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EL PASO, TEXAS. WEONtSDAY, MARCH 20, 1901. PAGFS 9 AND 10 PART TWO. KL PA SO R1 o Surveys - Great the REPORT OF A RECONNAISSANCE OK A ROUTE FROM THE RED RIVER TO THE PECOS. WHICH LATER BECAME AN IMPORTANT STAGE ROAD BETWEEN THE EAST AND WEST. San Antonio. Tex.. Jan. 28. 1850. Sir: Orders, of which I submit the following copy, were received by me at the place and date set forth therein: I Special Orders No. 50.1 " Headquarters 8th Department. San Antonio. September 11. 1849. Agreeably to the recommendation contained In the letter of Brevet Lieut Col. Johnston, chief topographical en gineer within the eighth department, dated July 12. 1849. Lieutenant Mlchler. with his party, will proceed to the ex amination of the route from the upper .valley of the south branch of Red river to the Rio Pecos. Should there be evi dence of a serious hostility on the part of the Indians, likely to endanger the lives of the party. Lieut. Michler will retrace his steps, and return to tnismne8 in iengtb. varying in breadth place for further instruction. I constantly, and about forty yards wide By order of Brevet Major General Brooke Geo. Deas. Assistant Adjutant General. Having proceeded to execute the above instructions. I have now the hon or to report their completion, and re spectfully furnish the following report of my reconnaissance, together with fce accompanying map: Upon leaving San Antonio my cr corf consisted of fourteen men all ci vilians. I decided upon taking wagons Red river: and to the right one con along, as far as possible, as they would tinuous prairie, with here and there affnrii thi host test of the nracticabilitv mots of post oak. Several small creeks of the road. The nearest nost to the point at which my examination was to eminence. Is Fort Washita. In the In- dian Territory. Apart from the fact of its being a good starting-point from which to commence the survey. It poss- essed the advantages of enabling me to renew my supplies of provisions, and of refitting out my expedition ,with ani mals, or whatever might be needed, be fore finally getting beyond the reach of settlements. In consideration of these circumstances. I proceeded first to Fort Washita the distance being about 380 miles. The road traveled was upon the i! ..i ... extreme line of settlements, although within the present line of military posts. For the first hundred miles, the country has become pretty well settled; 1 for the rest of the way. farms were on ly met with at intervals of ten and fif teen miles. With but few exceptions, the road was an excellent one through- out; the country was generally a fine grazing one. and well watered, fine bold streams crossed at short distances. With the exception of post oak and one or two other varieties of oak. no timber was to be met with, except immediately uopn the banks of streams. The prin- cipal, and I might say the only, produce miles. The timber generally grows of the farms is corn ; the demand being pretty thick, and upon a sandy soil, limited, there is but a small supply. p0t oak. white oak, Spanish oak. black each farmer raising corn merely Ruf- jack, and other varieties of oak. to ficient for his own use and for the few gether with elm. black and white hick passing travelers. Upon approaching ory. form the principal growth of the Red river, some few fields of cotton Cross Timbers. The country is rolling were seen. The villages along the road throughout their extent. Many small are mostly small, containing perhaps, creeks traverse them, and fine walnut "some half dozen dwellings the latter and sycamore grow upon I heir banks, but poor and Indifferent. Even the and often cedar Is found along them. most trivial comforts are unknown to a greater portion of them. Within a few miles of Red river, more signs of in dustry and ease are visible, and you seem transported in a new land. Be-3-ond this last river, among the Chic ka saws. you meet with some fine farms, and in all a degree of comfort which does credit to them. In consequence of some heavy rains.