TULSA, OKLA., STAR
PROF. POTTS SHOWS HOW GREAT-
ER PERCENT OF PROFIT
MAY BE MADE
CO-OPERATION FIRST ESSENTIAL
A Carefully Planned Organization of
all Producers In a District Must
Do Made If Success Is to
Throughout Oklahoma and In many
states of tho Middle West there exists
a desire for a more stuble and perma
nent market for cream. . This state
ment is prompted by several hundred
inquiries made by cream producers
concerning the present cream mar
kets and cream marketing conditions.
In tho state of Oklahoma a few
centralizing creameries located in
Kansas, Missouri. Oklahoma, and Tex
as control thn cream markets because
approximately 85 percent of tho cream
produced, which Is marketed as cream,
Is sold to them. These creameries
offer two systems of marketing with
them, the direct shippers' plan, where
the producer ships his own cream
direct to them, and the cream agent
or cream Btatlon plan, where tho
cream Is delivered to a cream station
operator and by him shipped to tho
A third system of cream marketing,
known as the local or farmers' co
operative creamery, handles approxi
mately 15 percent of the cream pro
duced. This system, being in close
competition with tho other two r.
terns, has been forced to pay aboutl
me same prices. Tho creameries re
celvlng cream by the direct shippers'
plan have usually paid higher prices
than those that have the additional
costs of operating cream stations.
A fourth system of cream market
ing, which has been found to work
successfully in a number of commun
ities, Is a coopcratlvo plan whereby
tho cream producers prganlze a local
cream marketing association, pool
their cream, operate their own receiv
ing station and sell their cream to the
Tho advantages of such a system
Tho testing and selling of tho
cream Is dono under the supervision
of the officers of the local cream mar
Competition in tho bidding for tho
cream obtains a higher market prico
for cream or a larger commission to
tho station operator.
Tho quality of tho cream can ho
regulated by tho local association by
the establishment of grades nnd clas
sification of cream whereby a higher
price is paid for tho higher grade or
better quality of cream.
Tho conditions necessary for tho es
tablishment of a co-operative; cream
marketing system may be enumerated
A willingness and desire on tho part
of a majority of the cream producers
in a community to co-operate In or
ganizing a cream marketing associa
tion. Tho perfecting of a local market
ing association by tho adoption of
articles of organization and by-laws,
and tho election of officers and a busi
Tho equipment of a cream receiv
ing station with Uabcock tester, scales,
wash sink, etc.
The contracting for the salo of all
cream received by the association on
tho basis of some butter market quotation.
PROF. BLACK'S GOOD WORK
i I fiEnsrfew '-JHL'' AsssiR ' " 1 ife"- 1
There's hope for a better agriculture on The Plains when teachers gen
erally become interested in such practical subjects as the selection and Improve
ment of the seed of the kaflrs. President Black of the Panhuudle Agricul
tural Institute baa been elvlng Instruction In this tubject and In the use ol
the Babcock testtr at the teacher' normal schools In Beaver and Texas
CATCH CROPS SOMETIMES PAY
ALFALFA COUNTY FARMER HAS
Gets Good Crops of Feterita, Mllo-
maize and Corn After Cutting
His Wheat, In Dry 1913.
While catch crops planted on stub
ble do not nlways pay, here is an illus
tration from tho Aline Chronoscopo
(Alfalfa Co.,) showing how one man
made it pay
"J. W. llertzler raised milomalzo,
feterita, and Juno corn nfler harvest
ing his wheat. He listed twenty acres
to June corn, twenty-flvo to dwarf
mllomalze, and twenty-live to feterita,
finishing on July 3d. Thcro was no
rain for two months but there was
moisture enough to bring it up nnd
tho September rains mado theso
With more than three-fourths of
the total cultivated area of many Ok
lahoma counties in wheat, and tho
Boil Veil filled with molsturo now,
every farm should have at least a
small acreage of sure feed crops
planted on stubble. By disking tho
stubblo immediately after tho binder,
tho moisture will bo saved. Then the
wheat should be stacked ns soon ns
possible and the crops listed In.
In the absence of chinch bugs, milo
malzo and feterita are almost certain
to maturo good crons of uraln If
planted before July 1st, not too thick
ly, and well cultivated. Kaflrcorn
will make excellent forago nnd, if the
frost holds off until November, it innv
make a heavy crop of grain. One
pound of good seed to tho acre is
enough to plant.
