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VOL. XXXVIII MANNING, S. C., WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 20. 1918.
RUSSIA YIELDS PART OF TERRITORY AND WILL PAY INDEMNITY TO GERMANY BOLSHEVIKI LAY DOWN ARMS AGAINST GERMANY DECLARE COUNTRY HELPLESS Allies Are Not Surprised at Russian Action in Accepting Degrading Terms of Peace-Releases 11ahy German Troops for Western Front. London, Feb. 19.-Defiant, even in surrender, Lenine and Trotzky have officially declared that they are now forced to sign a German peace which they denounce in the bitterest terms, because its conditions include: 1. Virtual annexation to Germany of Poland, Courland, Lithania and parts of Euvonia and Livonia, under the guise of "independent states." 2. The retention of the Mood islands, which means control-economic and strategic-of the Gulf of Riga and practical domination of the entire Baltic sea. (Riga to remain a German city as per number one, since it is the capital of Livonia.) 3. An indemnity of $4,000,000,000 to be paid, it is presumed in the form of food and raw materials: Preceding and following a Petro grad dispatch roughly outlining the above facts, there came from the Rus sian sapital a steady stream of widely contradictory dispatches; some of them were dated as far back as ten (lays ago. Out of the jumble of unconfirmed reports contained in those filed within the last 8-hours two were "important if true." 1. The bolsheviki regime was said to have been overthrown by the so cial revolutionists. Tchernoff, who was chosen president of the recent short-lived constituent assembly over his bolshevist ;pponent, was said to have taken the reins of the govern ment in hand as premier. 2. Lenien and Trotzky were said to be fleeing, to Riga, one report had it; "anywhere inside the German lines" said another. Up to late this evening the official announcement of the bolsheviki will ingness to sign, under pressure, the extortionist German terms, seemed to stand authentic and superseding all other dispatches. Germans Take Cities The pressure to which the bolshevi ki were finally forced to yield was manifold. First and foremost was the resumption by the Germans of the in vasion. Dvinsk, the great strategic stronghold on the Dwin, 140 miles to the southeast of Riga, fell to one Ger man army without a cannon shot a few hours after the campaign had been resumed. Dwinsk had defied the invaders ever since Sptember, 1915. Thy crossed the Dwina early today by a bridge the Russians had planned, but failed to destroy. "Little resist ance" was offered, the official Berlin announcement says. At the same time another German army under General von Linsingen practically walked into Lutzk, the Vol.. hynian fortress taken and retaken many times in some of the bloodiest battles of the Russo-Teuton war. On both sides of this stronghold they now are marching eastwards, in the direc tion of Kiev, the Ukranian capital. Two strategical roads are at their dis posal, to bring up supplies and artil lery. Kiev lies 240 miles to the east. That ancient city is in the throes of .bloody orgies tr., bolsheviki having for the time be'nig the upper hand. From Perlin today was spread throughbut the world a heartrending appeal by the Ukraniann for German aid, an appeal manifestly dlictated from Wilhelmtsrasse since it gives the desired pretext for the new inva sion. Besides being threatened with a land andl sea dIrive on Petrograd, the nolsheviki were. andl are, faced by terrific pressure from other causes. The capital itself and the whole of northern Russia is starving. Typhus has broken out and pestilence threat ens. From the south large Ccsasack forces are reported marching on the capital. Country-wide discontent with the bolshaviki rule grows hourly. Thousands cf peasants inqluiredl wrathfully why land was given tliem if it is to be taken away by the in vadler. Russians Duped So Trotzky andi Leniing saw no oth er course than that which in gloomy hours they have hinted they might be forced to tfike. "I(. we are after all forced to make an imperialistic peace, (we will not tell our ,people It' is a good peace; signing it we will tell them it is a shameful peace and our war on im priaim ilgo on until the wrong Two political factors aggravated the bolsheviki position and hastened, if they did not actually lead to, their surrender. Rumania, it appears now, betrayed them. They had counted up on the kingdom's sustained dlefiance to. the Teutons and active aid against the Rada; In the etevento nour it seemps, the