, the of
ressels was sent ahead full speed. ""
[he-submarine easily overhauled her, ax
iowever, and fired three shots, sig- fo
aling her to stop. The Flaminlan se
;topped and the crew abandoning all ax
'ersonal belonsings, got off in small ci
oats. The submarine then fired 10 so
hots at the steamer. These appear
d ineffective, so a torpedo was dis- flu
hared. That sent the Flaminlan to th
he bottom. to
The French claim a success against
he German submarines. A statement ca
y the ministry of marine Wednesday th
*ays that Tuesday afternoon a French
ight cruiser sighted a German sub- pe
narine manoeuvering on the surface Tc
ff Diepne. The cruiser immediately an
:ave chase, forcing the submarine to tai
ive. firing meanwhile at the pern
cone and turning In order to ram It inm
vith the bow. wi
The cruiser passed above the sub- sic
narine at the moment the periscope
sappeared, and from the snot where Iof
he submarine was last seen quanti- sh
is of oil floated on the surface. lem
From Germany comes reports of a fo:
iore extensive submarine campaign,
a the shape of a leture, in which ofD
faxiillan Harden, editor of Die Zu- tre
unft, predicts a further extension of o
'ermany's submarine activities.ta
"As soon as we extend the radipus o
f action of our bigger submarines." we
fer Harden is ouoted. "they will be ed
sed for the wholesale laying of
ines. Then England will find her
astery of the sea will be at an end. ma
"In every resnect Germany can
ae confidence after eight months of
tremendous struggle. Even If some ]
f th present neutrals .ioin the allies fro
will make no difference to the real wit
roportions of the conflict." bal
other Battle Is Brewing at Lam
pazos, Southeast of Uuevo Laredo,
Where Troops are Going.
While Villa forces are delaying
Dir attack on Matamoras pending
D arrival of artillery, the stage is I
ing set for another battle at Lam
zos, about seventy miles southwest
Nuevo Laredo.
Border advices to the state and
Lr departments said the Villa forces
und to attack the Carranza garri
as at Nuevo Laredo were expected
reach Lampazos Tuesday, "where
battle probably will be fought."
rlier messages said Carranza
)ops were being assembled at
ievo Laredo. The garrison will
tmber 1,200 and presumably a part
the force will be sent out along
e National Railway to meet the
lla troops at Lampazos, if the bat
Is not already in progress.
Should more troops be necessary
the American side at Laredo,
,xas, in the event of an attack on
ievo Laredo, a regiment of infan
r is in readiness at Texas City.
The situation at Matamoras and
Brownsville, across the border, was
Lchanged. The Villa troops, re
ilsed Saturday in their first attack..
re encamped five miles -from the
by, the stAte department was advis
, expecting to renew the assault on
rival of ther artillery. Latest es
nates of the losses Saturday said
0 Villa troops were killed and an
*ual number wounded, while the
Lrranza garrison had ten killed and
irty-eight wounded.
On the American side a dozen gunw
om the third 'field artillery are
ady for an emergency. Secretary
trrison said-the instructions sent to
mn. Funston were similar to those
ven when bullets and shells fell on
e American side during fighting at
xco. The secretary refused to say.
>wever, whether ord'ers had been
ven to return to the fire if the same -
ing happened at Brownsville.
The state department had but mea
r advices from Mexico City, Secre
ry Bryan characterizing the situa
n as "uncertain, but with no dis
ders." No report tending to con-.
-m. statements that the Zapata
rces were again preparing to aban
n the capital had reached the de
irtment. The food situation is again
=mewhat critical, Mr. Bryan said
it Gen. Garza had given assurances
tat something will be done to meet
Le emergency.
Reports from the border that Villa
id demanded of Zapata that Gen.
elipe Angeles be installed as rovi
onal president in place of Gen. Gar
6 lacked confirmation at the -state
apartment, or at the Villa agency.
Some officials were Inclined to
-edit the reported action of Villa.
ying that he probably considered
.at Gen. Garza was coming too
uch under the control of Zapata
id his advisers, and that Gen. An
ales could dominate the situation in
te capital.
No foreigners have yet left Mexico
[ty, Secretary Bryan said, although
)th the Carranza and Zapata offi
als have promised to afford 'ther
cilities to reach Vera Cruz. A re
>rt from the latter place said El
atrera sugar plantation, sixty miles
om Vera Cruz, had been looted by a
bel band and the manager had ask
for a military guard.
ustria and Italy Have Had no
Direct Interchanges.