If chinch bugs aro thick, cownnan
are about the only safe crop to plant.
A peck of seed to tho acre, listed In
and cultivated, is enouch. Those catch
crops become more certain as normal
rainfall Increases. They are more
likely to pay on sandy lands than on
hard land. Getting them in early and
cultivating to save all molsturo pos
sible are Important points.
PREPARE FOR THE F01L0W CROP
Know In Advance the Next Step in
Your Rotation Scheme.
As kaflr grows late Into tho season
and uses largo quantities of water,
tho follow crop had best bo one which
can bo put in late, the bettor to en
ablo tho farmer to preparo tho soil.
When kaflr Is grown for green feed,
tho shaded soil, the repeated cultiva
tions and crop residues, combine to
produce a high state of tilth, and
ideal conditions are produced for fol
low crops of cereals.
If the crop is to produce a largo
yield of seed or green fodder, a boun
tiful Biipply of plant food ready for
use must bo on hand In the surface
soil. This means that the crop pre
ceding kaflr must not bo one which
impoverishes the soil.
BUILDING WIRE FENCE
EXCELLENT SUBSTITUTE FOUND
FOR RAILS AND BOARDS.
Not Expensive When One Considers
Lasting Qualities of Good Heavy
Galvanized Wire and Inde
structible Cement Posts.
,'Ily V. K. EDWAIIDB, CopyrlKht. MH.)
Pigs and the board fenco wcro the
the bano orour existence cb boys, for
no matter how securely wo fastened
tho old boards tho plgu would get out
Just when wo w;cro starting for the
swimming holo or going berrying.
Now concreto posts nnd wire fencing
havo become, substitutes for tho
boards and rails and onco set up aro
fortunately there to stay.
"But wire fencing Ib so expensive!"
tho reader will say. Tho reply to that
is, "It you do not consider the lasting
qualities of good heavy galvanized
wire and tho Indestructibility of ce
ment poBts." Tho writer remembers
putting a flfty-flvo inch woven wire
fenco around his garden some nine
teen .years ago, using chestnut postB
set twenty feet npart. This fence is
Btlll stnnding and In to all appearances
In excellent condition. Regarding tho
spacing of the posts around this gar
den, which bordered tho highway and
required 400 feet of fencing, If wo,
had used n uonrd fenco with eight
foot post spacing thirty more postB
would havo been required, and as
theso cobI even in those dayB 15 cents
each, a saving of $4.50 was effected.
In this particular case tho posts be
ing of chestnut (eight feet long) the
butts wcro painted with a creosote
preparation and set three feet in tho
In using cement posts, which aro
easily mado at home, bo suro to havo
tho butts of tho corner and end posts
extra heavy and then no anchors aro
needed; also provido for two bolt
holes in each post, one near tho top,
the other near tho bottom, to bo used
for the bolts which hold tho wooden
strip to which tho wlro 1b stapled.
In setting somo 800 feet of poultry
fencing this past year tho writer used
modern heavy woven wlro, with six
foot cement posts set threo feet In
the ground. To theso short posts
were bolted five-foot wooden strips
three by four inches, to which tho
Brace for Corner Post,
wlro was stapled. Many of tho ce
ment posts In this caso had to have
extra largo butts on account of tho
hollows In tho ground, which had a
tendency to pull up the posts.
During this tlmo of tho year, when
tho ground 1b very dry it Is sometimes
very troublesome while building wlro
fenco to keep the post from turning
at the corners. Anchor tho corner
post about four feet, then dig a trench
tho samo depth toward the second
post, nail a two by four Bcantllug to
the corner post at tho bottom, havo
tho scantling about four or five feet in
length, now attach n two by four threo
feet In length to tho scantling, tamp
the dirt over this securely and tho
post will never Blip or turn if properly
braced at tho top. To properly braco
the post at tho top tho braco should
bo fitted In the post two and one-hult
feet from tho bottom nnd top, thU
braco should be of good material with
a crosB braco of wlro no shown In tho
Cart of Currant Bushes.
For currant liuHhes that havo been
neglected nnd are very thick with
dead branches, cut away all tho old
wood In tho early spring, nnd do not
be afraid of It. Bo very careful to
burn every bit. If bothered with
worms or green lice, spray the bushes
two or threo times with bordeaux mix
ture. Cultivate woll. Do the cutting
as early as you Ilka In the spring or
even In tho late fall, If you prefer.