Rumanians yielded to der man Intrigue, and a peace conference is about to begin at Foesan I. Thn thero was Austria, ,with her wily flirtation that made the Russian radieals believe the dual monarchy would "never allow a resumption of . ar" ;Viefmna had made themi be :ve .an. openi bak in the central 'ihneq would , w uch a. mov'e by Go~'mv WI, drisis'*.j eanio COURT Court convenes in Manning on Mar. 11, Judge Sease presiding. The fol lowing is the jury: Grand Jury W. P. Legg, Manning. W. T. Tobias, Jr., Manning. J. J. Barnes, Wilson. C. M. Thigpen, Manning. J. H. Rigby, Manning., M. B. Corbett, Paxville. Wallace Mathis, Summerton. W. D. Scurry, Manning. M. W. Graham, Davis Station. D. E. Geddings, Paxville. Hugh McFaddin, Sardinia. J. C. Jenkinson, Silver. Hold-Over Grand Jurors Jos. 1-I. Dickson. E. 0. Rowe. R. F. Parrow. W. R. Holladay. S. F. Stone. W. M. Plowden. Petit Jury R. T. Harrington Manning. S. M. Williams, Manning. E. H. McFaddin, Lake City. Julien Weinberg, Manning. C. S. Rigby, Manning. Cooper McKenzie, Lake City. J. M. Boswell, Jr., Paxville. S. A. Barnes, Foreston. D. M. Evans, New iZion. H. P. Pender, New Zion. H. A. Hodges, Summerton. J. H. Timmons, Manning. P. L. B. Hodge, Alcolu. W. M. Hodge, Paxville. M. S. Stukes, Manning. W. H. PhodL:s, Foreston. C. A. Moody, Manning. A. J. Plowden, Summerton. W. D. Hicks, Turbeville. S. J. Smith, Manning. J. W. Griffin, Pinewood. W. T. Snyder, Manning. B. L. Du Hose, New Zion. E. 11. Welch, Turbeville. W. S. Ward, Manning. T. R. Owen, Paxville. H. M. Thames, Silver. W. A. Hodge, Manning. M. C. Fischer, Summerton.. J. N. Corbett, Wilson. I. N. Brunson, Paxville. S. L. Huggins, Manning. H. J. Broadway, Manning. J. 0. Coker, Turbeville. A. C. Hcriott, Manning. R. L. Gayle, St. Paul. -- -- o AMERICAN WHO HELD KAISER'S HEAD COMES HOME An Atlantic Port, Feb. 18.-The on ly American tha:t ever came so <:owe to the kaiser as to hold the imperial chin in one hand, o.e.tle the imna'erial head with the other, first this way, then that, and then the other wav whichever way he, the American, pleased, today stepped off a Norweg ian liner here. The man is Dr. Arthur N. Davis, of Piqua, 0., for years the kaiser's dent ist, who left Berlin January 22, on a special pass signed by the kaiser. He was reticent in answering questions. All he would say when asked about the food conditions in the empire was, "well, I don't look starved, do I?" He refused to discuss the kaiser's health. As to German feeling toward America, he said: "Not partieularly bitter, so far as I could judge. The general opinion seems to be that America is not tak ing the war very seriously. To furth er questions he said: "The German people realize that their submarine warfare has failed. They are now depending upon the army for success. Peace, Dr. Davis said, was the chief topic of discussion in Germany when he left. Passengers on the liner told re porters Dr. Davis had confided to them that the kaiser apparently was being systematically deceived by his' miltary and naval adlvisers. HOSPITAL MARK - - .FOR HUN AIRMEN Patients in the Building~ Badly Shaken b~y Explosions With American Armies in France, Saturday, Feb. 16.-(By the Associ atedl Press).-An American fjield hos pital in a town -within our Allies ap parently was the target for a German aeroplane wvhich flew over it last night and dropped several unusually heavy bombs. The hospital, in which were a num ber of sick andl woundedl officers and men, was the building nearest the places where the German airmen dlroppedl two dlifferent sets of bombs. IFortunately none of the missiles reached their mark, although the hos pital patients anA the residents of the town were severely shaken by the explosions. American 'anti-air craft guns engaged the enemy, but without success. The hospital prob ably will be moved to a less dlanger ous spot. Czernln. They fell upon (deaf ears. The whole flirtation had been-"just a flirtation." But consistent to the core, the Utopia (dreamers hesitated not, even when they grasped the menace of the trickery that had enmeshed them, to burn all bridges behind them that might still have led to an understand ing with the allies. Mobs were al lowed to rob and strip entente diplo mate on the public squares, while Trotzky, addressing the "'people's commissaries," denounced allies and neutrals alike as robbers and imperi.. alists, bpeause they had protested agaiinst the rebudiation of Russia'k~ debte, CANNOT SUPPL DEMAN According to carefully prepared government reports, the total quantity