Newspaper Page Text
THE CULTURE OF SUGAR BEETS IN AMERICA.
rif ss -si- "Sfe- "Si? 'its' -nt js- A Complete History ofati Industry Which is Des tined to Become Lucrative Investment for the American Farmer. THIS VALLEY IS SPITED TO THEIR CULTURE. An Interview With Mr. B. F. Hammett, of the Campbell Real Estate Company, Brings to Light Some Interesting. Facts on This Important Subject. j BY IIi Li. BRADFORD. California id a land of experiments. The pioneer who came bere with his pick and shovel experimented by dig ging holes into the sides of mountains and in the beds of creeks and rivule's in quest of eo'd; not content with this kind of experimenting, or having fail ed in obtaining a sufficient quantity of precious metal, he turned bid attention to other pursuits, su -h as ftok ra'sipg, farming-, etc. In that of stock raising be had but little experimenting to do, as the inhabitants before him had made that the sole industry of the country, but even then he proceeded to experi ment n the breeding of his stock until in a few short years the native mus tang naJ been supplemented by a high er grade of noraes. Tne itme rule ap plied to cattle, so that the long, bony, harp-horned wild eteer of the weal eventually gave way to the Durham, tne H jib tela, tue Jersey and oihr su perior species. Tne same may oe said of the sneepaad the swine, the former increasing in size and becoming more valuable because of the bettor quality of woul, wniie tne California ''tale rooter's" snout was shortened and hio ham made larger tnrougn his as sociating with tue imported Hirk sbire. But the California colony having re ceived new biood aud new idea. tnrough the influx of ma jy people Ironi var.oudstctiono of the giobe, coutinutd experimenting. A Spaniard brought with him a few twis of olives, a Frenchman brought or sent to hid na tive lanu for his iavorite grape vine, a Yankee bent to Delaware for sume pit of thoje dwlioioua peaches ne nad learn ed to like in his boyaood days and with hi Inventive Ingenuity assisted in mak ing valuable experiments in the line of agriculture. la the meantime, some one who had bcCjme disgusted with the flavour, taste, and weevily cooaition oi the Cniie Hour which formed the .principal ingreuient in the pioneer flapjack, Bent somewhere for some grains of wheat, sowed it and to bis utter surprise that cereal diu well, even in what to bim ejn ed a sun-bakea desert in the west. But be did tot stop at that, be proceed ed further aud sowed barley, corn and oats. Primitive mills were erected, tne ripened barley aud wheat were tak en there and ground, the former soon found a rca jy market because of the heavy leamiug then in vogue between the heads of navigation aud tne mining centers, while the letter although half ground and half tifted was so much superior to the imported article that California flour, imperfect a it was, eoo a had the call and another Industry was set on foot. Tni Industry in turn created a demand for more cereals, part.cula ly wh.at, aap as a result tuertof, the vast stock ranges, then ex- i tiog, were gradually turned into wheat fields. Still tne exper.meoter continued wita his work. The olive tw.g from Spain and the grape-vine from France had taeo root and st the presses a work, while the Yaatcee's peaches l'j a dried cr fresj state were furnishing the "stuffij" for the miner's pie. And still the experiment went on, vasi tracks were made into o-chard, canals were excavate!, thi water taken froa its natural channels and s Dread upor the desert. iSo-t and Central Amer ica and the Med terranean were iovau ed by the -inveterate Caiifornian anc the golden fruits lrom those sectioat found lodgement in our soil, and strange as it may appear the expecta tions of the most sacguine were more than met by the excellence of thr orange and lemon produced in their new home.