Contrary to stories in the French
id the British press, Austria-Hun
try opened no direct negotiations
ith Italy concerning nossible terrn
rial concessions. From the highest
urces~ at Rome it Is affirmed tha
erything done in this line was due
Germany's Initiative..
The action of the German ambas
dor to Italy, Prince von Buelow, it
said, was animated by a desire to
iminate the causes of the ancient
tagonism between Austria and.
ly, but even the work of the for
er mperial chancellor of Germany
this direction was cautious, so that
~cided statements wh'ch have ap
~ared In one sense or the other were
This, prominent Italians point out.
why Italy vigorously continues her
tensive military preparations, not
owing what the future may bring
hen, next day, according- to the
ost reliable opinions, the European
in will take a definite turn.*
The council of minist'ers did not
scuss the International situation.
ie ministers considered proposed
les to prohibit the publication o!
tws of a military character, a plan
r a partial reopening of the stock
change and measures for -The bene
of the unemrployed.
ilns to Allow All American Car
goes to be Exported.
As a result of the efforts of Amern
a Ambassador Page, Instructions
.ve been issued from the foreign
inistry at Rome to allow all Amern
n cotton bilh~d through this coun
r to be exported. Difficulties In the
ty c-f moving the commodity now
e due to congestion.
There are 158 shIps at Genoa wait.
g to unload, while outside the har
r 116 vessels are waiting to enter.
athods employed In unloading the
ips prevent more than 3,000 bales
cotton entering the port daily.
attack upon the port of Liban, as
llows: "On Sunday a German yes
lapproached Liban (on the Baltic)
d fired 200 projectIles, killirng one
ilian and wounding another. No
diers were injured."1
The French report of Tuesday's
hting Is as follows:t
a enemy continued, wIthout results.
bombard th~e Nieuport bridges. I
"There has, been an intermittent
:onade on the entire front from
a sea to the Aisne.
"In Champagne, in the region of
rthes, Beausejor "nd Ville-Sur
urbe, there was an artillery action
d mine warfare, In which we ob- C
ned the advantage.4
"In the Argonne determined fight
continues at several points, but
Lhout appreciable results to either
"On Monday Fort Donamont, north t
Verdun, was struck by German 9
alls. Our artillery immediately si- r
ed the German batteries. The D
t was not damaged.
In the western part of the forest c
Le Pretre we carried a line of P
nhes, in which we took 100 pris. e
re. Despite a violent counter-at- d
k, we maintained the greater part '
the trenches won. c
'To the west of Pont-a-Mousson d
carried a German post and repuls- a
three counter-attacks. b
'On the battlefield at Harteqmanns- e'
:lerkorpf the bodies of 700 Ger- P
n have been counted."
Five Steamers Sail for Europe.
rive steamships Tuesday cleared 12
m Galveston for European ports C
h aggregate cargoes of 27,000 1
es of cotton and 722,800 bushels d
teporta That Merchantmen Have
Been Supplying Allied Warships
With Coal Are Denied-Need of
Battleship Protection is Now Ev.
Enforcement of neutrality of the
Jnited States in the port of Norfolk
nd Newport News, was the subject
>f a protracted conference at the Nor
olk navy yard late Tuesday follow
ng the arrival in Hampton Roads of
he battleship Alabama, which took
, commanding position in the chan
tel to the sea, and remained there,
aking on ammunition and supplies.
Participating in the conference
were Rear Admiral Beatty, com
nander of the Norfolk navy yard,
:lear Admiral Helm, commander of
he reservd Atlantic fleet, who arriv
,d on the Alabama, and Norman R.
4amilton, collector of customs for
:he port. -
Whild the" conference at the navy'
rard was in progress Capt. Max
rhierichens, commander of the Ger
nan converted cruiser Prinz Eitel
Friedrich, still in dock at Newport
gews, was closeted with customi offf
:ials in the- Newport News cme.. At
the conclusion of the conference at
,he Norfolk navy yard, government
:fficials refused to discuss matters
with which it dealt.
Primarily, it was learned, the Ala
bama came to Hampton Roads to
guard the neutrality interests of the
United States between a German
man-of-war within an American port
and asfleei of warships of the Euro
pean allies, which is reported hover-.
ing off the Virginia Capes. That the
situation thus presented demanded
the presence of an Amei:an warship
was generally admitted.
