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WHAT COURAGE MEANS.
It Assumes Various Shapes and Many Phases. Courage is as varied in kind as in degree. Some men do not know what j fear is. Others are horribly afraid yet are able to control their nerves j and emotions. Surely the timid man who masters timidity is as brave as Siegfried, of whom it is recorded that ' he had to be taught by Mime what it! was to be afraid. A certain brand of courage naSj been labeled, somewhat unkindly, j Dutch. Then one has the stoic resig-1 nation of the American Indian. It! is very dangerous to attempt to fixi flags to emotions. But each nation I seems to have its own blend of the quality. It is usual to say that the volatile Frenchman is a brave winner but a; dispirited loser. Yet after IS70 the j French people solemnly and earnestly I began to build up their lost fortunes, j and went into the present war, un* ? f ! aer enormous uisauvauwgcs, hhuvui, a murmur. J The Russian, ,.00, has something of the resignation of the Oriental. His spirit is not volatile, and there is a plodding fatalism, as of a rather tired bull dog, in the dutiful, don'tmuch-botber attitude. A few days ago a Russian officer described the! rather bewildered feeling with which j he went into battle. He added that j when shells began to fly his sensory j nerves seemed paralyzed, though his! brain acted quickly and automatical- , ly. A kind of cold anger seized him. When he was hit he felt nothing, but went giddy and fell. And then we have the tale of a British Tommy I who lolled in his trench, smoking a ! cigarette and potting away quietly j at the enemy. Even when at close quarters he went on puffing until two Germans were 10 yards away. Then | he threw away his smoke and went for them with the bayonet. Contrast this with the cool daring! of the German aviator who dropped an insolent message down upon Paris, and the dogged resolve with which the German rankers advance in close formation against machine guns. Can tvo ohamotorizo thpse various expressions of an emotion by the same word? Where does bravado begin and courage leave off? How far can bluff go without becoming heroic? ' First, let us see how the great view ed death. Marcus Aurelius said: j; "Were some god to speak to thee: 'Tomorrow thou shalt die, or at most on the third day,' this respite of a day would seem a thing of naught, i did a spark of nobility redeem thee." | We marvel at the bravery of men prepared to risk death on a battle- j field. Yet at this moment, as you \ read, death may actually have claim-i. ed you and limited your days. Yet ; &? you are not afraid. |; Huxley saw this heartening fact clearly when he wrote: ji "The great thing one has to wish j for as time goes on is vigor as long' < as one lives, and death as soon as ; vigor flags." I ] One of the dangers of a safe, civi- , ... .V-x __ . uzea period is max peupie a nam au exaggerated value to mere longevity, j which is of no use except as an op- i; portunitv for great living. From this j ] . mere desire to live, springs a fear of ; death. In view of the idea generally cur- ] rent in modern German philosophy \ that Christianity is a religion of j weakness, it is interesting to quote a ] few ideas upon courage from the j Bible: "Though I walk* through the valley i of the shadow of death I will fear no i evil." , j ? ; ? "When the wicked, even mine ene-' ( mies and foes, came upon me to eat < up my flesh, they stumbled and fell. 1 Though an host should encamp i against me, my heart shall not fear, \ though war should rise against me, in ] this will I be confident." S- , .... i "God is our refuge and strength, a j i very present help in trouble, there- ] fore will we not fear, though the < earth be removed and though the t mountains be carried into the midst i of the sea." 1 There one has a courage based up- < on faith, a recognition of danger with an unconquerable belief in overcom- 1 ing it. and a steady calm that is far: ] xcuiuvcu uulii 11 uiii iuuiuci- i ence and frohi insolent bravado. And ] no one with any knowledge of the ac- i tual officers and men serving in the j j army and navy of Great Britain can' i deny that a simple, never-talked-: ] about old fashioned faith has a good ] deal to do with their steadiness in < action. ; Perhaps Carlyle has admired courage and expressed it with as much i force as any man: : ] "To me, also, was given, if not: ( victory, yet the consciousness of bat- i tie and the resolve to persevere there- i < in while life or faculty is left." s Here he recognizes (in Teufel-'< drockh's case) the supreme quality j of courage, the "consciousness of bat-; j tie," depending upon no certainty j , save inner desire. The idea of con- j i quest is cowardly, even the achieve-j ] ARMS AX1) THE MAX. Death-Dealing Machines Have Xot Conquered Human Bravery. .Modern history, which is but another term for modern life, is full of surprises, and even the little we know authentically of the operations by the allied armies