- It required much time ana evidence to convii.ee the easterner that the California production was palat able, but eventually he awoke to a re alization of their excellency and again another experiment had proven a suc cess. But this is not all, for in several por tior oi the state, prticulrly in the Sinta Clara va ley, near Gilroy, tobac co ia being successfully raided, while in the low laids of the Sin Joaqu n and Sicramento rivers some efforts are be ing made to raise rice and hemp, and in the foot bills of the Sierra Nevada, experiments are being made with tev and coffee. Thr experiment, however, that pro mises to brine about the greatest re sults to the Gulden S'a'e and whi:h in time is destined to emancipate this na tion from the monopolists of other lands is that of the buarar beet. A' ready the beet sugar industry has ob tained a foothold in California, and so rapid t a been its erowth that, in a few short years, it has outstripped all the other states in the output of that article, although the isothermal line, for the United States, as givt n by the U. S. superintendent of agriculture, runs from the state of New York to California, including the shores of QjirjOAfo Lake Erie, and running through the states of Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, Illi nois, Minnesota, South and North Da kota, Missouri, Nebraska, Colorado, New Mexico, Iaaho, Washington and Arizona. Tne success which has marked the development of that industry in this state, is mainly due to a fortunate corn bit ation of climate and soil; the ab sence of the winter snows making it possible to cultivate the sugar produc ing vegetable easier and at less coot than io tbe eastern sections, the atmos pher.c influences, too, being more fav orable to the extraction of the necessa ry salts from the earth; Writing on this subject, H. W. Wi ley, of tne department of agriculture, says: "The mean summer tempera ture of these localities is about the UAflVKlumiiin . liiHUlf f riTiTf ff itri 3" inr ii 'ik hi i II jama Vl 1 1 tVtA nnnlnnatinn I saml. I -ummer temperature through the wi-i-er in Southern California gieit y fav ors the growth and manufacture of the b.'ets. In Northern Nebraska anl outh Dakota the be. ts, which are to be . . . j . t . ! manufactured dur n the winter time, nave to be p'otected by expensive! siiuH. 10 vauiuroia anu otner p:aces imitarly 6ituated th beets can be pro- eukeu wiLaout any covering, or at most with only a slight covering of I at leaves and straw "The season for planting- in a mild climate -is also longer. For instance, lu (Jali forma planting can commence as early as January and continue till June, thus giving a beet crop coming continuously in maturity tvojea. the 1st of August to the first of December. In Other localities the p'au icg must be accomplished in a short time, say fronts the 10th of May to the 1st of June- Be fore the first of these dat '8 the ground will be too co!d for planting and after the second the season will be so late as to prevent the maturity of the beets be fore frost." Thus it may be seen why the capita lists, those who invest their money with a view to obtaining the greatest profits, give California the preference in their investments, and to this fact, no doubt, are we indebted for the es tablishment in our midst of six im mense sugar factories, with a joint capa-ity of 89,000 tons of beet sugar per annum, representing an invest ment of over $5,000,000 and the form ing of an English syndicate whose in tent is to invest $15,000,000, more in the firowth and manufacture of beet su srar in the Sacramento valley, in this state. The factories now in operation are , situated, one at Alvarado, Alameda Co., with a capacity of 10,000 tons per annum; one at Watsonville, Sant Cruz, Co , with a capacity of 15,000 tons; one at Anaheim, Southern Califor nia, with a capacity of 10,000 tons: one at Chino, Southern California, with a capacity of 12,000 tons, while two others, one at Hueneme, Ventura Co , of 12.000 tons, and one at Salinas, Monterey Co., (the largest in the f?trljde ETT77777 'TSTnTTir 7 the worid) with a capacity of 30,000 tons per annum, are now in course of con stiuction. That tne reader may have some idea of the immensity of the factory last named, I herein give the following di mensions as furnished by tee manage ment: The main building is 582 feet long, 102 feet wide, 5 stories high, con tains 3,500 tons of steel, 4,000,000 brick, and 800 squares of slate, in addition to this main structure is a boiler house 559 feet ioag, 68 fett wide, 22 feet high, conttiniog nearly 1,000,000 crick, and enclosing 12 mammoth boilers and 4 economizers, from which rise two steel smottt-btioks 13 feet in diameter and exttndiug 21b" feet into tbe air, each weig'iin; 1,000 ions; also a macbins shop 559 fee', long, 40 feet wide, 22 feet higb, and containing 600,000 brick. ' r In" " inn L." U 1 11,1 M)H i In addition to these there will be miles of railroad tra :ks and switches, thou sands of feet of sheds and silo.s, a su