- a few slight detentions occurred: lut we at last reached Fort Washita in ' safety. I was here detained for sev . eral days, after renewing my outfit, by a rise in the False Washita. Constant rumors of Indian hostilities reaching me. I here Increased my party, which , now numbered twenty-one men. With this escort, and with four "wagons, loaded with provisions for two months and a half. I was in readiness for a start. To Capt. Marcy. fifth Infantry, who hacl arrived at Washita but two days previous to my setting out. I am in debted for information concerning the country passed over by him. knowing hat the route to be pursued by me would, sooner or later. Intersect his. He had come from the Pecos, but had kept south of the Red river until he leacnea t-reston. 1 attempted to obtain and Reconnoissances Southwest bv Officers - United States Half Century the services of his valuable guide. Black Beaver, a Delaware, but failed, as he had so recently returned from off a long expedition. I consequently had to proceed without a guide. The course and distances from Fort Washita to the Pecos were actually taken, until we found it in the notes of the survey. The Washita river having fallen, we proceeded to cross it the entire day being occupied in accomplishing the crossing of the wagons. To be better able to impart correct ideas of the country traversed. I shall extract parts from my journal of each day's march: November 9. 1849 This morning started from Fort Washita. The first two miles was through the Washita bottom; the soil rich, red clay mixed with sand, being excellent cotton land: the timber cot ton wood, hickory, dog wood, elm. sycamore, and post oak. The road lay partly on a post oaK ridge, dry. and. of a hard, sandy nature. The Washita rier. when I reached it. was i still high, although fordable on horse back. When low even, it is difficult to cross, in consequence of the existence of quicksand in the bed ot the river. This stream Is about three hundred at the ford. It is frequently the cans of the great rise in the Red river. The water is of a bright vermilion color, and its taste brackish. They speak of erecting a bridge across it; the banks are high and favorable for accomplish- ing it. On the west side, the bottom land is about half a mile in width, very dense and thick, and of the same na- ture. The road then passes over a slightly rolling prairie until It reaches ! th livpr Cross Tlmhers. To the left I . are seen the the low hills along the were passed: the country seemingly well watered; the timber growing very thick along the. The boh was or a tandy nature throughout the entire distance. The prairie grass was al ready very dry at this season, the spe- cies of gramma being most abundant; here and there, spots of mezquite. Saw several varieties of cactus today. At the edge of the Cross Timbers, we found an unusual formation for this country: Upon the slopes of the prai- r lav laroa t-rwka all nr Ihpm marn and or a l'nlwlik form, set In the ground at angles, edges upright, and all hiehiv fnlHfcrnns hut no common common direction given them. The distance from the Washita river to the edge of the Cross Timbers is about nineteen miles. Encamped on Sandy creek. November 10 to November 16 The road for the next eight miles still con tinued in the Lower Cross Timbers. This body of timber commences as far south as the Brazos, and crosses the country in a northeast direction. To pass through it. we were compelled to follow old Indian trails, cutting our way wherever the waeons could not pass. It. breadth, by the road, was ten The road laid down on the map as the 'Old Spring road" leads to a spring which its name implies: the oil is said to resemble naptha. and patients al ready resort to it for its beneficial ef fects. The country near the edge of the Cross Timbers became more rolling and from the highest points the Red river could lie easily seen. . The Ixjw Pr are separated from the Cross Tim bers by a high rolling prairie firteen miles in breadth, by our course. This prairie is open and entirely destitute of timber: the soil is ric h until you again reach" the Cross Timbers, when it be comes loose sand. The upper are vast ly inferior to the lower. Iioth In kind and quality of timber: the former are composed of nothing but scrubby post oak. In breadth they are fifteen miles, the main body extending west as far as Mud creek. The banks of the streams traversing them are generally of loose sand, and it is difficult for wagons to cross them: at almost every one of them we were compelled to double the teams and cut away the banks, in or der to cross them. The water is gen erally fresh, with the