Reports that allied warships which
have been off the capes since the Ger
man commerce ~raider arrived at
Newport Neivs and ventured within
the three-mile limit and that mer
chant ships had furnished them with
supplies had been circulated at New
port News for several- days before the
sending of the Alabama. As to mer
chant ships, it was said that they
had taken deckloads of- coal after
filling their bunkers and taking on
other cargo.
"I have investigated thoroughly
one case in which--a merchant ship
was reported to have taken coil to a
foreign warship off the capes and
found it not true," said Collector
Hamilton. "This ship may have de
livered to vessels. at sea coal which
she took on board at some English
port, later arrived at Newport News
and departed with a full cargo of
grain. She took from here 300 tons
of ooal, merely-enough for ship's use.
iportion of this may have been plac
ed on -her decks, this for the reason
only, however, that the ship desired
all space for cargo purposes."
Henry B. Holmes, agient of British.
shipping Interests, declared that he
had absolute knowledge that no mer
chant ship had taken fusi or supplies
to any of the warships. Taking deck
loads of coal, Mr. Holmes said, was
necessary on account of extra heavy
cargoes carried for foreign ports.
Commander Thierichens would not
talk about his visit to the customs
officials. He returned late in tlh
afternoon to the Eitel Friedrich,.
which is still moored to her dock in
the shipyards. In official quarters
the opinion still prevaIs that the
German riider -will'ferce the United
States government to intern-eher, but
there are many who have a;ssociated
with officers and men of the ship who
say that she will put to sea and take
a chance on escap,lng the blockade of
the illies when served with notice to
Allied merchant ships continue to
depart from this 'nort almost daily.
One which cleared Tuesday was the
Belgian steamer Iris. In this con
nection officials pointed out that the
successive departure of merchant
ships of enemy belligerents could not
indefinitely postpone departure of the.
Prinz Eitel after be.ng served with
notice that time for ' repairing in
American waters had expired.
They pointed to a clause, which
after stating that a belligerent war
ship can not leave a neutral port, for
:wenty-four hours after departure of
:h6 merchant ship of an enemy, says:
'No ship of war o. )rivateer of a bel-1
igerent shall be detained in any port,
barbor, roadstead or waters of the
Lnted States more than twenty-four
aours by reason of the successive de
partures from such port, harbor,
roadstead -or waters of the United
tates of more than one vessel of an
)pposinlg belligerent."
Authorities are stolidly silent as to
:ircumstances which actuated the
government in sending a warship to
Newport News, but that that, purpose
van not to protect the Prinz Eltel
~riedrich within the three-mile limit
f- the American coast, as had been
uggested, now seems apparent. The.
1erman sea raider, in all probability,
sill be interned in this port before
nany days, although persons who
iave talked with officers of the Eitel
leclare they- are ready to brave the
langers of a dash for liberty.
Just when the government has do
ermined that time expires for the
~itel to make repairs still remains a
nystery. When that time arrives,
lowever, opinion is prevalent that
ter ensign will t'e hauled down, her
;uns dismantled and ship And crew
nterned under terms of The Hague
:onvention governing noutral nations
n naval warfare.
Capt. Thierichens, commander of
he German raider, it is insisted, had
toped to have his ship taken to New
cork within the three-mile limit of
he American coast before time for
nternment arrived. Overtures had
leen made to Washington authorities
n this regard and protection against
rarships of the allies lurking off the
oast had been asked. Marine
uthorities, however, 'nformed the
ierman commander that it would be
aipossible to get his ship around the
apes within the three-mile limit and
hat it also would be necessary to go
eyond the three-mile limit and that
:also would be necessary to go be
ond the three-mile limit off the New
ersey coast. Outside this limit au
hority of the United States to give
rotection doec not extend,- and the
lan of the German commander ap
arently has been abandoned.
Marine men assert, however, that
ne reason for the Alabama at that
ort is to see to it that British mer
hant ships which leave almost daily,
o not violate neutrality by carrying
iel to the allied warships off the
apes.. Scores of men at the docks
eclare that British merchant ships,
ter taking cargo and coaling their
unkers. have taken on deck loads of
a1, such as would not be contem
ated for an oversea voyage.
Sails With Cotton.
The American steamer City of
emphis sailed from Wilmington, N.
,Tuesday, carrying approximately
)000 bales o~f cotton for Rotter
ti. Her cargo is valued at $600,

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