perintendent's building, eleitric power plants, pumpintr plants, etc., the whole coteang aa area of about 500 acres of lac.d. When running at fu'l capacity, this beet a iacto - y win grind 3 uuu tons of per dav. reauinuar 13.000.000 gallons of ' -3 B , , " - water, (as much as it takes to supply j the city of San Francisco) and 120 bar- ! rels ot fuel oil for ech hours, re- quiring a total expenditure for help and met oaly, or abut $5,000 per day. The output of sugar will bj about 450 tons for every 24 hours, from the pro- ceeds of which $12,000 per day will be paid to the farmers for the crude beets, Unlike the other factories in the Unit-! ed -states, the Salinas concern will ''i'iv Mi, hU.i im'Mni "i 1 1 "" 11 "" 'Kas , j ix. IjK "s. rHrftfh'Ifffi'rWrV-r i ii ii ii ii n ii i! ii ii ii ii in I , j ii i . i I I, ri M i ill , i II II II II II M U II have a refinery attached to it, and will turn out its sugar properly barreled and ready for use, exept in cases where orders are filled for other refiner ies. Tbe selection of the Salinas valley as a site for this immense structure, is but tte result of years of experiment ing on the part of Glaus Spreckles, the projector. The Watsonville factory, since its construction having been sup plied mainly from the Salinas valley, necessitated . the purchasing oi vast tracts -of land in that section by Mr. Spreckles, the mrst of which he has subdivided into small farm with the intention of placing on -each sub-division a family, those versed in beet cul ture preferred. Mr. Spreckles' pos sessions in that section will figure up to somewhere in the neighborhood of 40,000 acres, end his agents are still at work endeavor ng to obtain more land. That he will find no trouble in finding settlers is evidenced by the fa ;t that at th's writing 40 cottages with their barns, ec, are being erected on these lands for the accommodation of people who have lately come into the state. In addition to the ' Spreckles colony," as it is termed, other people in that section have been instrumental in es tablishing other colonies, namely St. Joseph's colony, composed of German Catholics who have lately arrived from 11 inois. This colony is situated near the town of Salinas, and already com prises about 30 families, all of whom are over average in intelligence and well to do financially. Tbe Salvat od Army colony, founied by Commander Booth Tucker, nearSoledad a few days ago, also promises to bring about gooa results to the sugar industry, and will, no doubt, be the means of determin ing whether or not i'- is possible to re deem a man industrially as well as re ligiously. The average ylld of beets per acre in the Salinas valley is said to be from 8 to 10 tons. The beets bring $4. 00 per ton at the factory besides the tops which are used by the farmers and which make excellent food for stock. The other factory at Hueneme, Ven tura county, also promises to develop a rich and fertile section of this state, and will be the means of opening up s c-.mntry heretofore, but sparsely popu lated Thus we see the era of experi menting in California is not yet at an e' d, on the contrary it has just obtain ed netv life, and within the next de cade th's state will show such marvel ous progi ef 8 in the line of agriculture as to astonish 'those well acquainted with its unparalleled resources. Mr. Claus Spreckles, who has de voted the most of his life to the sugar industry, both here and in the Ha waiian Islands, writing for the San Francisco -Call, says: "The promise of permanence given by this valuable industry makes it de sirable that everything possible should be done to safe guard and cherish it es one of the ch ef resources in ualilornia The changing conditions of the trade have rendered ins vitabletbe establish ment of many new concerns, all of which, however, can . find room for their operations. "An auxiliary business which might, with advantage, be entered upon at an early date, is the production of beet seed on a large scale by expert horti culturists. Tbe best qualities are at present imported from France and Germany, where the art of producing, by repeated selection, tne most perfect kind of seeds has long been carried on. This country could certainly produce its own, and thus save, not only the cost of freight, but the deterioration due to the ocean passage. "It is also noteworthy that in Ger many one-fourth of the entire sugar production is carried on in