exception of Salt Creek. They are subject to frequent and sudden risings, but soon run out SOME OLD RECORDS. in the of Army Ago. Upon the banks of one of them we were detained an entire day. in consequence of a heavy rain on the night of the 9th. At Walnut bayou, left the road to War ren's trading post, and followed an old Indian trail to the mouth of Mud creek. Thhe trading house was broken up a year or two ago. and two or three old Cherokees alone remain at the spot. We have passed several Indian villages, principally belonging to the Caddo and Bilusi tribes: they have settled down to raising corn, and with their cows and. poultry seem quite domesticated. Af- ter cutting our road through the Upper Cross Timbers, we reached the Red river and on the morning of the 15th encamped on its banks, within half a mile of the mouth of Mud creek, and distant sixty-one miles from Fort Washita. The banks of the river were low. The water was falling rapidly: and. from the extent of drift, there must have been a severe freshet. Un able to tell the natural bed of the river. There was some fine large and heavy timber on the bank of the river hacklerry. mulberry. cotton wood. Spanish oak. black-jack, and willow forming the principal growth. The g razing near the river Is. however, ex- tremely bad. . November 1 to November 23 Upon examination of Mud creek, we found that It was impossible to be passed, except ly bridging it. or by rafting, "The banks are steep bluffs, and the bed of the stream exceedingly boggy, al- " l" "e uuck- water from the Red river, and. from its appearance and quality, well deserves the name which it bears. The water Is brackish, consisting of clay and water. 1 "e iuurr uii it was scarce, unu ui me i.i i i i " me main mrr, In order to le passable at all times, it must be bridged. As the river was constntly falling, we found that, by means of a large sand bar extending " "'V . we could at length be able to pass in that manner; fords were found from the sand-bar to the short at both ex tremities. By thus keeping up the mid dle of the river on the bar, we man aged to get beyond Mud creek, after a day's tedious work. In making the trail, we very nearly lost two of our mules in the auicksands. The mad lav iui uraine iur several mnes, 4. ...4 i .. .t n . I : , i euiaiiiiiiK in bikui: 11 men passed over a high rolling prairie, the divide between the Red river and Mud creek both streams being In view, and running parallel to each other. With in ten uiuest ui again luucnmg me river the country becomes a pere'ec; dead leVel. Encamped on the evenin? of the 22nd. on the south side of th. Hed river, two miles ciio'; the mouth of the Little Wi:-l ita. and ri hi.ii.'.rel and four milua from F:rt Washita. Passed two beautiful streams of clear running water, together with several smaller ones, since leaving Mud creek. To the north of us. we could still see traces of the Upper Cross Timbers, but no tinilcr immediately along the road, excepting in small mots and along the streams. In crossing the latter we al ways found good fords, being led to theni most generally by Indian trails. The further west we traveled, the bet ter grazing we found the gramma. secl:;e. and buffalo grass the most abun dant, but the mezquite constantly be coming more frequent. By the time we reached this point of Red river, having satisfied myself of its position with respect-to the two Wichitas by examin ations up and down the river." I found that the water had considerably fallen, and was now at a fordable depth. Af ier remaining at its north bank one day to recruit cur animals and to seek a ford, a second day was occupied in crossing it. The same cliniculty arose from oni'-ksiinds us liefore; and it was cuilv bv ciividing ui) the londs Into sev eral portions, and crossing few at a time, lhat we could get across. At this point there seem to have been several iiottoms descending high bluff banks from the first to the second, and each Miccesslvc one a few feet lower than lh one preceding. In leaving the chan nel of the river, you first come upon a sand flat, the lied of the river in high wnter. with nohting upon it but large qiKintities of drift; then the first bot tom land of the river, containing rich alluvial poll, sand mixed with red clay, and timbered along the edge near the Hat with young cotton wood and wil low. The bottom bears