has been replete with wonderul and unforeseen incidents that would have been deemed the visions of romance if they had been suggested only a few months ago. Even in a machine made war man is the deciding element, and man has ever been the greatest surnrisp to himself. An unusual view of the man in the war is given in an editorial in the fourth war issue of the Scientific American of December 5, which is in part as follows: Among the unexpected developments of the war. none has been more amazing than the unflinching steadiess with which the citizen soldiers of the warring nations, and especially those engaged on the western battlefields, have faced the murderous attack of modern weapons, whether by the magazine rifle, the machine gun, the searching shrapnel, or the shattering, high-explosive, 16-inch shell! So accustomed have we become, through the daily testimony of eye witnesses, to the more-th an-hum an courage with which frail flesh and blood is facing, day in, day out, and for weeks together, the tornado of lead and steel which sweeps over the modern battlefield, that we are forgetting that only yesterday we were all saying that this miracle could not be. Had not the military experts themselves assured us that the accuracy and volume of modern rifle, machine-gun, and shrapnel fire was such, that not the finest troops in the world could be brought to face the tempest in a frontal attack in the open? And yet this very thing has happened?not merely once, to be writfen into the chronicles of a nation's sublime heroics, but everywhere and every day throughout that far-flung battle line on which Teuton is locked in the death grip with Frank and Briton. Marvelous, also, is the fact that this matchless courage is being displayed, not by the toughened veterans of a long campaign, not by professional soldiers, steeled and tern pered by the discipline or DarracKs and camp, but by work-a-day laymen, called at a minute's notice from the peaceful routine of their daily lives, and told to rush "into the jaws of hell!" The Herald Book Store will receive in the next few days a line of Fountain Pens, which are fully guaranteed, and which will sell at from 75c to $1.50 each. Come in and try one. ment of victory makes but slight demands. But the power of going on without any conviction of success is the greatest force in the world. The qualities of courage hinted at above apply not only to armed conflict, but to the tackling of all life problems. And perhaps the hardest pf all is a physical or moral retreat. How often do we meet obstinate folk willing enough to die for a craze or a whim-. Rightly regarded, theirs is not courage at all, though it may bear i certain resemblance. The courage of forced inaction, of remaining calm and cheerful under the load of anxiety, deserves a high place. Indeed, all the admirable peo pie we know have courage in some form. For it is the very salt of life. It is the quality that made the women of Poland give their jewelry to the nation, and wear iron jewels as i symbol of their resolve, while their sons and husbands gave their lives 3n the battlefield. And the same spirit moves women today to go into the fields and gather the harvest, or to do any other work, rough or gentle, so as to free others to fight for European freedom. ? And with nations the quality has rarious phases in action. The Belgians. by admitting the Prussian hordes, could have bargained for a sort of independence. By refusing :hev lost Brussels and Louvain, and many thousands of lives. But there svas no hesitation. The quality of trourage animated a whole people. It was Napoleon who promised his troops at Austerlitz that he would <eep himself safe, while they risked their lives. He realized that a display of physical courage would have 10 effect comparable with the plain issertion that his head was cool, and that they would be well directed. Yet tie could admire Nev's daring. "I lave 200,000,000 in my coffers," he _ J* < ? T 13 1 .. ?1! C* ? said, ana i wuuia give mem an hji S'ev." Also he said: "In all battles, a moment occurs, ivhen the bravest troops, after having nade the greatest efforts, feel indined to run. That terror proceeds "rom a want of confidence in their jwn courage: and it only requires a slight opportunity, a pretence, to restore confidence." There is no essential courage. It is i combination of qualities, varying in iifferent persons: even changing in the same person. It is spiritual health.?T. P.'s Weekly. TAILS OF SOLDI Kit GRIT. Two Irishmen Reject Surrender and Fight to the Death. Irishmen fighting Britain's battles, in France today are proving themselves worthy of the finest traditions of their race, says the London Chronicle. There have been many stories of their endurance and pluck, but two related by a trooper of the Irish Dragoons may be taken as typical: "There was a man of ours'," says the trooper, "who carried a chum to a farm house under fire, and when the retreat came got left behind, the German patrol called