co-operative factories, the farmers holding a considerable number of the shires. The best po-sible results would follow to all concerned if s' me plan could be devised by which farmers micht sub scribe for shares in a companv's stock, for at once in identity oi interest would be established that could not fail to conduce to the welfare of .both pirtles. "California is face t face with the opening of a new era. In swift revolu- tion from one phase to tbe other of the industrial progress, sbe enters now up on a path which demands a closer union and a stronsrer social bond, but which, given these, leans to a grtater wealth than tbe past can show. "Only ot e obstacle stands in the way of the full realization of these plans and purposes, and that is tbe thr- aten- I ed annexation of tbe Hawaiian Islands. CkUUl. Ul bUD UaWBUBU 1D19UUD The results that would follow such ac develnnmant of th hoct. iiif indns- try in this state. The emplovment of coolie lab )r at $12 a month (the labor frs providing everything for tbem- RAlvpfii vnnlH noi.t.ainlv a.tfant. t.hfh nnai. tion of workmen here earning $2 a day in a similar capacity. Let it also be remembered that the already larce proportions of the Hawaiian product, -The... jl Blanks 6 Blank We have just added to pur already large Job; Printing department the largest and most complete BOOK., ..BINDERY Ledgers, Journals, Custom House Blanks, Facturas, Etc, gX We Print, Bind and Rule to iiiiiiiaiiiiiuaiaiiiiaiiiiaiiaaiiaaiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiilM are capable of i in uioi.se eApaacio-- by means of irri- i-'n, and it will be r-eea that tte me ace to the new indus try here is a real odo. ''Not Ca iforr.ia alone but the ei tire country is interested in tbe perman nt estabHshmen". of the best su?ar indus try in those districts which are best dap ted for it, at.d under those condi tions which will best conduce to the upbuilding of a prosperous trade, and the well being of a 1 concerned. " It may be we 1 :o aad that the beet f Uk ar i. du. try is by no means nsw in the United States Exp riments in fiat line have been toint' on in a more cr les wa'e s'nee 183it, whtn a few hundred loan were produced in tbe eastern states, which amount, accord ing to the Statistical Trade Journal was iacreased to 1300 pounds in 1839. From that period to 1863, however, there was no production of beet sugar in the country, but in 1863, the man ufacture of that article was resumed end the output gradually increased from 300 tons in 1863 to 500 tons in 1871. In 1873, tb.3 output was 700 tins, butduritg the period between 1874 and 1877, less than 100 tons per annum were produced, and in 1887 only 1010 toes marked the beet sugar output of the United States. In 1889, 2600 tons were made and since then the indus try has gradually in.ressad until last year tbe product amounted to nearly eu,uuu tons, and from a smau, -primitive sugar factory in 1830, we now have twelve ,'arge factories in the Ucit d States, six of which are located in Cal ifornia. --Tho?e east being located at Norfolk," Nebraska; G;aad Island, Neb raska; Eddy, New Mexico; Lehi, Utah; Rome, New York, and Milwaukee, Wiecon-in; with many more now in course of erection or bting contemplat ed. Still we are in our infancy, so far as the beet sugar industry is concerned, a fact which becomes at once apparent when we stop to consider that Ger many in 1896, had 397 factories in oper- at on using 11,672 816 tons or betts; Frauce, 356 factories, using 5,411,585 metric tons; Austria-Hungary, zio fac tories, using 5,760,000 metric tons, and Ru sia, 277 factories, using 6,311,888 metric tons. All of the countries men tioned manufacture sugar enough for home consumption, except, perhaps, Russia, and have some for exportation, while the United States according to tbe latest statistics, only products in beet and cane sugar about thirty per cent of what it consumes. Thus we may see that with advantages for beet culture unsurpassed by Europe it will not be long till the tide will turn the other way and Uncle Sam will find himself exporting sugar instead of im porting it, with California producing at lean one half of the entire output, and thus again demonstrating that tbe experiment of tbe Golden State has not yet gone to sleep. MR. HAMMETT INTERVIEWED. In addition to tbe above, it might be added that El Paso has a valley tbat according to the reports of experts is eq'-ally as rich