To Sow Seeds.
Remember In sowing seeds, to cov
er them their own depth. Kino, dust
Hko seed should be scattered along
tho line and pressed into tho soil.
Sprinkle sand over tho surface and
again press tho soil. Placo a thin
piece of muslin over tho soil and wa
ter carefully. Tho muslin prevents
the seed bolng disturbed. When the
seed breaks tho soli, removo tho mus
lin. Variety for Sheep.
Sheep are partial to a change of diet,
consequently the greater the variety
Of feed the better the results.
J; GROUND '
WV W - -
USEFUL TOOL AROUND DAIRY
Plug or Stopper Removed From Milk
Cans Without Tugging or Ham
mering as Done Hitherto.
A very handy tool to havo around
whero there aro milk canB to bo opened
Is shown by tho accompanying illus
tration, says Popular Electricity.
This consists of a steel ring A, and n
bar II, which Is drawn to an edge like
ft chisel, theso two pieces bolng held
together by a pin C.
To remove tho plug iLo ring Is
placed over tho top of tho can with
Handy Dairy Tool.
tho edge of tho bar ngalnBt tho plug and
tho top of tho can ns shown, when by
pressing down In tho direction of tho
nrrow tho plug Is pried out of tho can.
This Is much BUpcrlor to tho mothod
often npplled of knocking tho plug with
n hammer or tugging nt It, for tho plug
Is removed with very llttlo offort.
VALUE OF THE GARDEN CROP
By Careful Cultivation Farmer Can
Make Acre Pay More Money Than
Anything Else on Farm.
(lly J. W. I.I.OYD.)
No longer do tho farmers of the bet
ter class content themselves with rais
ing a few rows of potatoes, calling
that their garden. It Is not necessary
longer for tho buBy fnrmer'B wifo to
look ufter theso neglected corn and
potato spots for tho farmer has come
to understand that thcro is good
money in them.
Timo was when tho farmer con
tented himself with raising grain
crops, considering It beneath his dig
nity to spend tirno on tho garden. If
thero was a garden on the placo it
was usually left tq his wlto and chil
dren to pull tho weedB and to do any
other work that was actually required.
Now, tho farmer himself, with a
work horBe and modern garden ma
chinery, can do moro work in nn hour
than his wife could do In a week, and
do it better. By careful cultivation ho
can mnko his half aero of garden
pay moro cash money than any other
aero an tho farm.
Tho high cost of living hns also
roused tho Inhabitants of tho small
towns and thoso who live In tho sub
urbs of tho cities mako use of evory
foot of ground posslblo to produce
vegetables to plcco out tho table sup
plies and aB first aid to their pocket
books. Experience Essential.
No farmer who has not tried It
should engago In tho cattle-feeding
business on a largo scale nt tho start.
Ho will find, and generally at nrotty
high cost, that oxporlenco nnd good
Judgment aro needed as much as corn
to luy tho fat on a bunch of steers at
Success With Poultry.
Success, with poultry Ib In the man,
and In tho hen and In the feed, nnd In
a lot of other things too tedious to
mention, but not too tedious to tho
right mau who will mastor It It ho will.
Increases Milk Flow.
Spraying tho cows with a fly repel
lent Is a bit of troublo and a not too
pleasant Job, but It makes the cows
comfortable and adds to the milk flow.
Time for Thinning Apples.
When thinning apples thinning
should bo dono when tho llttlo appleB
uro about ono inch In diameter. Do
not leavo any apples nearer together
than four inches.
Rye Meal for Cows.
Tho Pennsylvania experiment sta
tion has found that ryo meal us a part
of properly balanced ration for dairy
cows Ib equivalent in milk und butter
production to an equal weight of corn
Keeping Colts In the Barn.
Uemember the spring colts are bet
ter off in tho barn than following the
mother around over the fields theso
dayB. They get Into tho way and ex
pend fll of their energy in worrying
and annoying the mother. To allow
this means loss of energy to mother
and colt Keep them la the barn away
from the flies.
NECESSITY OF FALLOW
QUESTION NO LONGER DEBATA
BLE IN GRAIN SECTIONS.
When Properly Prepared and Cared
for It Enables Settler to 8tore In
Soil Large Amount of Moisture
'Keep Weeds Down.