and found them. There were only the two, one wounded, against a dozen Uhlans. Behind a barrier of furniture they kept the Germans at bay, wounding or killing half of them. The Germans made off and brought a machine gun to the house and threatened to destroy it. The two soldiers were not unmindful of the kindness shown them by the owners of the farm, and rather than bring loss on them or the village they made a rush out with some mad idea of taking the gun. "Just over the threshold of the door they fell dead, their blood bespattering the walls of the house. "People may call them pigheaded\ for not surrendering, but that sort' of wrongheadedness is worth a lot as inspiration to others, and if Brit-j ish soldiers had always worried about what the stay-at-homes would think of their deeds, some of the finest stories in the history of the army could never have been told. "There was a young chap of the Irish Rifles. He was kneeling beside a wounded man of the Gloucester;, I think, keeping off the Germans, j He had been hit himself.'but w*is | gamely firing at the enemy as fast as] his wounded arm would permit. We! went to his assistance, but they were: both worn out when we reached them, and greatly to our regret, we had to leave them to be picked tip, by the Red Cross people. "That was hard: but if you tried, to pick up everv wounded man you j saw you wouldn't be much use as a fighter, and as we were under urg-j ent orders to take up a position from which to cover the retreat we had; no time for sentiment. They knew j that, and they weren't the men to ask us to risk the safety of the army for them. " 'Never mind,' the rifleman said, with a faint smile on his guilty face, | 'the Sisters will pick us all up when! it's over, but if they don't, sure, then ; we've only got once to die, and it's, thq grand fight we've had, anyhow.. What more could soldiers ask for?' 'Wlien we came DacK again one 011 the men was there, sure enough?' stone dead; but his mate had gone,j and whether it was the Germans or. the Red Cross people that got him; I wouldn't care to say." Not only on the battlefield is the1 British soldier showing his grit, as an incident related by a member of the Royal army medical corps, nowi invalided home, well shows. Relat-J ing his experience he says: "It was wonderful how cheerful the wounded were. "One poor fellow who had been shot in the head and hit by a shrapnel bullet in the mouth and was apparently dying, pointed out to me an-1 other man, badly wounded, remark-! in? 'That nonr hlnke is eoine home: ! he will be Home before me.' " Deepest Well a Failure. "An artesian well a mile deep was sunk in Texas at a little place called Spur," said A. F. Wells, of Waco, according to the Washington Post. "The promoters who spent the money to drill the hole lost a big sum, and the only thing they got was a symptom of water. They were not so lucky as Bret Harte's hero, who tried for water and got oil. "This well, it is said, cost the projectors more than $-10,000. They made the boring because they expected to increase the value of a great big tract of land wich had been opened up. That well, I believe, is the deepest ever bored in any part of the United States, and it didn't yield. There is a well not far from Waco that is pouring forth a great , stream of pure water, which reached a depth of more than 3,500 feet. Until that well was drilled Waco held the record for depth with half a doz | en borings that exceeded 3,000 feet." Up in the Air. "What are Betty and Jack quarrel- . ing about now?" "Oh. it's one of those wireless quarrels, I guess." "Wireless quarrels? What do you mean?" "Words over nothing, you know." Friend in Need. The ferret-eyed little man stepped , across the street car aisle and whis-j pered into the ear of the tall chapj in a gray suit: "You'd better wipe that bit of egg off your chin. The income-tax man ! is just two seats in front of you."?J Indianapolis Star. j NOTICE TO DISTILLERS AND LIQUOR DEALERS. Bids and samples are hereby requested in accordance with the Dispensary Law now in force for the following goods to be furnished the State of South Carolina for the use of the County Dispensary Board of Bamberg county, South Carolina. Liquors to be shipped in car load lots, except Beer, freight prepaid to Bamberg, S. C., to-wit: All kinds of corn, rye, gin, wines and brandies, both in bulk and bottled in full 1-2 pints, pints and quarts. Beers in pints and quarts to be delivered at Bamberg, Denmark, Ehrhardt and Olar, S. C. Also bids on empty bottles, 1-2 pint, pints and quarts, in dispensary cases, cork and tin foil. All goods shall be furnished in compliance with and subject to the terms and conditions of the Dispensary law of 1907. and bidders must observe the following rules: 1. All bids must be sealed and there 6hall be no signature or mark upon the envelope indicating the name of the bidder. 2. All bids must be sent by express or registered letter to Geo. A. Jennings, Treasurer, Bamberg, S. C.. on or before Monday, Jan. 11, 1915. 