for the produe ion ot tUar beets as any vahey or county in the. United States. A great deal has and is being said and writ' n in regard to this important industry by eom of the leading pipers of the country. Knowing Mr.B F.Hammett, manager of tbe Campbell Real Hi-titM company in tb is city, to be interested in tbe land business in the P cos valley and would be in a position to speak on tbe im portance of tbe sugar business, the following interview was secured with tbat gentleman: "The sugar beet rais'ng Industry, ' said Mr. Hammett, "is undoubtedly one of the most profitable investments in the Pecos valley and at Eddy, New Mexico, and there is no reason why tnis vaiiey snouid not De equal to JN eve- Mexico for the production of the oeet The climatic conditions and richness of the soil are all tbat could be de sired " . 'Is the water supply sufficient for the needs of a sugar beet factory?" "No," reolied Mr Hammett, "that is the only bad feature, and much to be "eplored. Before anything can be successfully carried on in our valley here, the internatioral dam will have to give us the water supply needed. Great interest is being manifested by moneyed men, who look loigingly at this section as a most advantageous one , but who feel that it is useless to HERALD Is now fully prepared to quote and reader the most prompt service to your many needs in IN THE SOUTHWEST. SANTA FE. The Most Direct Line to Kansas City, Boston, St. Louis. New Yoik, Chicago, Philadelphia Denver, Omaha, St. Paul, And all Northern and Eastern Points Through. Trains, Fast Time, Smooth Track. Elegant Pullman Palace Sleepers on all through trains. Daily Tourist ' Sleeping cars to Denver, Kaisis City and Chicago. Tourist Sleeping cars semi weekly to St; Paul and Minneapolis and onoe each week to St. Louis St Boston. All trains not having dining oars stop for meals at the famous Santa -Route, Harvey Houses. Full information cheerfully furnished upon application to J. 8. MORRISSON, F. B. HOUGHTON, City Ticket Agent. General Agent. Office, Fargo Building, Corner El Paso and San Antonio Streets. (HI SUNSET Ol -) ROUTE iJ 00UBLE DAILY ; . . TRAIN SERVICE with Buffet Sleepers Only Standard Guage Line Running Through Sleepers to the City of Mexico. Night ud Moniig Goaseetiou it New Oriaui with lisei tiN WW TOM, PHII ADELPHIA, WASHIN6T0N, ATLANTi, CINCINNATI, ST. LOUIS wmphjs iND mum invest their mor.ey with so scant a supply of water as at present. "There is certainly a great future in beet raising in this valley when the present objectioa is overcome. This must certa nly be apparent when ou realize that from one half to a million of dollars wou'd be necessvry to estab lish a factory and conduct the business as it is in more favored localtiins in the United States And yet unlimited capital would be eaiily obtainable. It is -he growing industry of the Unied States today, and is bting greatly en couraged by our secretary of agricul ture. As a result the acreage is being increased largely, at all the places where the raising of bee's has been tried " "Whit 's the average crop per acre and its. cost of production?" "I would say about 10 tons to tbe acre. -1 think that a low average, too The oot of proluctim is about $5 per acre. The crop ts a very easy one to cult'va'e, and not at all hard upon tbe soil. For this valley there is every prospect that with the coorerition of property holders and a sufficient sup ply of water, it will in time be a most important and profitable indus try. "There is somewher- between $150, 000,000 aud $200,000,000 annually spent for imported sugar, and a trreat amount of that money could be kept in tbe Uni'ed States, and it will be when the hopes of those now in -the sugar beet business are realized." "Then you think there is a Dromia- ing future for the Industry in this val ley?" 1 do, indeed. And there are a mul titude of others who have invested elsewhere who will, at the proper time, locate here, and invest their money when a water supply adeaua'e to the demand can be assured," the lowest prices and satisfactory the line of Books, g YOUR order. gi "SUNSET ROUTE." NEW ORLEANS AND GALVESTON SAN ANTONIO AND GALVESTON LOOK AT THE MAP! We can Ticket You to ANY PART OF THE UNITED STATES. Low Rarw Eleqant EQuiFncrir. Fast Tine, y iP. TURNER, Bea'l Put'r mi Tkt AjinfJiLU: TBt B. F. DARBYsHsRP, S. W. F. if 1 NapoleoirJ. Roy, The Fashionable Tailor. HSILDON BIOCI - OPPOSITE POSTOTOG vPACIFICr