of tobacco on hand in the warehouses of manufacturers and dealers in this country on January 1st, 1918, aggre gated 1,176,234,657 pounds. This in cludes 779,292,224 pounds for which the marked weight was reported at the time it was packed or bailed, and 396,942,433 pounds for which the ac tual weight was reported. Of the to al, 1,036,436656 pounds was un stemmed, and 139,798,000 pounds stemmed leaf tobacco. Dividing the stock on hand (ecxuls ive of that in growers' hands) into its various classifications, there were 893,404,555 pounds of chewing, smok ing, snuff and export types, compared with 758,378,735 pounds on January 1st, 1917. The quantity of burley to bacco on hand January 1st, 1918 was 177,206,800 pounds, compared with 188,157,761 pounds on the correspond ing date a year ago. The stock of Virginia sun-cured (of which Rich mond, Va., is the leading market) was 5,711,921, compared with 8,906,732 a year before. Of Virginiafarm tobac cos on hand there were on January 1st, 1918 a total of 45,122,818, compar ed with 46,347,511 the year before. The figures for the bright yellow districts of Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina in which this city is particularly interested are as fol lows: 428,913,604 on January 1, 1918, compared with 332,360,249 a year be fore an increase of such stock on hand of nearly a hundred million pounds This increase hs been gradual since last April and is to be expected, since the sale of th crop grown in 1917 is now nearing its end, and sufficient time to handle and manufacture or ex port it has not yet been afforded. It is probable, too that the crop was con siderably larger than that grown in 1916, owing to the extraordinary de mand and resultant high prices. Yet, great as this stock of bright tobacco is, it does not nearly equal the de mand for it, which is constantly grow ing by leaps and bounds. If facilities were immediately aavilable to export it, this entire stock would soon be quickly depleted. It is a remarkable tribute to the de mand for American leaf tobacco,that the English importers are crying for it, notwithstanding the fact that the average cost to the ultitmate consum AMERICAN SOLDI[RS ANXIOUS TO GET TO THE FRONT Too Eager to Get at Grips With Ger mans, Says Noted Officer U. S. OFFICERS CONFIRM IT Declare Their Chief Trouble is to Re strain Impetuosity of Their Men Grand Headquarters of the French Army in France, Feb. 17.-American and French troops for several days back have been holding in unison the front line trenches on one of the most famous battlefields of the war, the name of which is known throughout the world. The immediate impression gained in conversation with both French and Americans facing the en emy side by side is that the unison is not only of fighting forces, but of firm purpose to win victory by mu tual aid. "There is only one criticism to be made in connection with the Ameri eans,"' said a dlistinguished officer to Lhe correspondent who spent a whole lay among the Americans holding the line. "They are too anxIous to get zt grips with the enemy."~ American officers confirmed this, leclaring that their chief trouble was to restrain their men. Well Satisfied It is inadvisable to dlesignate the units confronting the Germans, but all the men are bending to their task and they are anxious to have the people at home know that they are wvell sat isfied and edtermined to perform to their utmost the dluties before them. "Tell the home folks that we are happy to be in the fighting. The work is hard andI trying, but that is why we are here. Nothing could induce us to leave it until .the job is finished andl the Germans are beaten." Trhis in substance are the expressions of doz ens of American troop~s in the actual righting line. As to health of the men, today's record showed that there wvere only three sick among the entire force, com prising' several thousands andl these are eases of minor importance. Every enre is taken to provide am ple rations, hot when possible, which, however, is riot always possible owing to the ex posed position. The men pro fully content with this and certainly appear fit and well. They have taken to trench and (dugout life as if born to it. 0 Alex Williams, a bad negro, and es L'apedl convict from the Clarendlon chain gang, was tied yesterday in e'lorence for burglarizing the Scran ton depot, also the store of J. M. Par ker at the same place. He got about $10mr worth, of booty. Alex was sent up to the court of sessions of Flor ence county. Thiu fellow has been on the