3. The contract will be awarded to the lowest responsible bidder, the board reserving the right to reject any or all bids, or parts of bids. The Board requires that on all bids submitted the age and proof of all goods shall be stated, and bids shall be in gallons, 1-2 gallons, quarts, pints and 1-2 pints. Bids will be opened at the office of the County Board, Bamberg, S. C., on Jan 11, 1915. J. M. Grimes, Chairman. J. B. Kearse, W. H. Faust, . Board of Control County Dispensaries, Bamberg County,/ South Carolina. TAX NOTICE. The treasurer's office will be open for the collection of State, county, school and all other taxes from the loth day of October, 1914 until the loth day of March, 1915 inclusive. From the first day of January, 1915. until the 31st day of January, 1915, a peuailty of one per cent, will be added to all unpaid taxes. From the 1st day of February, 1915, a penalty of 2 per cent, will be added to all unpaid taxes. From the 1st day of March, 1915, until th? 15th day of March, 1915, a penalty of 7 per cent, will be added to all unpaid taxes. THE LEVY. For State purposes 6 mills For county purposes 4 mills For bridges 1 mill For roads 1-2 mill Constitutional school tax 3 mills Total 14 1-2 mills SPECIAL SCHOOL LEVIES. Bamberg, No. 14 9 mills Binnakers, No. 12 3 mills Buford's Bridge, No. 7 2 mills Clear Pond, No. 19 2 mills Colston, No. 18 4 mills Denmark, No. 21 6 1-2 mills Ehrhardt, No. 22 9 mills Fishpond, No. 5 i mills Govan, No. 11 4 mills Hutto, No. 6 2 mills Hampton, No. 3 2 mills Heyward, No. 24 ?.2 mills Hopewell, No. 1 3 mills Hunter's Chapel, No. 16 4 mills Lees, No. 23 4 mius Midway, No. 2 2 mills Oak Grove, No. 20 2 mills Olar, No. 8 9 mills St. John's, No. 10 2 mills Salem, No. 9 4 mills Three Mile, No. 4 1 2 mills All persons between the ages of twenty-one and sixty years of age, except Confederate soldiers and sailors, who are exempt at 50 years of age, are liable to a poll tax of one dr-llar. Capitation dog tax 50 cents. All persons who were 21 years of age on or before the 1st day of January, 1914 are liable to a poll tax of one dollar, and all who have not made returns to the Auditor, are requested to do so on or before the 1st of January, 1915. I will receive the commutation road tax of two ($2.00) dollars from the 15th day of October, 1914, until the let day of March, 1915. G. A. JENNINGS, 'Treasurer Bamberg County. RILEY & COPELAND Successors to W. P. Riley. X11C) JLJI1V Accident INSURANCE Office in J. D. Copeland's Store BAMBERG, S. C. FRANCIS F. CARROLL j Attorney-at-Law Office in Hoffman Building GENERAL PRACTICE. BAMBERG. S. C. LODGE MEETING. Bamberg, Lodge, No. 38, Knights of Pythias meets first and fourth Monday nights at 7:30 p. m. Visiting brethren cordially invited. A. M. DENBOW, Chancellor Commander, C. R. GILLIAM, Keeper of Records and Seal. RUB-MY-TISM Will cure Rheumatism, Neuralgia, Headaches, Cramps, Colic Sprains, Bruises, Cuts, Burns, Old Sores, Tetter, Ring-Worm, Eczema, etc. Antiseptic Anodyne, used internally or externally. 25c 11 R. P. BELLINGER ATTORNEY AT LAW Office Over Bamberg Banking Co. General Practice f^THE-PRUDENT MAN"BANK ED !(& H/S^MONE Y WHEN It is all right for a -man, when he is along in years, and can AFFORD it, to spend money for luxuries, but the young men and the middle aged should remember v that "Life's December" comes to everyone, and that to he old and POOR is life's greatest traeredv. To prevent this, begin NOW?put your money in * our BANK; let it STAY there and ADD TO IT every time you can. Make OUR bank YOUR bank . - '$m We pay 4 per cent, interest, compounded quarterly on savings depsits u I Farmers & Merchants Bank I ~?| | EHRHA.RDT, S. C. J A Card to Owners 4 of Rural Telephone Lines We are anxious to see that all lines owned by ? ? other parties and connected with us are kept in such condition as to furnish efficient service. Where the --i owners of rural lines are responsible for their upkeep, we want to co-operate with them. All lines require a thorough overeauling occasionally if the best service is to be obtained. We recommend that every line connected with us be overhauled at least once a year, and that at least one experienced telephone man assist in this work. The i cost of this work when divided among all the patrons of the line, makes the amount paid by each man * small, and this cost will be more than offset by the improved service. If the owners of rural telephone lines in this sec- i tion are experiencing trouble with their service, we will appreciate their talking the matter over with our - - ... ?TT .1. J1 J _ Manager or writing us tuliy. we win giaaiy uo , 5 what we can toward helping you improve the condition of your line. '? _ ' 'fili SOUTHERN BELL TELEPHONE /Al AND TELEGRAPH COMPANY UJM' BOX 108, COLUMBIA, SOUTH CAROLINA. ??????????? ? ? - . ^^HMg >p| Ready for To-morrow ? Horses digest their feed less thoroughly than "1 other farm animals. 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