evidence of be ing frequently overflowed. Then comes the second, separated from the first generally by a steep bluff bank, the lat ter intersected by gullies and ravines, impassable at most places for wagons. At the foot of the bluffs are fine springs and lakes, well timbered, and good gras salong them. This bottom is also subject to overflows. The river was then rapidly falling from a high freshet but notwithstanding, it was filled with sand bars, and but small and narrow channels for the water to pass through. At the ford, the breadth of the first bottom from bluff to bluff was about a mile and a half; that of the river bed. at any ordinary rise of the water, a half mile: and that of the regular chan nel, about a hundred yards the depth of the water about two feet and a half; at most points the channel was much narrower, but too deep for a ford. It was impossible to cross immediately at the mouth of the Little Wichita. Thus far the country has been well adapted to a road. The Cross Timbers, and large bends in the river, have caused our route to be somewhat tortuous; but with time, and a small working part', a perfectly straight road could be made. It has been watered at con venient points the water mostly fresh, with the exception of Red river, which is a brackish red stream. My instructions, as stated in the let ter of recommendation referred to were to commence the examination at the mouth of the Little Wichita; and at this point I had now arrived. (To Be Continued Tomorrow.) PREDICTS INFLUX OF GOLD. Dredging. Shaler Says. Will Bring Enormous Quantities to Light. Cambridge. Mass. Prof. N. S. Sha ler. Harvard's famous geologist, pre dicts that there will be an influx of gold within the next forty years which is likely to produce serious economic complications. He bases his statement on dredges, which make it possible to work thousands of square miles of gold bearing territory which cannot now be profitably mined. Prof. Shaler lectured for an hour on the subject in Sanders theater yester- day morning. He said that, according to his estimates, there are from 4.000 to fi.000 square miles of alluvial plains in America which will hear vast quan 'titles of gold under the new dredg- ing system, and he stated that it. was practically certain that the quantity of gold in the world will be quadrupled in the next forty years. The quantity would, he said, be increased ten-fold were it not for tbe fact that the price of labor will advance with the increase of gold and make the working of the lock beds and more expensive mines impossible. Prof. Shaler believed that there is f 30.000.000.000 worth of gold to be tak- en from the earth within the next cen tury. Silver, he believes, will ultimate- ,v come to express international value as it is buried net in alluvial plains, but deep down In the earth, where It can only be mined at a given rate, HIGHEST PRICE EVER PAID FOR AMERICAN COW. Omaha. A notable sale of Shorthorn cattle is in progress at South Omaha. One of the bidders broke the record when he offered the highest price ever paid for a cow. Sweet Violets II brought $3705. This is $5 more than was paid for Carnation, heretofore the highest priced cow in America. The attendance at the sale was very large, and when the bidding on Sweet Violets reached $3000. enthus iasm broke loose, as the bidding con tinued the excitement grew. When George Ward bid the sum of $3700. the heretofore record price, pandemonium broke loose and the crowd went wild Mr. Williams representing Colonel G. M. Casey. Shawnee Mound. Mo., quick I.. nrAri . n 1. n 1.1.1 . .J ..... ...... i.u mc um mm a ur i -v- -m.imioii-i. Sweet Violets II. is a red cow. six years old. sired by Lavender King, and out of Sweet Violet. She was bred by 1 . U. Westrope and has been a great prize winner. Thirty-seven head, exclusive of 1900 calves, brought $19,020. an average of $512. Six calves under yearlings, brought $1740. an average of $290. Thirty-four cows, including yearlings brought $16,510. an average of $485.50. Nine bulls brought $4450 an average of $494.45. QUESTION ANSWERED. Tes. August Flower still has th largest sale of any medicine In tbe civ ilized world. Tour mothers and grand mothers never thought of using any thing else for Indigestion or Billioua ness. Doctors were scarce, and they seldom heard of Appendicitis. Nervous Prostration or Heart