gang several times, and has made hisa escape more than once. He is considered a had characer In gener. THE D FOR TOBACCO er of every pound of leaf tobacco is fully two dollars per pound. A hur ried computation wherein the British duty on imported tobacco is placed at $1.54 per pound; the average cost at 40 cents to the British purchaser and the ocean freight about 10 cents per pound make up its high estimate of the cost of raw leaf tobacco in Eng land. So great is the demand, how ever ,that the British importers are fairly clamoring for more American tobacco to supplant the large normal European growth, now either curtail ed immensely or prevented by war fron' being imported into England. Besides the normal imports of Euro pean tobacco we doubt not that im ports from South Africa and India and other Asiatic points is almost wholly suspended, owing to lack of ships, the perils of war navigation and the necessity of giving precedence in freight transportation to food stuffs. The fact that tobacco .is eagerly sought by millions, despite the almost prohibitive cost that may be put upon it after manufacture and alolwing a profit for the jobber and the retailer and profiteering in an article so uni versally sought and that they are will ing to pay such prices for it speaks eloquently of the tremendous present and continuing demand. It is abso lutely safe to forecast an even greater demand during the coming year, and whenever there is the prospect of large profits, there will always be men who will take the risk of trans. porting it. Even if the war should end tomorrow the demand for tobacco would immediately become unprece dented and it would be several years before normal or pre-war supplies , were accumulated by the European countries. We cite these facts and figures by way of assuring tobacco growers that they need not fear overproduction and a declining market, even if the labor I were available to increase the produc tion. The fact is that with another draft in sight the available labor sup. ply is going to be further depleted, and unless the female labor on the farms is attracted by-the prospects of liberal retqrns for their work, it is going to be difficult, if indeed possible to increase the output. Danville (Va.) Register WAR [XPENDITIR[S AR[ R[LATIV[LY LOW McAdoo's Statement Covers Half of Fiscal Year Up to First of January MILITARY, $1,762,000,000 Shipping Board Spent $169,922,000; Navy About Equal Estimate $550,936,000 Washington, Feb. 17.-Details of how various government departments are spending money in the war emerg ency were disclosed today in a finan cial statment by Secretary McAdoo covering the first half of the fiscal year up to January 1. The military expenditure was $1, 762,000,000 in the six months, as com pared with estimates of War Depart ment heads that expenses for the en tire year ending next June 30 would be $8,790,000,000. Although the rate of expenditures consequently was far under the early estimates, the treas ury statement showvs that the outlay is increasing rapidly, amounting to $4 50,000,000 in D~ecember, as compa r ed1 with $387,000,000) the month before. Shipping Board A similar relatively low rate (If ex peCnses was recordled for the shipping board which spent $4I6,774,000) in De cember, aibout $2,000,000 less than the month previous, making total expens es for the six months $109,922,000. Estimated expenises for the whole year were $901,120,000. The navy ex pend itures wvere about equal to reliminary estimates, amounting to $550,936,000 for the six months, as coImpared with the estimnat edl $966,150,000) for the year. These three departments accountedl for the great bulk of the governmentL's expenses. Thl outlay for most. others was approximately the amounts ani ticipatedl. The net p)ublic dlebt of the United States was $6,664,359,097, about a billion dlollars more than the mon11th before. GOVERNOR SIGNS 'THE QUART A MON'THl LAW Columbha, Fob. 18.-Governor Man ning tonight signed the new quart-a month law passedl by the recent gen eral assembly. It requires that pro bate judges before issuing permits for the monthly "nmedicinal" quart must 1)e satisfied of the truth of the statements containled in the affi dlavit wvhich must be made by the ap plicant, and that the permits can be Issuedl by the probate judges only in person. The law will go into e ffect on March 10, which gives time for only two more permits for any indi vidlual under the present lawv. Sixteen judlges of p rebate appearedI before the governor In opposItion to the ineas uire. The hearing lasted for nearly two kours thIs afternoon. GEORGIANS LYNCH NEGRO Victim Accused of Kidnapping .