In eastern Colorado, Wyoming, Utahi
Idnho, Oregon and Washington and
parts of Montnnn, districts of very lovd
rainfall, usually Icrb thnn fifteen
Inches annually, 75 per cent of which)
falls during Into autumn, winter and
early spring months, and a large per)
cent of which Is snow, tho Importance
of tho Bummer fallow U no longer dei
bntnblo, Bays Denver Hold and Faring
It Ib known to bo an absolute necctH
slty to profitable grain farming, ami
undoubtedly will contlnuo to bo so)
long ns wheat growing remains thoj
basic dry farm crop, or until drought-l
resistant and early-maturing strains o
Inter-tilled crops, auch ns corn, ultnlfa,
Canada pons, Jlexicnn beans, potatoes;
sorghums, etc., can bo discovered or
dovoloped to tako tho plnco of tho fal
low. Tho groat concern of every fnrmi
er operating in this region Is molsturo
In years of abundnnco of rainfall llkoj
tho present ono crops aro usually Rood
no matter what system has been foli
Profltnblo crops aro produced i
such years even when wheat hns boeri(
Btubbled In after wheat, but In dry
years such pratlso results In failure
and tho country Ib condemned becnUBo)
it Is too dry to produco crops, when In)
reality tho fault Is not with tho coun
try but with tho man. It bits beor
thoroughly demonstrated that thq
Hummor fallow when properly proi
pnrod and cared for onnbles the sot-j
tier to storo In tho soil n lnrgo amount
of tho molsturo of two years' preclpltoj
tlon for tho production of ono crop unci
through Its uso profitable crops car
usually ho grown, even In yenrs of thq
most cxtremo drought. Although thu(
summer fallow enables ono to produce)
bigger yields during favorablo yean
than Is posslblo by any other system
of farming Its real merits uro onlyl
brought out in dry years.
Summer fallow or summer tillage
consists In plowing tho lnnd thoroughi
ly to a good depth, seven Inches or
even deeper, either in tho fall or In tho
spring iv 8 tho weather, soil molstuni
conditions nnd the disposition of thq
farmer's tlmo will permit, and leaving)
It Ho over during tho sumrnor In culti-i
vntod condition froo from vegetatlor
of any kind until seeding tlmo In tliu
fall. Tho deep plowing facilitates the;
storing of Hummer rains and tho sun
face cultivation chocks its evaporation
from tho soil until It can bo utilize
by tho growing crop. Weeds, 'voluni
teor grain or nny form of vegetation
must not bo allowed to grow on thai
fallow, becauso thoy drink from thu
land us much moisture as a crop oil
In a vory largo mcosuro tho nettlerj
can control theso by proper methodB o
farming nnd tho summer fallow be-t
longs In this cntegory because It Is tliu
host known way of utilizing the scanty,
supply of precipitation. There Ib ona
posslblo way in which farmers opcratt
lng under n low annual precipitation
can produco profitable crops of wheat
every other year without tho use of,
tho fallow, nnd that Is by tho substitui
tlon of lntor-tllled crops for the fallow!
By tho growing of such crops as corn,
Borghums, potatoos, Canada peas, Men
icon heana, etc., tho land can often bti
made to produco profitable tilled cropu
and nt tho samo tlmo put the soil In
fair condition for wheat.
Tho main drawback to such a syt
torn nt this tlmo lies In tho fact that
most of tho inter-tilled crops now avail
ablo aro not very drought-reslBtant and)
aro lato maturing too late for tho
short growing season common to thq
soml-arld lands. .
SOIL TEXTURE AND MOISTURE;
All Productive Soils Are, as a Ruin,
Composed of Combination of
Sand, Silt and Clay.
(JAMES D. MARSHALU Coloradd
The term texture when applied to
tho soil refers to tho slzo of tho sol)
particles. Generally speaking there)
are threo main classes of soil brined on
texture, sand, silt and clay, and all
productive soils are, as a rule, corui
posed of combinations of the nbovu
Tho amount of movement and tliu'
rate of movement of soil molsturo aro
governed to qulto nn extent by ter
turo. In sand wo find that tho action
is rapid but lasts but a short tlmo. On
the other hand, tho movement In clajf
is very slow, but tho water trnvola
through a much greater distance. In
soils of medium texturo the action 1
intermediate throughout! In tho aver
age soil, movement of water Is con
fined to a few feet, but In some of the
fine textured soils It may travel a couj
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