Failure- They used August Flower to clean out the system and stop fermentation of undi gested food, regulate the action of the liver, stimulate the nerves and organic action of the system, and that Is all the took when feeling dull and bad with headaches and other aches. Ton only need a few doses os Green's Aug ust Flower. In liquid form, to make yon satisfied that there is nothing serious tbe matter with you. Get Green's Prize Alamnac. Sold by dealers In all civilized countries. A WOMAN'S AWFUL PERIL. "There is only one chance to save your life and that is through an opera tion." were the startling words beard by Mrs. I B. Hunt, of Lime Ridge. Wis. from her doctor after he had vainly tried to cure her of a frightful case of stomach trouble and yellow jaundice. Gall stones had formed and she con stantly grew worse. Then she began to use Electric Bitters which wholly cured her. It's a wonderful Stomach, Liver and Kidney remedy. Cures dys pepsia. Loss of Appetite. Try It. Only 50 cents. Guaranteed. For sale by W. A. Irvln 4k Co. Friday Is ladies' day at the Natator ium Turkish baths. Chiropody, Mass age, and ft?am cabinet baths at any time. Telephone 443. POPULAR WANTS, 10 cents a line Use the BAR-LOCK Visible Writer. t BECAUSE Visible Writing Saves Time and Labor. . BECAUSE Permanent Alignment Saves Expensive Repairs. BECAUSE Saving Time, Labor, and Money is Practical Business. RUNKLE & PEACOCK, General Agents SHELDON BLOCK. EL PASO, TEXAS. ' The El Paso Live Cattle Bought and Sold on Commission. . . ' Special Attention Given to the . . - Buying of mex'can Cattle. Correspondence Solicited. sss Office Nations Building, San Antonio Street. I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 14-M I I I I I I I I I I I 1 1 I I I I I 1 1 1 1 I I I I "Cleanliness is Next ness." to Godll- Rl Paso Dairy Company Producers and Dealers in PMLMRGAM Tbe Largest and Most Complete Dairy in the Southwest. J. A. SMITH, Manager. "Phone 156. Office at Buttermilk Cafe. Ill I llll I I II lllll I lllllllll llllllllllllllllllllllll "A Repository of High Grade Goods." McIVER-PATTERS0N VEHICLE COMPANY. Tne Buggy Men." R. M. Patterson, President. W. T. Batts, Sec. and Treas. Carriages, Traps, Stanhopes. Phaetons, Road, Spring, and Mountain Wagons, Milburn Farm Wagons. Salesrooms: Corner Approaching the Closing of the Sale of The 15 - Cent Stock OF THE Caballero Onyx Mining Co! OF NEW MEXICO. For a short time only, as the greater part of the above stock Is taken, the books are open at our office for subscriptions to the above stock. Tbe stock Is a clean, .safe, and legitimate in vestment in mining and manufacturing of onyx, that is pronounced unequalled. The stock Is offered for the purpose of development and the erection of a m anufacturing plant in this city. No debts, no allotted or pjomoter's shares compete with cash subscriptions; ti tles incontestable; no salaried officers; no expensive shafts, tunnels or cuts. Every piece has a commercial value, and the company will be able to pay handsome dividends within one year after the starting of the plant. No subscriptions taken for less than one hundred shares. Investigation courted. Send for prospectus, subscription blanks, and general information Speci mens and photos on exhibition. Address, 'Hgl Runkle & Peacock, Fiscal Agents. Sheldon Block, Opp. p. O. , EL PASO, TEXAS. The company reserves the right to advance the price of stock without fur ther notice. tm Stock Commission Co. EL PASO, TEXAS. DO YOU EAT? If You Do and Like Something Good Call at tbe BUTTERMILK CAFB. Where you will find borne cooking and tbe finest cup of coffee in tbe city. 313 North Oreeon Street MILK DEPOT. DAIRY LUNCH. Milk and Cream Freeh From Oar Own Dairy. Open Until Midnight. hit. PASO DAIRY CO., Props. M. P. MAYHEW, Mgr. It Will Make You FEEL GQOQ When you get into one of tbe collar laundered at this establishment if yon have been having your linen done up by an inferior method to ours. The shirts, collars, and cuffs laundered here is the acme of fine laundry work, and we send them borne with a color and finish that is beyond competition. Troy Steain Laundry Company 111 to 117 West Overland Street. Phone 278. Tbe Best Line of Buggy Harness in the city. Don't fail to Ex amine our Line While Visiting tbe City. It Will Pay You. Write For Prices. Stanton and Overland Streets, Opposite Fire Department.