- 'ear Old Baby Fayetteville, Ga., Feb. 18.-"Bud" Cosby, a negro, was lynched last night by a mob of Fayette County citizens after he had attempted to rob the home of Mrs. Barney McElwaney, Aberdeen, and had kidnapped her two year old boy, according to reports re. ceived here late tonight. The child was found by members of the mob yesterday morning, in a briar patch, uninjured, the reports said, and re stored to its mother. Mrs. McElwaney, her mother-in-law Airs. Reese McElwaney, and the baby were alone in the home Saturday night when Cosby is alelged to have intrudd. Mrs. McElwaney's husband, it was asid here, is in the army. Cos by, after finding no money, drove the women from the house, it was report ed, seized the child and escaped. A. mob formed Sunday morning soon af ter reports were sent out of the at tempted robebry and the kidnapping of the child. After an hour's search the baby was found in a briar patch about a mile from its home. Reports said the mob continued the search for Cosby all day Sunday, finding him last night at the home of another ne gro. --o (CONSER \ 41 1')N OF AMMONf:%. Washington, Feb. 1O.--Conserva tion of ammonia is urgently requested by the food administration, which to day estimated that 20,000,000 pounds of the chemical will be required this year for the manufacture of war mu nitions. Ice and refrigerating plant owners are reminded that each pound of ammonia will make twenty hand grenades. 0 ALLIES HAVE GOOD DAY IN l'IE WEST London, Feb. 10.-The British scor ed successes today in raids on a wide front, inflicting many casualties and great damage in the German lines and returning with a number of prisoners. The actions were southeast of Epehy and around Guillemont, where the Irish distinguished themselves near Elpehy, Lens and in th. Ilouthoult forest. On the Franco-German front artillery duels are raging without in terruption in practically all of the vi tal :vectors. COUl'LE PLEADED GUILTY TO CHARGES Fort Worth, Texas, Feb. 19.-Kath erine Vanes Harrison, 18, and her husband, Charles C. larrison, pleaded guilty today to manslaughter, in con nection with the killing in December, 1915, of W. L. Warren, near here. were sentenced to three years under the suspended sntnc law. Harrison accompanid the girl on the auto trip upon which she admits she killed War ren for alleged wrongs. They were married three (lays later. 0 MILEA GE HOOKS Raligh, N. C., Feb. 19.-Railroad companies of North Carolina have asked the state corporation commis Sion for the privilege of furnishing only 1,000 mile mileage books at $22. of by the interstate commerce coms .50 instead of the $20 hooks already approved of by the Interstate com mierce commission for southeastern states. ------( FO'IMER NEWSI'AI'ER OWNE 1 I EAI WNil mington, N. C., Feb. 19.-Major Will iam H. Bernard, founder of the Wilmington Morning St ar, oldlest da i ly newspap~er in North Carol inn, and its owner and editair until about eight years ago, (lied this afternoon after a brief illness, aged 81. NEW JRIGAI)IER Washington, Feb. I19.--Brig. G;en. Mon roe Mclarlamd and Brig. (Gen. Ed - ward A. Miller at Sant Antonio, TIex as, hoth of whonm were recently pro mioted from the ran k of colonel, have reeeived o)rders to report at nw sta lions. Brig. Gen. M'tc larhand will command the I 62nd infantry brigade of the 81st 'livision at Camp .Jackson, Columbia, S. C., and Brig. Gen. Miller will com mand the 6th artillery brigade of the new 6th division to be0 assembledl at (Cam p McClelland, Anniston, Ala. Camp Jackson is a national army :ramp) an dCamp McClellan a national Lguardl mobilization camp. Brig. Glen. McFarland has been re eently chief of staff for the southern lepartment at San Antonio and prior to that time was department intelli gence ofifcer. lie is succeeded by Col. Lucius L. D)urfee. RO(JSEVELT CANNOT RECEIVE VISITORUS Newv York, Feb. 19.-Col. Theo~lore3 Roosevelt spent a very quiet day to lay. lie sawv no callers, the dlortors . leeming it adr isable that he remn&in sbsolutely quiet. Joseph B. Bishop former ehniitman of the Panama Can~af commissIon, *la a life-long friendl - I the fermner presaident, was among the callers refused admission tis rom.na ivo. a. NI DRY DOCK AT CHAR[ESTON TO COST ABOUT FOUR MILLION Daniels Asks for Sum of $230,077,152 to Further Expand the Navy's Great Building Program TO IIUILD NEW DESTROYERS Marine Corps Will be Expanded to 50,000 Men and Part of Sum is to Pay New Men Washington, Feb. 18.-Special: Charleston's Navy Yards to have a great new dry (lock of the first class coating $4,000,000 An estimate for this dock with the specifi d limit of cost, and with ".n initial' appropria tion of $1,500,000, was sent to Con gress today by Secretary Daniels, through Secret.iry of the Treasury MlcAdce. The new provision is a substitute for the previous estimate for an ex tension of the present (lock. The possession of the 30-foot chan nel from the Navy Yard to the sea has proven of enormous value to Charleston in the emergency oppor tunities of the war. If that channel had to be provided now, the loss of time involved would divert many mil lions of doll:Ars' worth of government improvement:; depending upon imme diate access to the 30 foot bais. To Eniarge Navy's Program Washington, Feb. 18.-Congress was asked by Secretary Daniels today for $230,077,152 to further expald the navy's great building program, pro vide for 1o1 rdnanc3e and ammuni tion, cover additional pay for an ex-" pansion of the marin: corps from thirty thousand. to fifty thousand men placed in Ithi, year's naval appropria ln(i meet othei> expnscs not contem plated in this year's naval appropria tion bill. Of the total $100,000,000 is for ad ditional construction and to speed con struction now under way. Mr. Dan iels said most of this amount would be spent for vessels "smaller than cruisers," and explainei that the un paralleled rapidity with which some yards were turning out destroyers had made it possible to place more con tracts for these boats than had been thought possible. About a dozen new contracts already have been placed. Some of the money will be spent for more of the Chaser-destroyers" being built by Hlenry Ford in his Detroit plant. Included in Estimates The estimates include $360,000 for a railroad from Washington to the naval proving ground, to be built by some railroad company; $2,000,000 for the Norfolk navy yard (ry dock, in eluding quay wall collnections, in ad dition to the $3,4:10,(100 previously es-. timated; and $1,150,000 for a dry dock at the Charleston, S. C., Navy Yard, with limit of cost $4,000,000, instead of merely providing for 'extending dry docks." 'T'his naval emergency fund of $100, (100,000 is to "enable the President to secure the more economical and ex peditious delivery of materials, equip ment and mumit(,ns, and to secure the more expeditious construction of ships authorized and for purchase and con struction of such adidtional torpedo boat destroyers, submarine chasers and other naval small craft, to be ex pended under the direction and dis (retion of the President. To Expand .larine Corps .The lInguage of the est imates sub mitted by Secretary Daniels author izes the temporary increase of the 3arrme corps from the present 3(1,000 to 501,000 1m1en, and11 thei pay of the ma~rime cor-ps originally estimated at $22,153,:t71, is increased by $l2,30)0, 0030. It also( inlcreases by 25,00)0 the hnu11 t (of (cost of submar1 ines aut31horized in the naval act (If 19 10. The su pplemental estima11te-s include resrv ornace' suppIles, $1 7,00,000 $:13,001,000; ammun1113it ion for vessels, ma13te (If $82,080. 1211 new hatte1 ries f'r ships of the navy, $1 0,00(0,000 in..0 $20l,0001,00l0 for (lIIAll ETO' N I rgenf lDeficiency .\leasure. TIotaling $ 1,107,220,0030 for Mlilltary and1( Naval Illurposes l 'assed lDy I ower flody Withlout llecordl Vote Wash inogtoni, Feb. 18.- -The bill ion (d01llar urgent deofic ienlcy apropriationl bill, carrying half a billion for the m iltary e'stalishml~ent and large suma for the navy and. other branches of the golvernmen was31 passedl toda~y by the Illouse withlout, ai r'cord vote. In dIir3ect a1propriatijons and( ilniau-. thorization for obiligaltions (luring the remlainder of this fiscal year, tihe total of the( mel(asure is %1 ,l (7,220,000. It no0w goes to theit Senate, where it will be givenl prompt consideration. The urlgenlt dleficienicy blill carries an aplprop~ria tion of ablout $20,000,000 for del('opment of port termlinals and storage' facilities at Charleston. Ae coildig to a splecial dlispatch from Washington, printed in The Sunday Newvs, all1 tihe items in tihe urgent de ficency bill affecting the War De-. ptartment port terminal and storag plans at Charleston, as well as the naval items, were approvedi in the House 'Xaturday afternoon. The Helm commissIon reently ree ommiendled Charleston as the only port south of H~atteras suitable for devel.. onmenlt as a first clas navy yaar